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Puzzelen met inhakers: hoe een inhaker de incongruentie tussen het merk dat inhaakt en het moment waarop ingehaakt wordt kan oplossen

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Op het Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap 2019 heb ik de eerste resultaten gepresenteerd over het experiment naar (in)congruente inhakers en hoe die gewaardeerd worden door consumenten.

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Puzzelen met inhakers: hoe een inhaker de incongruentie tussen het merk dat inhaakt en het moment waarop ingehaakt wordt kan oplossen

  1. 1. Topical advertising: how a topical brand message can solve the incongruity between the advertising brand and the moment Dr. Suzanne de Bakker Lectoraat Human Experience & Media Design
  2. 2. 22 Introduction • Brands need to offer the right content at the right moment • Topical ads seem to be effective • Research into the audience and content characteristics of brand messages on social media • Lack of research into moment-related characteristics of brand messages • -> Match the brand with the moment
  3. 3. 33 Congruency theory • Congruency: information that is expected and that fits current associations • Incongruency: information that is in conflict with current associations • Marketers prefer topical advertisements that are congruent (Dahlén & Lange, 2004; Dahlén, Lange, Sjödin & Törn, 2005; Sjödin & Törn, 2006)
  4. 4. 44 Congruency topical ad, brand, moment
  5. 5. 55 Congruency topical ad, brand, moment
  6. 6. 66 But what about incongruent messages?
  7. 7. 77 Incongruency between brand and moment
  8. 8. 88 Incongruency > congruency • Studies on congruency show mixed results: • Congruent ads show positive, but limited effects • Incongruent ads show positive effects • Incongruent ads: • Incongruency is a puzzle • Consumers like to solve a puzzle • If the puzzle is solved: happy! -> positive evaluation • If puzzle is not solved: frustrated -> negative evaluation (Dahlén & Lange, 2004; Alba & Hutchinson, 1987; Pechmann & Stewart, 1990; Chattopadhyay & Nedungadi, 1992; Dahlen, 2001; Machleit & Wilson, 1988; Meyers-Levy &Tybout, 1989; Phillips 2000)
  9. 9. 99 Incongruency between brand and moment
  10. 10. 1010 Incongruency between brand and moment
  11. 11. 1111 Hypotheses A topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is incongruent to the moment that is referred to, but where the topical advertisement: H1: (a) integrates the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency diminishes, and (b) is more likely to score higher on ad evaluation, brand evaluation and engagement, than a topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is congruent to the moment that is referred to.
  12. 12. 1212 Hypotheses A topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is incongruent to the moment that is referred to, but where the topical advertisement: H2: (a) does not integrate the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency remains, and (b) is more likely to score lower on ad evaluation, brand evaluation and engagement, than a topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is congruent to the moment that is referred to.
  13. 13. 1313 Experimental conditions
  14. 14. 1414 Type of moment
  15. 15. 1515 Within-subjects design Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3
  16. 16. 1616 Measurements • Before showing topical advertisements: • Attitude of brand: based on Zaichkowsky (1994) α=.89 (Hema), α=.90 (Stabilo), α=.91 (ING) • Fit brand and moment • After showing topical advertisements: • Manipulation check: The link between brand and moment: based on Drengner, Steffen and Zanger (2011) • (in)congruency between brand, moment and topical ad: based on Drengner, Steffen and Zanger (2011) • Evaluation of (topical) advertisement: Mitchell (1986) • Evaluation of brand: Ruth and Simonin (2003) • Engagement with the topical ad: based on Schivinski, Christodoulides and Dabrowski (2016)
  17. 17. 1717 Respondents • Initial respons: 590 participants • Final respons: 434 participants • 33% male, 67% female • Mean age: 43.42 years (range: 18-77) • Working or studying in communications and/or marketing: 37%
  18. 18. 1818 Manipulation check: Hema & Kingsday Item: The fit between the moment that is referred to in the topical ad and the brand Y of the topical ad is (1 = very weak to 5 = very strong) Hema & Kingsday: 3.43 (SD = 1.16)
  19. 19. 1919 Manipulation check: Stabilo & Election day Item: The fit between the moment that is referred to in the topical ad and the brand Y of the topical ad is (1 = very weak to 5 = very strong) Stabilo & election day: 3.81 (SD = .90)
  20. 20. 2020 Manipulation check: ING & Start of summertime Item: The fit between the moment that is referred to in the topical ad and the brand Y of the topical ad is (1 = very weak to 5 = very strong) ING & start of summertime: 2.12 (SD = 1.06)
  21. 21. 2121 Manipulation check: overall results Degree of (in)congruency of brand and moment AFTER seeing the topical ad Repeated measures: : F(2, 586) = 273.42, p < .001. Contrasts show that means of Hema and Stabilo differ significantly: F(1, 293) = 23.84, p < .001 Contrasts show that means of Stabilo and ING differ significantly: F(1, 293) = 539.40, p < .001.
  22. 22. 2222 (in)congruency brand and moment: H1a and H2a Before seeing ad: Repeated measures: F(1.938, 616.276) = 541.224, p < .001. After seeing ad: Repeated measures: F(2, 586) = 273.42, p < .001.
  23. 23. 2323 Dependent variables: evaluation of topical ad and brand Evaluation ad: Repeated measures: F(1.960, 574.295) = 155.27, p = .000. Evaluation brand: Repeated measures: F(1.777, 520.771) = 203.16, p = .000.
  24. 24. 2424 Dependent variables: evaluation of the brand
  25. 25. 2525 Dependent variables: engagement
  26. 26. 2626 Conclusions: Hypotheses A topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is incongruent to the moment that is referred to, but where the topical advertisement: H1: (a) integrates the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency diminishes, H2: (a) does not integrate the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency remains, Incongruency can be solved for a small part by a topical ad, but the link between a brand and a moment remains weak.
  27. 27. 2727 Conclusions: Hypotheses A topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is incongruent to the moment that is referred to, but where the topical advertisement: H1: (a) integrates the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency diminishes, and (b) is more likely to score higher on ad evaluation, brand evaluation and engagement, than a topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is congruent to the moment that is referred to. No difference between the two conditions!
  28. 28. 2828 Conclusions: Hypotheses A topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is incongruent to the moment that is referred to, but where the topical advertisement: H2: (a) does not integrate the associations of the brand and the moment: the incongruency remains, and (b) is more likely to score lower on ad evaluation, brand evaluation and engagement, than a topical advertisement, of which the advertising brand is congruent to the moment that is referred to. H2b can be confirmed, but this condition also scores lower than the topical ad that solves the incongruency.
  29. 29. 2929 Implications • Topical ad can solve the incongruency between brand and moment • Associations of the brand and associations of the oment must be integrated in the topical ad • Incongruency brand and moment: When solved by topical ad: same positive effects as topical ad for congruency brand and moment
  30. 30. 3030 Discussion • More evaluations to do! • Within-subjects design • Self-selection of participants • Reputation of organisations: Money laundering of ING • Studying the role of creative advertising: divergent and relevant advertising
  31. 31. 31313131 Thank you! Thanks to Charlotte van Hooijdonk (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) for helping with selecting the topical advertisiments and developing the experiment. Questions? Suzanne.deBakker@hu.nl @sdebakker
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