Dior final copy


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Dior final copy

  1. 1. Brand Audit Part II February 27th 2012 Brand Management MRKT 438  Winter 2012 Prof. Robert MackalskiSalim Benhachmi 260378760 Amanda Mostaghimi 260306522Daniel Fingerote 260265833 Candice Olives 260350369 Sophia Herbst 260353577 Vera Qi-Lin 26032659 0
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Brand Overview …………………………………………….22. Brand Inventory …………………………………………….3 -Brand Hierarchy………………………………………….2 -Brand lineup…………………………………………….. 3 - Brand elements ………………………………………….3 - Secondary associations ………………………………….53. Marketing Strategies -Product………………………………………………….. 5 -Pricing …………………………………………………...5 -Distribution……………………………………………... 6 -Promotion………………………………………………. 64. Brand Exploratory: Methodology………………………….. 7 - Focus Group…………………………………………… 7 - Personal Interviews……………………………………. 7 - Survey ………………………………………………….7 - Field Work…………………………………………….. 75. Brand Exploratory: Brand Awareness …………….……….8 - Recall …………………………………………………..8 - Recognition………………………………….………… 8 - Bottle recognition…………………………………….... 8 - Blind smell test………………………………………… 9 - Brand name …………………………………………….9 - Logo ……………………………………………………9 - Spokesperson …………………………………………..9 - Color ………………………………………………….10 - Free associations……………………………………... 10 - Intentions ……………………………………………..116. Brand Exploratory: Image ………………………………...12 - Projective Techniques………………………………... 12 - Blind smell test ……………………………………….13 - Brand Relationships ………………………………….13 - Brand Personality …………………………………….14 - Packaging ………………………………………….....15 - Commercial Advertisement…………………………. 16 - Internet exploration …………………………………..16 -Purchase Observation Behavior……………………….187. Brand Positioning ………………………………………….19 - Perceptual Map……………………………………… 19 - Multi-dimensional Scaling …………………………...19 - Points of parity ……………………………………….19 - Points of difference …………………………………..20 8. Brand Values ………………………………………218. Summary and Conclusions……………………………….. 229. Appendices …………………………………………………23 1
  3. 3. Brand Overview Based in Paris, Parfums Christian Dior is an internationally renowned company owned byFrench luxury conglomerate LVMH (Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton), accounting for 30% of itsfragrances and beauty sales (Datamonitor 2012). Though Parfums Christian Dior remains amongthe market leaders in France, the company’s market share isn’t as strong in North America where ithas declined from 0.9% in 2009 to 0.8% in 2010 (Euromonitor 2011) - a significant decline in thishighly fragmented industry. This provided us with an opportunity to discover a solution to remedythis issue. Performing an audit of J’adore is not only driven by career motives, but also because ofthe intriguing brand equity drivers in the fragrance industry, in which the brand plays an utmostimportance in the consumers’ purchasing decision. This audit will aim to compare Dior’s J’adoreto Trésor by Lancôme, another French perfume brand with a comparably decreasing market sharein the North-American market, from 1.2% in 2009 to 1.1% in 2010 (Euromonitor 2011).Brand InventoryBrand Hierarchy Dior J’adore’s parent company, LVMH, identifies three main pillars of its product lines:Sexy-Make-up, Beauty-Skincare and Dream-Fragrance (Datamonitor 2012). As appendix Ashows, eight Dior perfume brands fall under women’s fragrances with J’adore as the signaturefragrance. Dior’s portfolio is consistent and confusion between products is minimal; most of theperfume brands carry the parent name, Dior, except for the three oldest brand names Dolce Vita,Poison & Dune, which may explain their lack of popularity. Lancôme specializes in four categories: skin care, fragrances, make-up and male cosmetics.Lancôme’s fragrance line carries six different names, excluding all the extensions (Appendix B).The message behind the Trésor line encompasses love, romance and elegance, with the three sub- 2
  4. 4. brands ranging on different scales of ‘sexiness’ (Lancôme.com).Brand Line-Up (Appendix A and B) The Dior J’adore brand encompasses a full array of fragrances and cosmetic products. Thefragrance line is available in different perfume intensity levels, such as “Eau de Toilette” and“Essence de Parfum,” while the cosmetics line includes products such as “Hair mist” and “SilkySoap” (Dior.com). Similarly, Trésor includes a range of “Parfum” and “Eau de Parfum” sprays, aswell as a perfumed “Shower Gel” and “Body Lotion” (Lancôme.com). They have also extendedtheir Trésor line to target a younger segment of females, through the launch of “Trésor MidnightRose,” featuring Emma Watson as their spokes-model and Trésor in Love.Brand ElementsDior J’adoreName: The perfume name J’adore is French, translated into English as “I Love”. Its name J’adoreis strongly associated with feelings of adoration and love.Logo: The golden J’adore logo is simply the name written in a golden adaptation of the 1913Cochin font, inspired by Charles-Nicolas Cochin, a French engraver from the 18th century.(Appendix C). The gold color is a major brand element, setting undertones of luxury andextravagance. Both the color and the font are in line with the haute couture image of the brand.Packaging: J’adore is sold in a simple, elegant white box with the gold logo and the Christian Dioremblem printed on the front. Sketches of Dior gowns and models inspire the bottles shape, whilethe jewel neck is an adaptation of traditional Maasai necklaces, showcasing femininity andsensuality (Appendix D).Scent: J’adore’s scent is trademarked and encompasses the Ylang Ylang tree from the Comoros,Damask Roses, undertones of Sambac Jasmine and a touch of Sandalwood (Dior.com). 3
