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unit 2.4.ppt

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unit 2.4.ppt

  1. 1. SCALING & MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
  2. 2. Techniques for Measuring Attitudes  A remarkable variety of techniques has been devised to measure attitudes. This variety stems in part from lack of consensus about the exact definition of the concept.  Respondents usually have different attitudes towards different aspects. Only when the attitude of respondents are ascertained on an issue by formulating a question for each aspect, using either open ended or closed ended questions , the attitude towards each aspect are found out.
  3. 3. Measuring attitudes: scales Attitude Rating Scales  all data fall into one of two categories:  • Quantitative data are numbers. They describe quantities. Quantitative data arise from questions like ‘how much?’, ‘how far?’, ‘how often?’, and ‘how long for?’  • Qualitative data are non-numerical. They describe qualities. Quantitative data arise from attempts to describe things and are often verbal although they can take other forms (e.g. pictures).
  4. 4. Meaning of Measurement and Scaling  Measurement: The term ‘measurement’ means assigning numbers or some other symbols to the characteristics of certain objects. When numbers are used, the researcher must have a rule for assigning a number to an observation in a way that provides an accurate description.  Scaling: Scaling is an extension of measurement. Scaling involves creating a continuum on which measurements on objects are located.
  5. 5. ISSUES IN ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT  Measurement implies the process of obtaining information which can be subject to analysis. Attitude measurement relates to the process of measuring an individual's attitude towards an object. When we go for measurement of attitudes or any other parameter, one has to clearly sort out the following : • "what" has to be measured ? • "who" is to be measured ? • the accuracy desired in the measurement • the costs permissible • the choices available in the measurement/data collection techniques.
  6. 6. Category Scales  The simplest rating scale contains only two response categories: agree/disagree. Expanding the  response categories provides the respondent with more flexibility in the rating task. Even more  information is provided if the categories are ordered according to a particular descriptive or evaluative  dimension. Consider the following question:  How often do you disagree with your spouse about how much to spend on vacation?  Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very often   This category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale that has only two response categories.  By having more choices for a respondent, the potential exists to provide more information.  However, if the researcher tries to represent something that is truly bipolar (yes/no, female/male,  member/nonmember, and so on) with more than two categories, error may be introduced.
  7. 7. 1. LIKERT SCALE  The respondents are given a certain number of items (statements) on which they are asked to express their degree of agreement/disagreement.  This is also called a summated scale because the scores on individual items can be added together to produce a total score for the respondent.  An assumption of the Likert scale is that each of the items (statements) measures some aspect of a single common factor, otherwise the scores on the items cannot legitimately be summed up.  In a typical research study, there are generally 25 to 30 items on a Likert scale.
  8. 8. EXAMPLE OF LIKERT SCALE
  9. 9. 2. Semantic Differential Scale  This scale is widely used to compare the images of competing brands, companies or services.  Here the respondent is required to rate each attitude or object on a number of five-or seven-point rating scales.  This scale is bounded at each end by bipolar adjectives or phrases.  The difference between Likert and Semantic differential scale is that in Likert scale, a number of statements (items) are presented to the respondents to express their degree of agreement/disagreement. However, in the semantic differential scale, bipolar adjectives or phrases are used.
  10. 10. EXAMPLE OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
  11. 11. Numerical Scales  A numerical scale simply provides numbers rather than a semantic space or verbal descriptions  to identify response options or categories (response positions). For example, a scale using five  response positions is called a five-point numerical scale. A six-point scale has six positions and a  seven-point scale seven positions, and so on. Consider the following numerical scale:  Now that you’ve had your automobile for about one year, please tell us how  satisfied you are with your Ford Taurus.  Extremely Dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extremely Satisfied  This numerical scale uses bipolar adjectives in the same manner as the semantic differential.  In practice, researchers have found that a scale with numerical labels for intermediate points  on the scale is as effective a measure as the true semantic differential. The Research Snapshot  above demonstrates how numerical scales can be helpful in assessing Web site effectiveness.
  12. 12. Thurstone Scale ( Differential scale )  This has been developed using consensus scale approach – In this approach the selection of items is made by a panel of judges who evaluate the items in terms of whether they are relevant to the topic of area.  Detailed procedure : 1) The researcher gather a large number of statements, usually 20 or more ; 2) These statements are submitted to a panel of judges ( 50 to 300 judges ), requesting them to classify these statements into eleven groups. Those statements which he/she considers most favourable to the object are put in the first group; those considered next most in the second group ……… those consider most unfavourable in the last group.
  13. 13.  It may be noted here that only the neutral and the two extreme categories ( most favoured and most unfavoured) on which the statements are to be judged are defined. The remaining eight are unlabelled to create the impression of equal appearing intervals between the three labels.  3) The scale value of a statement is computed as the median position to which it is assigned by the group of judges.  4) A final selection is made taking items or statements that are spread out evenly along the scale from one extreme position to the other and for which there are more judges’ agreement.
  14. 14.  Thurstone scale is a fairly complex process that requires two stages. The first stage is a ranking operation, performed by judges who assign scale values to attitudinal statements. The second stage consists of asking subjects to respond to the attitudinal statements.  The Thurstone method is time-consuming and costly. From a historical perspective, it is valuable,but its current popularity is low. This method is rarely used in applied research settings.
  15. 15. The cumulative scale, Guttman scale.  In the deterministic attitude measurement techniques the underlying assumption is that each statement has a perfect relationship, of one type or another, with the particular dimension of the attitude being investigated.  Example.
  16. 16.  Usually a person who answers YES to 1, would have a high probability of answering as YES to the subsequent statements. Any person who does not answer as YES to 1 but does answer as YES to 2 would have a high probability of answering YES to the later items. Any set of items that produces a pattern of responses as we have described here is called a Guttman Scale.  Guttman scale analysis is usually applied to dichotomous data, i.e., data with only two values, YES or NO, 0 or 1, agree or disagree, etc. However, a number of reasons have made the Guttman scale an impractical tool for the measurement of attitudes.  It is one of the most difficult scales to construct and this scale does not have much of relevance for the beginners.
  17. 17. 1.5 Ethics and business research  Ethics in business research refers to a code of conduct or expected societal norm of behavior while conducting research.  Ethical conduct applies to the organization and the members that sponsor the research, the researchers who undertake the research, and the respondents who provide them with the necessary data.
  18. 18. Validity & reliability separate PPT

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