Split……low privacy 45% high 55%. Split lower participation 51% high participation 49%.Assertive privacy control behaviours are shown by 3 & 4 but 3 could be seen to be over controlling their privacy behaviour as it could be reducing their participation. Increasing trust levels could be a way of increasing their participation/engagement.
Exploring privacy behaviours of social media users
1#SRAConf 2013#SRAConf 2013Exploring PrivacyBehavioursofSocial Media UsersNicola StanleySilver Dialogue LtdPrivacy, Trust and Disclosure
2#SRAConf 2013Introduction• Silver Dialogue recruits and researches people using mixed-methods including through the use of social media.• Recently we have noticed a change in the way people interactwith us through social media.– In the past, people using social media preferred to send us privatemessages to request further details about research projects.– More recently some people are instead posting messages on our publicfacing pages and including personal and sometimes sensitiveinformation about themselves.• We were surprised to see this recent change in behaviour.– What is going on and how can we manage this increased disclosure ofpersonal and sensitive information on social media?
3#SRAConf 2013Definition of Privacy - Oxford• A state in which oneis not observed ordisturbed by otherpeople• The state of being freefrom public attentionOxford Dictionaries
4#SRAConf 2013Definition of Privacy - Wikipedia• Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves orinformation about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively.• The boundaries and content of what is considered privatediffer among cultures and individuals, but share basiccommon themes.• Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish toremain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm.• When something is private to a person, it usually meansthere is something within them that is consideredinherently special or personally sensitive. The degree towhich private information is exposed therefore dependson how the public will receive this information, whichdiffers between places and over time.• Privacy partially intersects security, including for instance the concepts ofappropriate use, as well as protection of information.Wikipedia
5#SRAConf 2013Push & PullcommunicationsConsumer Brand• Marketing the brand• Creating awareness• Communicating the brandcredentials• Facilitating ‘fan’ participation
6#SRAConf 2013Push & PullcommunicationsCustomer Brand• Customer centric – the customerconversation• Building trust• Showing that they are responsive• Demonstrating that they care
7#SRAConf 2013Push & PullcommunicationsParticipant Brand• Creating awareness• Educating the public• Building trust• Being serious & also havingfun• Controlled ‘fan’ participation• Aiming to recruit people totake part in research eitheras interviewers or asrespondentsOur social media strategy• Using Facebook to ‘Gather’• Using Twitter to ‘Hunt’• Explore advantages of Google+
8#SRAConf 2013What we have foundThe social media effect on research• Changing the ball game– When the boundaries blur between therecruitment and research process– When a recruitment project becomes aspontaneous focus group– When a recruitment project becomes anauction
9#SRAConf 2013Making too much private & sensitiveinformation publicly available?• What is going on and how can we manage this increaseddisclosure of personal and sensitive information on socialmedia?• Should we be alarmed with this increased disclosure frompotential research participants - particularly taking intoaccount the recent launch of Fair Data principles by theMRS?Silver Dialogue - Hi everyone who posted a comment here. We have nowfilled the places available on this project. Thank you all for your help. Justto say that some of you have said some very private things about yourselfhere and we take privacy very seriously, so please check the commentsyou made here to ensure that you are happy for them to remain here. Ifnot please delete them - If you do decide to delete your commentsplease do like our page so that you can be kept informed of futureprojects that might also be of interest to you.
10#SRAConf 2013What is going on and how best to managethis level of disclosure?• We decided to explore this phenomenon and undertook a studylooking specifically into privacy attitudes and the reported privacybehaviours of social media users.• Based on our original observations, we were expecting the findings toshow that people had become less private since they had started usingsocial media. That was our starting hypothesis!• We used a multivariate analysis todevelop a model for privacy behaviourand a segmentation of social media users.• The web survey of 354 online panellistswas undertaken in November 2012.