  5. 5. Slogan: J’adore’s slogan, “J’adore Dior”, is translated into English as “I Love Dior,” making itconsistent with the feelings of adoration and femininity that the other brand elements portray.Spokesmodel: In 2004, Dior replaced Estonian model Tiiu Kiuk with Charlize Theron as the newface of J’adore. Theron is featured in numerous print ad campaigns and two commercials, andembodies the elegance, femininity and sophistication of the J’adore woman (Appendix E).Trésor by LancômeName: Translated into English, “trésor” means treasure, attaching meaning to the ownership ofTrésor through its name. Similar to J’adore, the French roots of Trésor associates the perfume withcharacteristics such as elegance, love and sophistication.Logo: The Trésor logo is written in elegant black cursive writing and underlined with a thin blackline (Appendix F). The use of the colour black makes the logo stand out, while the cursive writinggives the box a feminine feel.Packaging: Trésor is sold in a box that is the same peach color as the actual fragrance. The logo isprinted on the upper front and “Lancôme Paris” is printed at the bottom. The transparent glassbottle is shaped to resemble an inverted crystal pyramid, with a diamond-shaped cap that resemblesa jewel (Appendix G).Scent: Trésor is a trademarked blend of several notes: peach, apricot blossom, muguet, lilac androse are a few of the important scents that characterize the fragrance (Lancôme.com).Slogan: Trésor’s slogan, “Love is a treasure”, is consistent with the previously mentioned brandelements. It attaches the brand to feelings of love, exclusivity, and a precious possession.Spokesmodel: Kate Winslet has been the face of Trésor since 2007, appearing in print campaignsand a television commercial. Winslet accepted the position of ambassador to Trésor to convey towomen the importance of being confident and self-assured. The brand values are portrayed 4
  6. 6. accurately through Winslet, who is perceived as a demure, romantic and successful woman.Secondary Associations Dior’s main secondary associations stems from its country of origin: France. It is oftenconnoted to a specific “art de vivre” that includes fashion, haute couture, beauty, tradition, luxury,and elegance. The French name of the perfume “J’adore” only amplifies the above associations,alongside with the luxurious packaging. Lancôme’s secondary associations are also connected toFrance, since Lancôme always has “Paris” written underneath. However, Lancome’s Frenchassociations leans towards images of romance, love, sweet, floral and a fragile femininity, whereasDior’s French associations are more aggressively sexy, fiercely fashionable, and luxurious.Marketing StrategyProduct: J’adore aims to be an “incarnation of absolute femininity” (Dior.com), throughpositioning itself as a luxurious, sophisticated and glamorous product. The perfume was namedafter Mr. Dior’s tendency to joyfully exclaim, “J’adore!” when particularly inspired, and is animportant historical contributing factor to J’adore’s brand image. J’adore itself is composed ofthree layers: YlangYlang flowers, Damask Rose and Sambac Jasminse (Dior.com).Trésor has a peachy, amber color, which reinforces its top notes of apricot blossom and rose. Itsother notes include lilac, iris, amber, sandalwood, musk, and vanilla. It is positioned as a sweet andromantic product, emphasizing its motto of “love is a treasure” (Lancôme.com).Price: J’adore follows a premium pricing strategy, setting the official retail price at $60 for 1 oz,$77 for 1.7 oz, $98 for 3.4 oz (Dior.com). Other retailers carrying J’adore closely adhere to thispricing scheme. For example, a 1.7 ounce bottle is $66-70 at Amazon.com, $80 at Sephora, and$92 at The Bay. These prices are considered ‘average’ among high-end, designer perfumes, andcontribute credibility to the quality of the product. Trésor is priced quite similarly to J’adore. A 1 5
  7. 7. oz bottle is around $50-$65, while the larger 3.4 oz bottle is around $70-$115, marking a widermargin of prices for retailers to work from (Lancôme.com).Distribution: J’adore uses a selective distribution strategy to preserve an air of exclusivity, as it isavailable for purchase through its official website, high-end department stores, selectbeauty/fragrance outlets, and online retailers such as Ebay and Amazon. In Montreal alone thereare 23 “Dior Boutiques” - a term that lends an air of class to their official distribution points.Trésor operates under the same selective distribution mentality as J’adore, by maintainingdistribution in largely high-end retail locations. Also similar to J’adore, Tresor is the mostprominently featured perfume of its parent brand.Promotion -J’adore: The promotion strategies heavily reinforce the overall brand image andessence of J’adore, featuring spokes-model Charlize Theron in television and print ads (AppendixE). The parallel between the gold curves of the bottle and Theron’s portrayal in ads is meant tocreate an association between the essence of femininity and sensuality, and J’adore. The Diorwebsite also includes a ‘mini-website’ dedicated purely to J’adore, and provides pages ofinformation, photography, and video recounting the J’adore history, creation, and inspirations.Trésor is similarly promoted in magazines, other forms of print, and television ads, featuringcurrent spokeswoman Kate Winslet (Appendix H). The print ads simply show the models face withthe perfume on the left and a light peach-pink backdrop, while their newest television ad featuresWinslet and an unknown man running across a bridge in Paris to meet in the middle. This is thesame style of commercial they have used since the early 1990s. 6
