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The PPACTE survey on the economic aspects of smoking in Europe


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Sivano Gallus
Department of Epidemiology
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan

Published in: Health & Medicine
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The PPACTE survey on the economic aspects of smoking in Europe

  1. 1. The PPACTE survey on the economic aspects of smoking in Europe Silvano Gallus Department of Epidemiology Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan Barcelona, 5 July 2012 1
  2. 2. European survey• Within WP2 of the PPACTE project, in 2010 a face-to- face European survey on smoking has been conducted in 18 European countries.• Sample size for each country: around 1,000 individuals, representative of the population aged 15 years or over.• A total of 18,056 subjects (8,653 men and 9,403 women) were enrolled. 2
  3. 3. European countries• Albania [AL]• Austria [AU]• Bulgaria [BG]• Croatia [HR]• Czech Republic [CZ]• Finland [FI]• France [FR]• Greece [EL]• Hungary [HU]10. Ireland [IE]11. Italy [IT]12. Latvia [LV]13. Poland [PO]14. Portugal [PT]15. Romania [RO]16. Spain [ES]17. Sweden [SE]18. England [UK] 3
  4. 4. ObjectivesAmong the main objectives of the survey in various European countries there was the evaluation of:• Cigarette purchasing patterns and extent of tax evasion;• Attitudes towards increasing in price;• Behaviours towards fiscal policy. 4
  5. 5. Cigarette purchasing pattern 5 5
  6. 6. Tax evasion score (TES)• To validate self-reported information on smuggling, smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes. Interviewers collected information on health warning and tax stamp.• TES smokers were those with at least one of the following characteristics:4. Self-reported smuggling5. Inappropriate health warning6. Inappropriate tax stamp7. Extremely low price 6
  7. 7. Tax evasion score (TES)The overall proportionof TES was 7.5%.The highest prevalencewas observed in Latvia(38.8%), followed byBulgaria (24.1%) andSweden (19.4%). Thecountries with thelowest prevalence ofTES were France(2.6%), Greece (2.1%)and Portugal (0.0%). 7
  8. 8. Tax evasion score (TES)• Overall, tobacco tax evasion is less than 8%.• Tax evasion more frequently affects less educated subjects (OR=1.96), compared to more educated ones.• Evaders more frequently live in countries with a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus (OR=3.22).• This confirms that the supply of the illicit cigarettes is an important factor which contributes to tax evasion. 8
  9. 9. Attitudes towards an increase in cigarette price by 5 or 20%Individuals (%) moderately to strongly in favour of an increase in price once revenues were allocated to support smoking cessation measures Increase by 5% Increase by 20% 9
  10. 10. Smoking behaviour assuminga 20% increase in prices 10
  11. 11. Conclusions• In Europe, the extent of illicit trade for cigarettes likely ranges between 4% (self-reported) and 8% (validated with objective information).• Around 80% [70%] of non smokers and 50% [40%] of smokers support an increase in price by 5% [20%].• Assuming a 20% increase in price, 14% of current smokers would quit, 31% would reduce consumption, 22% would switch to cigarettes with lower prices and 34% would not change their habit. 11
  12. 12. Thank you for your attention! Silvano GALLUS, Alessandra LUGO, Carlo LA VECCHIA, Paolo BOFFETTA, Frank J CHALOUPKA, Paolo COLOMBO, Laura CURRIE, Esteve FERNANDEZ, Colin FISCHBACHER, Anna GILMORE, Fiona GODFREY, Luk JOOSSENS, Maria E LEON, David T LEVY, Gunnar ROSENQVIST, Hana ROSS, Joy TOWNSEND, Luke CLANCY. PPACTE WP2: European survey on smoking. 2012. The project ‘Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE)’ is partly funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Grant Agreement HEALTH-F2-2009-223323 12
  13. 13. Methods 13
  14. 14. Smoking prevalenceOverall, 56.8% of18,056 participantsdescribed themselvesas never smokers,16.0% as ex-smokersand 27.2% ascurrent smokers(24.9% daily and 2.3%occasional; 30.6% ofmen and 24.1% ofwomen). 14