11#SRAConf 2013Social media useOnline panellistsN=354 online panellists. Survey undertaken November 2012
12#SRAConf 2013Social media usageOnline panellists• For the purposes of the further analysis we categorised therespondents into two groups:• We classified mainstream users as those who used at least oneof the main social media sites of Facebook, Twitter, MySpaceor Google+.Mainstream social mediausers – 73% of respondentsLight users/non-users of socialmedia – 27% of respondents
13#SRAConf 2013Socio-demographicsSignificant age effect73% 72% 73%86%73%61%27% 28% 27%14%27%39%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%All Male Female Aged 18-34 Aged 35-50 Aged 51+Light or Non-user of Social Media Mainstream Social Media User
14#SRAConf 2013Reported privacy behavioursThe nine questions• We asked respondents nine questions regarding their general privacybehaviours covering hard copy data, social media & online behaviours.How likely would you be to…. % Likely(very likely or fairly likely)Shred documents containing personal details (such as name and address etc.) beforedisposing of them.61%Set privacy settings to closed/private when opening an account on a social network. 53%Read the privacy statements before I sign up to social media or other membershipwebsites.49%Provide personal details to a website that I know and trust. 37%Contribute my personal opinion (which could be controversial) to an online forum. 24%Post comments on an online forum under my real name. 20%Consent to my details being shared with third parties when I am providing them to anorganisation known to me.14%Put my email address on a public forum. 10%Publish items of a sensitive nature about myself or my family online. 6%All respondents = 354
15#SRAConf 2013Reported privacy behavioursThe headlines• Generally 18-35 year olds reported less private behaviours, orthat they were likely to ‘publish’ or share more information andopinions online than those in the older age categories.• Females reported more privatebehaviours and that they wereless likely to publish and shareinformation and opinions than males.• Mainstream social media users on the whole said they weremore likely to publish and share personal information andopinions than light users/non-social media users.
17#SRAConf 2013Apprehensive passivesConfident cavaliersControlling cautionariesSavvy opinionatorsxxxxContributions to social mediaCluster analysisOpenly sharing personal data (variance=24%)Openlysharingopinions(variance=16%)
18#SRAConf 2013Most comfortable research methodsPercentage choosing as top choice28%22%10%8%7%7%6%4%4%2%By email between yourself and the researcherA face to face conversation between yourself and theresearcher1 to 1 private messages with a researcher via a socialnetwork/website that you useA telephone conversation between yourself and theresearcherOnline drop-in forum to see questions & peoplescomments, then add your feedbackSecret facebook groupA face to face group discussion with less than tenpeopleA live online discussion forum between a group ofpeople at a fixed timeOn a public facebook groupTwitter feedn = 354 online panellistsImagine you have agreedto take part in somemarket research, led by aresearcher.How comfortable wouldyou be contributing yourpersonal opinions in thefollowing situations?Why did you select yourtop choice? (openresponse and coded byresearcher)
19#SRAConf 2013Apprehensive passives (cluster 1)Accounting for 13% of our 354 online panellistsF1 - Openlysharing dataF2 - OpenlysharingopinionsF3 - Controlledonline &offline privacyF4 - Partiallycontrolleddependant…F5 - Controlledonline privacyWho they are Twice as likely to be light/non users of social media(20%) versus mainstream media users (10% ). In facta third of them don’t use social media at all. Evenly split between men and women and acrossage groups.Feel more comfortable with these methods because: Feel safe & secure (22%) Are 1 to 1 with no other witnesses or people listeningin or judging them (19%) Are private/less public/confidential (16%) Like to see/know who they are talking to so canconfirm identity (11%)Most comfortable discussion-type research methods Email 1:1 with interviewer (30%) Face to face interview (26%) Private message 1:1 on website used (13%) Telephone interview (9%)
20#SRAConf 2013Confident cavaliers (cluster 2)Accounting for 32% of our 354 online panellistsF1 - Openlysharing dataF2 - OpenlysharingopinionsF3 - Controlledonline &offline privacyF4 - Partiallycontrolleddependant…F5 - Controlledonline privacyWho they are Accounting for a greater proportion of those agedbelow 35 (40%) than those aged 35 or above (28%).Chances of being in this cluster tapers off withincreasing age! Evenly spread between men and women Evenly spread between mainstream social mediausers and light/non-usersFeel more comfortable with these methods because: They like/enjoy (16%) Are private/less public/confidential (15%) Feels comfortable/feels right (13%)Most comfortable discussion-type research methods Email 1:1 with interviewer (25%) Face to face interview (19%) Private message 1:1 on website used (11%) Telephone interview (9%)
21#SRAConf 2013Controlled cautionaries (cluster 3)Accounting for 38% of our 354 online panellistsF1 - Openlysharing dataF2 - OpenlysharingopinionsF3 - Controlledonline &offline privacyF4 - Partiallycontrolleddependant…F5 - Controlledonline privacyWho they are Close to half (46%) of the women in the surveybelong to this group compared to just over aquarter of the men (28%) Evenly spread across the ages Evenly spread between mainstream socialmedia users and light/non-usersFeel more comfortable with these methods because: Are private/less public/confidential (23%) Like to know/see who they are talking to so canconfirm identity (12%)Most comfortable discussion-type research methods Email 1:1 with interviewer (34%) Face to face interview (26%) Online drop-in forum (9%)