  8. 8. Brand Exploratory: MethodologyFocus Group: We organized two focus groups composed of a total of twelve participants in orderto acquire insights into consumer knowledge. Our focus groups were composed of femalesbetween the ages of 20 and 25, including McGill students and working young professionals. Thefocus group was divided into three parts: a blind smell test was conducted comparing J’adore,Trésor, and two other fragrances, a questionnaire pack for participants to write down their answersto various questions (Appendix I) and, following this, questions were asked by the facilitators inorder to foster discussion and gain additional insights. Our intention was primarily to assess ourparticipants’ perception of both brands and levels of awareness (Appendix J).Personal Interview: We conducted a one-on-one interviews with an ‘expert’ in the perfumeindustry: an employee of Louis Vuitton Moet-Hennessy (LVMH) whose position entailsoverseeing the Dior J’Adore perfume, and who formerly worked at L’Oreal Paris managing theArmani brand perfume lines. Our intention was to gain an understanding of how those whocontribute to the brand generally perceive its image, and to use our focus groups to see if thatmessage was consistent among the target market.Survey: The survey conducted was created using Qualtrics and was distributed through socialmedia, mainly Facebook. 56 responses were counted out of 63 due to response errors. Thequestionnaire followed a funnel approach; at the beginning questions were asked to gain insightinto the respondents general perfume knowledge. The survey then progressed with more specificquestions about J’adore and Trésor, and then ended with demographic questions (Appendix K).Fieldwork: Numerous sales associates were spoken to, and customers were observed over twoseparate periods at the Bay in downtown Montreal, and the Bay in Hamilton, Ontario. 7
  9. 9. Brand Exploratory: AwarenessRecallIn-Depth Interview: Our interviewee’s top-of-mind perfume brand associations were first ChanelNo. 5, with Dior coming in second. She believes both these brands encapsulate a classic, timelessand enduring brand image that will never go out of style, hence her initial associations.Focus Group: Incredibly varying answers were recorded for what top perfume brands came tomind (unaided recall). The most commonly identified brands were Chanel (9), Burberry (5), andDior (2), although the range even included much lower-priced brands such as Abercrombie and EdHardy. Dior was never the first perfume thought of, meaning the association is less strong. Whenthe questions shifted to ‘French perfume brands’ (aided recall) the results slightly shifted in bothDior and Lancôme’s favor, with four participants recalling Dior, and two participants recallingLancôme, however Chanel was still the number one answer. This clearly shows how the linkbetween perfume and the respective brands needs to be strengthened to achieve higher recallcomparable to brands such as Chanel.Survey: The recall test reconfirmed the highly fragmented nature of the perfume industry, asrespondents named more than fifty different brands overall. The leader was Chanel, being recalledby 68% of respondents, followed closely by Dior at 57%. Surprisingly, not one single respondentwas able to recall Lancôme.RecognitionBottle Recognition Test: Interview and Focus Group: To test how recognizable the bottles were,participants were shown multiple perfumes and asked to identify the bottle. The interviewee wasable to recognize both bottles. From the focus groups, 10/12 of the participants were able toidentify the J’adore bottle, while only 5/12 participants could identify the Lancôme bottle. This 8
  10. 10. exercise was followed by a discussion, whereby one participant noted that she could “recognize the[J’adore] bottle instantly. When I see an ad with the shape, I know immediately it’s for Dior,”thereby pointing to the generalization that J’adore is a more recognizable brand.Survey: Our survey findings confirmed the similar, 56% of respondents were able to identify theteardrop as the shape of the J’adore bottle, while only 29% were able to identify ‘upside-downpyramid with a square top’ as the shape of the Trésor bottle.Blind Smell TestFocus Group: The results of the blind smell test were in J’adore’s favor; although only threepeople recognized the scent, and only two of the three correctly identified it as J’adore. Incomparison, only one participant was able to identify the Lancome scent. Clearly, both brandslacked recognition based on scent alone.Brand Name RecognitionSurvey: Respondents were presented with a list of perfume brands and asked to identify the onesthey had heard of. 100% of respondents recognized “J’adore,” compared to about two thirds (61%)for “Trésor.”Perceptually Degraded Logo RecognitionSurvey: Respondents were presented with two perceptually degraded logos and asked to recognizewhich brand they belonged to. Once again, J’adore scored higher, with 58% of respondentsidentifying the brand correctly, compared to only 40% for Trésor.SpokespersonSurvey: Respondents were asked to identify the models associated with each brand, with aboutthree quarters (73%) of respondents correctly identifying Charlize Theron as J’adore’sspokesperson, while only one quarter (27%) correctly identified Kate Winslet as Trésor’s 9
  11. 11. spokesperson. Moreover, it is interesting to note that 19% of respondents associated Trésor withPenelope Cruz, the brand’s previous spokesperson. J’adore therefore is more consistent andeffective than Trésor in associating itself with a celebrity.ColorSurvey: Upon testing for color recognition about three quarters (73%) of survey respondentscorrectly identified “gold” as the color associated with J’adore, while only 41% correctlyidentified “peach and black” as the colors identified with Trésor. Overall, J’adore was much morerecognizable with regards to scent, bottle shape, color, and spokesperson in both the focus groupsand survey.Free AssociationsIn-Depth Interview: Using the trigger word “perfume”, our interviewee’s free associationsincluded “identity, values, couture and the final touch of getting dressed,” demonstrating that awoman’s choice of perfume is a intimate matter that is a reflection of their personality. In terms ofspecific associations with J’adore, she linked it to their trademark “gold” color, as well as “luxury,self-confidence, haute-couture, triumphant femininity, and Charlize,” while Trésor was associatedwith “timidity, tenderness, moments and fragile femininity.” From this we can infer that J’adoreprojects a more high-end image of empowerment and self-confidence, whereas Trésor is morefocused on capturing the feeling of love and innocence.Focus Group: We prompted our participants with the word ‘perfume’, which yielded the wordsfemininity, scent, and seduction. Next, free associations with J’adore when shown the bottleresulted in the words ‘luxury, feminine, and notably liquid gold’. The words were generally verystrong (repeated often and first in order), very favorable (words such as luxury present a positive 10
  12. 12. image of the perfume), while only moderately unique (words such as luxury and feminine can beassociated with many different perfumes, while liquid gold is very unique to J’adore). The free associations with Trésor did not fare as well. The strongest associations includedold/mature, special occasions, and musky/strong. Some of the associations were very unfavorable,including words such as repulsive, boring, and one person describing the perfume as “Sunday,because nobody likes Sunday”. A minority of the associations were more favorable and unique,including words such as ‘signature scent’ and ‘treasure’, probably due to its name.IntentionsIn-Depth Interview: Despite enjoying the scent of J’adore, our interviewee stated she does notwear and would not buy it, given that she does not identify with the message of sexuality and itsemphasis placed on the female body, as opposed to personality or intelligence.Focus group: One third of participants said they would consider purchasing J’adore (4), with anadditional two remaining neutral. When asked to choose between the two perfumes to purchasegiven the same price and size, every person chose J’adore. Over a third of participants (5) notedthat they would definitely recommend the brand to a friend; one stated, “It’s Dior, I mean, whodoesn’t love Dior.” This illustrates the importance of the Dior brand name to select people. The results were very different for Trésor with zero participants stating that they wouldconsider purchasing the perfume. When probed as to why not, reasons included the smell, as wellas it “just doesn’t fit my image.” However, one person said she might consider it “when I’m 40.”The respondents overwhelmingly would not recommend it to a friend, however, many wouldconsider recommending it to their parents friends or bosses. The importance of brand name over smell was also demonstrated through the decision-making factors that affected purchase intentions. Eight participants (three quarters) identify brand 11
  13. 13. name as the number one factor in perfume selection, with only three (one quarter) saying smell wasthe key component. This finding favors J’adore over Trésor, due to J’adore’s strong ties to Diorand its ensuing secondary associations.Survey: Survey results illustrated slightly different findings, with about three quarters (73%) ofrespondents considering purchasing Dior, about two thirds (61%) of respondents would considerpurchasing Lancôme. A quarter (24%) of respondents ‘agreed’ that they would recommendJ’adore to a friend, while for Trésor, only 7% agreed that they would.Brand Exploratory: ImageProjective TechniquesIn-Depth Interview: Despite identifying J’adore’s theoretical job as a “model” and its magazine as“Elle”- both glamorous and youthful associations- in the eyes of our perfume expert Dior’s sexualimage does not have traction with the younger set due to its associations with sophistication andsuccessful career women, which younger women may not yet identify with.Focus group: Participants were asked to describe each perfume if they were a job, magazine,location, and era. Dior’s choices were often described as young and hip, yet professional, includingjobs such as VP for a fashion magazine. Very fashion-forward locations were used to describe theperfume such as the New York fashion show. Almost all of the other elements chosen are veryfashion conscious, trendy, and young - attributes that Dior is trying to resonate. In contrast, Trésor’s chosen profession was often related to more boring jobs such as alibrarian, translator, or accountant. One participant noted that it would probably be a“businesswoman, but not very successful though”. During the discussion, other group membersagreed that Trésor would most likely be stuck in middle management for life. Trésor experiencedvery negative location projections with two general categories being identified; boring 12
  14. 14. conservative places like Ottawa and Utah, and places where old people retire like Florida and PalmSprings. Overall, the choices made were found to be much more conservative, boring, and aimed ata much older clientele.Blind Smell Test The women in the focus group described J’adore as an ‘empowering’ and ‘fierce’ scent,while also maintaining an element of ‘subtlety’ and ‘sophistication.’ About a quarter of theparticipants did not like the smell calling it too ‘generic’ and ‘a little girl’s perfume’. Surprisingly,one participant thought it smelled too ‘masculine’. The reactions to Trésor were almostunanimously negative. Participants related the smell to ‘rubbing alcohol’,’ too strong’, ‘bleach-y’,and overall ‘unpleasant.’ Two participants remained neutral, stating that the smell did not appealto them, but would be suited for someone with a ‘very strong personality’ or who was ‘lessfashion-forward.’ None of the participants showed any signs of liking Trésor.Brand RelationshipsInterview & Focus group: When asked about the relationship with their favorite perfume, answersranged from ‘committed marriage’ because “we’re perfect together” to ‘secret affair’ because “Idon’t want to admit which perfume I wear, but it smells really good.” Generally, people wereeither married or seriously dating their favorite perfume. When asked about their relationship withJ’adore, participants generally responded they would “consider dating” or have a “fling” with it.The generalization can be reached that although some people considered themselves in acommitted relationship with their current perfumes, they would be open to trying J’adore but needsome form of enticement or push in order to do so. The answers were much different for Trésor and can be divided into two major categories;the first included those that would consider dating it much later in life. One person described it as a 13
  15. 15. “future relationship” stating “ I’ll try it again when I’m older.” The second group included thosethat either have not met Trésor and those that wanted nothing to do with it. One person went as faras getting a ‘restraining order’ because she disliked the smell so much.Brand PersonalityIn-Depth Interview: J’adore is viewed as being the accessory of a woman who is an “icon ofsexuality,” similar to the image of Marilyn Monroe. Users project the notion of wealth and powerand are self-assured and confident. This is in contrast with Trésor, which our interviewee identifiedunder a ‘negative light’; users are of the innocent and love-struck type, and lack the greateremotional depth of the Dior woman. Whereas the Dior woman takes charge, our intervieweeidentified the Lancôme woman as “timid, too innocent and apathetic.”Focus group: To personify the brands, our participants were provided with an exercise to associatea family member with each perfume and to describe them (Appendix J). Participants’ answers forJ’adore could be grouped into two major categories: the hot older sister/cousin and the hotmom/`cougar` who uses the perfume to stay young. We can generalize that J’adore is stronglyassociated with sexuality and confidence, or used as a tool to tap into one’s youth, giving it appealto both young and old demographics of women. Trésor is more associated with the “older sister/mother/aunt/grandmother” who is ‘oldfashioned’ and wears perfume to impress her family. The Trésor woman is “conscious of how shepresents herself,” but “doesn’t really know how to go about it.” Trésor is the “kind, but bland”suburban mother or older woman who leads a “quiet life” and has “settled down.” She lacks theexcitement and glamor of the life of the Dior woman. In terms of the most representative user of J’adore and Trésor (Appendix J), the findingsconfirm the “family member” exercise; she is a woman who is “envied” and leads a “glamorous” 14
  16. 16. and “fast-paced lifestyle,” while being highly “intelligent,” and “a good friend.” Her activities weremarked by “going out to fancy restaurants, spending money on looking good,” while alsomaintaining “career ambition.” The descriptors and associations were overwhelmingly favorable,with participants describing “their ideal life and woman.” The Trésor findings also confirmed that Lancôme woman was undoubtedly older (40s and50s) and led a “quiet” but “happy” life, with her children as the main priority in her life and apreference to shopping at The Bay, a conservative but fashion friendly place. Our group of youngprofessionals described this woman with disdain; none of them wanted the life of the Trésorwoman in their future, whereas the J’adore woman combined the elements of a glamorous,adventurous, high-powered and balanced life that many sought for themselves. A final test involved asking participants to choose a few women from a collage of thirtywomen varying in age, attire, and physical looks (Appendix I). J’adore was most often associatedwith three women: the runway model, the ‘sexy’ businesswomen, and the professionalbusinesswomen, lending an interesting emphasis on young women who have chosen to possesstrong careers yet have a strong feminine aura. The main women that were chosen for Trésor weremuch different: Oprah, the older female, and the sad woman were selected most often. Participantsidentified Oprah because she was powerful, age appropriate, and a “safe choice, sorta like oatmeal.People like it, but nobody really loves it.” Oatmeal is a generic, even bland, product that appeals tothe general public, but is nothing special, whereas J’adore has an inspirational quality to it.PackagingFocus group: Overall, 10 of the 12 participants had positive comments to say about the J’adorebottle. Many participants noted that they liked it because it was unique and recognizable with one 15
  17. 17. participant noting “I hadn’t seen it before. Its shape is something I won’t forget.” As mentionedbefore, J’adore’s bottle was easily recognized, making it a very important brand element. The Trésor bottle received numerous positive remarks with three quarters of theparticipants approving of the bottle. Comments included liking the ‘diamond’ and ‘jewel’ theme,and making the ‘perfect gift’. However, some participants felt that the bottle was too generic, withone noting that it was almost ‘cartoonish.’ An interesting insight was that one participant liked thebottle, yet hated the smell so much that she claimed it was like ‘false advertising’.Commercial AdvertisementFocus group: Words used describe the Dior commercial (Youtube, 2010) included glamorous,golden, and rich -all words employed in word associations, thereby strengthening the favorablerelationships. Most participants felt Theron was conveyed in a sexy, confident way and she fit thecommercial very well. A participant discussed how the commercial was “spot on”, and many ofthe associations were found to help reinforce Dior’s image of the sophisticated, fashion forwardchoice of perfume. While participants felt that Lancôme Trésor had a simpler message (Youtube, 2009), manyagreed it was more emotional. Some described the commercial as a “short French romance” filmfrom the 1950s, others described it as matching the perfume in a ‘classic’ and ‘feminine’ sense,with one noting the “black and white color scheme would really catch my attention”. The focusgroups agreed Kate Winslet was a great choice because of the feminine, romantic roles she isportrayed in.Internet Exploration We began by typing J’adore into the Google search bar, and within the first three letters thedropdown menu provided numerous J’adore Dior options to choose from (Appendix L). However, 16
  18. 18. when searching Trésor, it was not recognized as a Lancôme beauty product and no relevant searchsuggestions were given (Appendix M). When the partial term “J’adore” is searched there are linksto the Christian Dior website, commercials, and the Dior fashion line, whereas “Trésor” primarilyyields results pertaining to a German disco club. This is an advantage to J’adore because its morepervasive web presence can serve to increase awareness, availability, and ultimately favorability. We used two online perfume review websites - Frangratica.com and Basenotes.com - toassess the sentiments of users, fans, and owners of J’adore and Trésor. The website commentsections are a rich collection of opinions by fragrance enthusiasts (self-proclaimed “fragrancistas”).Approximately 100 comments for each J’adore and Trésor were examined and coded (AppendixN). The top five adjectives used for J’adore were: love (21), elegant (12), sophisticated (12), classy(12), and feminine (12), strong words that are favorable while only moderately unique. The topfive adjectives used for Trésor were: sweet (26), mature (18), love (17), hate (14), and reminds oneof her mother (12), strong words with some having highly unfavorable sentiments. Using Twitter Sentiment website, a search of “Dior perfume” yielded the results of 14positive (64%) and 8 negative (36%) tweets in the past seven days, however 7 of the negativetweets were improperly coded as negative (Appendix O). In using TweetTronics it was concludedthat consumer sentiments were “mildly positive”, with an average of 27 tweets per day mentioningJ’adore (Appendix P). This information indicates that J’adore enjoys much more popularity thanTrésor on the Internet, however, the bulk of its consumer sentiments are neutral. Lancôme’s Trésor experiences lower levels of consumer sentiments and feedback online. Asearch of “Lancôme Trésor” yielded two positive tweets and one neutral tweet (Appendix Q). Asearch of “Lancôme perfume” yielded zero results. This indicates that Lancôme Trésor’s consumerbase is entirely offline, or Trésor wearers do not feel strongly enough to engage in online activity. 17
  19. 19. Purchase Observation Behavior Speaking to both Dior and Lancôme representatives at the Bay shed light on the differentattitudes customers experienced with the perfumes. The Dior sales associate noted that manycustomers are aware of the Dior brand name and spokesperson, but not the J’adore line inparticular. She elaborated that the Dior section of the Bay attracted consumers of all ages becauseof the ‘chic’ and ‘cool’ appeal of the brand. However, it was the smell of the perfume that “marriedcustomers to the J’adore Dior line.” Indeed, the Dior booth was found to be busy during theobservation period with customers ranging in age from 20-50 smelling the different perfumes. Ofthe twenty-two customers that were observed, three purchased J’adore and three customerspurchased other Dior perfumes. All purchasing customers smelled the different product linesbefore deciding, making the generalization that customers are drawn to the Dior name and sold onthe perfume by its smell. The Lancôme representative spoke about how the Trésor line was unique compared toother perfumes; oftentimes young girls would steal a spray of their mother’s perfume, once theywere a bit older, they would purchase their own bottle and would remain loyal to Trésor. TheLancôme booth was not as busy during the observation period, however, what was noted was thatthe two thirty year old customers that purchased Trésor went directly to the sales desk to maketheir purchase. The nine customers that did not make a purchase smelled the different lines beforeleaving. Although the sample observed was small, the major generalization is that customerspurchase based on past purchases and brand image as opposed to smell alone.Brand PositioningPerceptual Map 18
  20. 20. We created two perceptual maps to visualize the two different types of attributes offragrances. The first is of physical attributes and compares J’adore and Trésor along thedimensions of smell (unpleasant vs. pleasant) and bottle design (dislike vs. like). The second mapis of abstract sentiments and compares the dimensions of perceived versatility versus limitedwearability, and maturity versus sexiness (Appendix R).Multidimensional ScalingSurvey: We aimed to rate each perfume brand on a multidimensional scaling model. The scaleallowed respondents to assess each brand based on seven dimensions: Smell, Youthfulness, Style,Modernity, Exclusivity, Sexiness, and Fun (Appendix K). J’adore scored highest on sexiness, style, and smell. Its lowest scoring dimensions, on theother side, were youthfulness and fun. The other dimensions were mostly ranked as neutral.Trésor’s results were harder to analyze, as most respondents attributed neutral scores to the brandon many dimensions. Respondents perhaps viewed the brand as average on most of thesedimensions. Another possible explanation could be that since the brand scored lower than J’adorein awareness, most respondent may have been unfamiliar with it and unable to judge it based onthe aforementioned dimensions (Appendix S).Points of parity We identified three necessary elements designer perfumes such as J’adore and Tresor mustemploy to be successful. First, the scent of the perfume itself must be pleasant to smell, and consistof top notes, core notes, and base notes. The composition of scent must also be compatible with themajority of wearers’ body PH, meaning how the perfume reacts to each individuals bodychemistry. Secondly, the perfume must be packaged in an aesthetically pleasing glass bottle, and 19