22#SRAConf 2013Savvy opinionators (cluster 4)Accounting for 17% of our 354 online panellistsF1 - Openlysharing dataF2 - OpenlysharingopinionsF3 - Controlledonline &offline privacyF4 - Partiallycontrolleddependant…F5 - Controlledonline privacyWho they are Men were more likely (at 22%) to belong tothis group than women (only 14%). Evenly spread across the ages. This group is more likely to include themainstream social media users (23%) thanlight/non-users (only 3%).Feel more comfortable with these methods because: Are private/less public/confidential (26%) Feel safe and secure (13%) Easiest and most convenient (11%)Most comfortable discussion-type research methods Email 1:1 with interviewer (21%) Face to face interview (18%) Private message 1:1 on website used (13%) Secret Facebook group (11%) Telephone interview (10%)
23#SRAConf 2013Level of engagementOnline panel sample2 - Confident cavaliers(32% of respondents)4 - Savvy opinionators(17% of respondents)1 – Apprehensive passives(13% of respondents)3 – Controlled cautionaries(38% of respondents))IncreasinglevelofparticipationIncreasing level of personal privacy control
24#SRAConf 2013Building trust in data privacywww.fairdata.org.uk
25#SRAConf 2013By becoming a Fair Data company you agree to adhere to ten core principles. The principles supportand complement other standards such as ISOs, and the requirements of Data Protection legislation.1. We will ensure that all personal data is collected with customers’ consent.2. We will not use personal data for any purpose other than that for which consent was given,respecting customers wishes about the use of their data.3. We will make sure that customers have access to their personal data that we hold, and that wetell them how we use it.4. We will protect personal data and keep it secure and confidential.5. We will ensure staff understand that personal data is just that – personal – and ensure that it istreated with respect.6. We will ensure that the vulnerable and under-age are properly protected by the processes weuse for data collection.7. We will manage our data supply chain to the same ethical standards we expect from othersuppliers.8. We will ensure that ethical best practice in personal data is integral to our procurementprocess.9. We will ensure that all staff who have access to personal data are properly trained in its use.10. We will not use personal data if there is uncertainty as to whether the Fair Data Principles havebeen applied.The Ten Principles
26#SRAConf 2013Attitudinal shifts since usingsocial mediaHalf with unchanged attitudes• Most (45%) of our social media users said they are justas concerned about privacy now as they have everbeen.• A few (6%) said they weren’t concerned in the past andaren’t now.Half with changed attitudes• More users reported they are more concerned (44%)than those who are now less concerned (5%).• Main reasons for increased concern were: ID theft andcriminal activity, bad publicity and ‘all the stories youhear’, hacking and the number of people with access toinformation about you.• Of those that were less concerned, their reasons citedwere having fewer problems than expected andbecoming accustomed to people seeing more aboutyou.
27#SRAConf 2013Building trust in the research processMethodology preferencesAll1Apprehensivepassives2Confidentcavaliers3Controlledcautionaries4SavvyopinionatorsYou know how your contactdetails were obtained76% 78% 46% 93% 90%Comments you make remainanonymous66% 70% 44% 82% 70%That you remain anonymousin group discussions65% 67% 38% 87% 65%That you remain anonymousin one to one discussions60% 61% 41% 75% 62%Conversation is carried out byan independent researcher62% 68% 38% 68% 85%Top Box Analysis% who said ‘very’or ‘fairly important’How important is it to you, when taking part in market research that…
28#SRAConf 2013Conclusions & implications– Social media changes the ball game and blurs the edgesbetween the traditional recruitment and research process.– Even in the era of social media there is still a role foranonymous and independent research.• This is not so important though for the Confident cavaliers,accounting for a third of our online panellists.– When researching internet panellists an online researchsolution isn’t always the most comfortable for them tocontribute their personal opinions.• 1 to 1 discussions directly with the researcher either by email orface to face are preferred.
29#SRAConf 2013And what of our starting hypothesis?YES! People have become less private since they have started usingsocial media. This is one reason that people are putting moresensitive and personal information about themselves on socialmedia.– Privacy is culturally dependent, personal and contextual– But also experience based!But there could also be other key factors at play Perhaps we have built trust amongst our social mediafollowers so they are willing to disclose more to us. The mix of our audience might have changed with a largerproportion caring much less about how much they say aboutthemselves online e.g. Confident cavaliers.
30#SRAConf 2013Going forward...The Fair Data initiative is an excellent foundation on which tostart to build trust and public understanding.We also need to continue to think about:– Educating the public about privacy in research (both online & offline)– Designing online research methods that are easy to use andunderstand in terms of privacy control settings– Building trust with potential participants with the aim to movethem all closer to being Savvy Opinionators.…Be a Participant Brand!