  21. 21. finally, a successful perfume usually employs a spokes-model that is consistent with thefragrances’ image. Without these three points of parity consumers will perceive a perfume as cheapor low-quality.Points of difference We identified four main points of difference between J’adore and Trésor. To begin with,parent company credibility is influential, as in our focus groups it was revealed that womenassociated a perfume from Dior to be perceived as coming straight from the luxury fashion Houseof Dior, while a perfume from Lancôme was linked to L’Oréal, and associated with pharmacycosmetics such as Maybelline. The second significant point of difference is the bottle design. The ultra-feminine figure-8J’adore bottle and the the jewel-shaped “treasure” of Trésor were specifically designed to furthereach fragrances’ image. However, an analysis of focus group responses and an Internet explorationreveals that the J’adore bottle has reached an iconic status in the perfume world, while the Trésorbottle is largely unrecognizable and unmemorable. “Fragrancistas” online were four times morelikely to compliment the J’adore bottle than the Trésor bottle. The third point of difference is the versatility of each perfume, meaning the range of socialcontexts, seasons, places, or times a woman feels she can wear a certain scent. Through the Internetexploration it was apparent that women perceived J’adore to be very versatile, with eightreviewers commenting on it’s easy wearability. In contrast, Trésor seems to be much less versatile,with zero reviewers reporting on versatility, four mentioning that Trésor can only be worn inAutumn/Winter seasons, and three writing that it is only for special occasions. The final point of difference is consumer’s perceptions of at what age a woman shouldwear each scent. Dior J’adore enjoys a younger image, with focus group participants placing the 20
  22. 22. J’adore woman to be aged 30-45 years old, while Trésor is perceived to be an “older lady”perfume, with focus group respondents placing the Trésor wearer at 40-50+ years. We see similarresults from the Internet exploration, with eighteen reviewers describing Trésor as a “womanly” or“mature” scent, while J’adore received zero of these comments. Trésor comments also includedtwelve references to mothers and three references to grandmothers.Brand Values J’adore’s brand values consist of: gold, versatility, sensuality, Charlize Theron and thefigure-8 bottle. The color gold not only represents luxury and prestige, but is also highly correlatedwith the perfume. Whether it is in the ads or the bottle itself, when consumers see the color goldthey generally match it with J’adore. Throughout the primary research, it became evident thatconsumers saw J’adore as a perfume not only for a woman’s everyday professional career but alsofor the special nights out when they want to feel sexy and sophisticated. It could be used to impressand just as easily be used to fit in -it is versatile. What makes this perfume unique is the sense ofsensuality it evokes: the bottle is in a the shape of a women’s body, the ads are sexuallyprovocative, suggesting that woman will feel this way with use. The smell itself evokes a sense ofsophistication and elegance, something a fashionista would wear. Charlize Theron re-enforces thisimage as she drapes herself in gold in her many recognizable ads. Lastly, the unique figure-8 bottleis highly recognizable and unforgettable while maintaining a sense of elegance and suggestiveness. The main brand values that were identified for Trésor include: maturity, professional,predictability, and femininity. Many of the participants in our primary research saw Trésor as aperfume for an older clientele who want a stronger, distinguished smell. Trésor is also verypredictable, to be worn by a woman who leads a routine driven life, and lacking spontaneity. It isalmost conservative, a safe choice that is reliable and associated with ‘bland’ jobs such as 21
  23. 23. accountants and bank tellers. The perfume also evokes a feeling of femininity, whether it is fromits jewel shaped bottle or the use of Kate Winslet in its ads.Summary and Conclusions Through our primary and secondary research, we were able to discover a critical problemof J’adore’s North American presence: in the target segment of women aged 25-35, product usersare experiencing contradicting pulls -older users feel the product is too young, while youngerfemales identify the product as being too mature. J’adore had relatively high levels of brandawareness, given the highly fragmented and saturated perfume market, and especially incomparison to Trésor. Despite strong, unique and favorable associations with the brand’s imagethrough its representation in advertisements, packaging, and spokesperson Charlize Theron,participants did not feel that J’adore represented them at this point in their lives, thoughparticipants did not feel that Trésor would soon become a representation of their ideal self. Anotable advantage for J’adore in the perfume realm is its secondary associations with high fashionand haute couture, given parent brand Christian Dior. However, actions must be taken to remedythe disconnect in this segment of aspiring young professionals. 22
  24. 24. BIBLIOGRAPHY"Tresor." Lancome Paris. N.p., 2012. Web. 27 Feb 2012.<http://www.lancome.ca/Tresor/072025,default,pd.html?start=1&cgid=fragrance-tresor>."Jadore Fragrance for Women." Dior. N.p., 2012. Web. 27 Feb 2012.<http://www.dior.com/beauty/int/en/test/womenfragrance/jadore/ljadorefpl.html>."Fragrances - US." Euromonitor International: Category Breifing May 2011. 1-10. Euromonitor.Web. 27 Feb 2012."LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA." Datamonitor: Company Profile 16 Feb 2012. 1-28.Datamonitor. Web. 27 Feb 2012.TweetTronics. 2008-2012. Graphs. n.p. Web. 26 Feb 2012. <https://www.tweettronics.com>.Twitter Sentiment. 2010. Graphs. http://twittersentiment.appspot.com, Stanford University. Web.27 Feb 2012. <http://twittersentiment.appspot.com/search?query="j>."Frangrantica.com Perfumes Magazine." 2006-2011. Frangrantica LLC, Online Posting toFrangrantica. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.fragrantica.com/>."Basenotes.net." 1999-2011. N.p., Online Posting toBasenotes. Web. 27 Feb. 2012.<http://www.basenotes.net/>.Youtube, 2010. "PUB-2010- DIOR - JADORE - [HD] - YouTube." YouTube - BroadcastYourself. Web. 27 Feb. 2012.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2di2c0wWXY&feature=related>. 23
  25. 25. Youtube, 2009. "Lancôme Trésor - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 27 Feb.2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7sD_6QivfLU&feature=related>. 24
  26. 26. AppendicesAppendix A - Brand Hierarchy & Line-up: Dior 25
  27. 27. 26
  28. 28. Appendix B - Brand Hierarchy & Line-up: Lancôme 27
  29. 29. Trésor Trésor In Love Trésor Midnight RoseAppendix C - J’adore Logo 28
  30. 30. 29
  31. 31. Appendix D - J’adore Packaging and Bottle 30
  32. 32. Appendix E - J’adore Dior Advertisements 31
  33. 33. 32
  34. 34. Appendix F - Trésor LogoAppendix G - Trésor Packaging and Bottle 33
  35. 35. 34
  36. 36. Appendix H - Trésor Advertisements 35
  37. 37. Appendix I - Focus Group Participant’s Pack 36
  38. 38. 37
  39. 39. Appendix J - Focus Group TranscriptsWhen you think of perfume brands, which come to mind? (in order) Recall unaidedFocus group 1. Olga Chanel No. 5, Dior, D&G (L’amoureux), Nina Ricci1: (Les belles de Guerlain), Guerlain 2. Ava David Beckham, Chanel, Ed Hardy, Gucci, A&F 3. Alana Chanel, Marc Jacobs, Burberry 4. Jing Yi Chanel No. 5, Burberry, Chloe 5. Roxane Chloe, Chanel, Ralph Lauren Romance 6. Lucie Armani Code, Burberry, Chanel 7. Marion Miss Chanel, Viktor & Rolf, Love in Black (Creed)Focus Group 1. Sarah Chanel, Dior, Calvin Klein2: 2. Rachel Marc Jacobs, YSL, Prada 3. Tiffany Vera Wang, D&G, Chanel No. 5, Giorgio Armani Aqua di Gio 4. Janelle Lola – Marc Jacobs, Burberry Beat, Lacoste (Woman) 5. Stacy Burberry Weekend, Green Tea, Guerlain (Cherry Blossom)When you think of French perfume brands, which come to mind? (in order) Recall aidedFocus group 1. Olga Chanel, Dior, Nina Ricci1: 2. Ava Chanel, YSL, Lacoste 3. Alana Chanel 4. Jing Yi Cartier, Balmain, Lancome 5. Roxane Lacoste, Chanel, Cartier 6. Lucie Christine Lacroix, 7. Marion Dior, Chanel, HermesFocus Group 1. Sarah Jean Paul Gautier, Chanel, YSL2: 2. Rachel YSL, Lancome, Hermes 3. Tiffany Chanel, Dior, Cartier 4. Janelle Lacoste, Chanel 5. Stacy Dior, YSL, Guerlain 38
  40. 40. Blind smell test: recognition Hyponse – J’adore Dior D&G Blue Tresor Lancome light LancomeFocus 1. Olga No Yes – wrong No Yesgroup 1: though 2. Ava No No No No 3. Alana No No No No 4. Jing Yi No No No No 5. Roxane No No Yes Yes 6. Lucie No No No No 7. Marion No Yes No NoFocus 1. Sarah No No No NoGroup 2: 2. Rachel No No No No 3. Tiffany No Yes No No 4. Janelle No No No No 5. Stacy No No No NoTotal: 0/12 3/12 1/12 1/12 39
  41. 41. Blind Smell test: imageDo you like the perfume? What does it smell like to you?J’adore DiorFocus 1. Olga Yes - It smells really nice, like spring!group 1: 2. Ava Yes – It smells so recognizable, I can’t quite put my finger on it though 3. Alana Yes – It’s elegant, sophisticated. I would say it’s for middle class women 4. Jing Yi No – I would see a fashionista wearing it, an upper east side New Yorker, definitely not for me though 5. Roxane Yes – The perfume has a really nice floral scent 6. Lucie Yes – It smells like summer, so flowery and fruity 7. Marion No – It smells so like, generic. Not at all.Focus 1. Sarah No – “Rawr”, its super masculineGroup 2: 2. Rachel Neutral – it’s something an egocentric person would wear 3. Tiffany Yes – I kinda like it, it smells good… but not great 4. Janelle Yes – I really like it! It’s super girly 5. Stacy No – it reminds me of fabric softner, or like, a little girl’s perfumeLancome TresorFocus 1. Olga No – it’s a serious scent, not funny and silly like the bubblygroup 1: stuff the kids that like Paris Hilton wear 2. Ava No – it smells like baby powder. Seriously, who would wear this? 3. Alana No – it smells… different. Really unpleasant 4. Jing Yi No – for somebody with no fashion sense, it kinda smells like almost… pepper 5. Roxane No – it smells like something that a woman in her fourties would wear. Not for me, well now at least 6. Lucie No – I struggle with it. It’s the amber, it seems a bit to synthetic and plastiky 7. Marion No – It’s a really sweet fragrance to me, almost overpowering in a way.Focus 1. Sarah Neutral – it is intriguing thoughGroup 2: 2. Rachel No – Ew, it smells like laundry detergent. Like, fresh but way to strong. 3. Tiffany No – it smells like something a super busy person would wear. You know, like a person that works a ton of jobs. 4. Janelle No – It smells like rubbing alcohol 5. Stacy Neutral – I don’t know why, but I would think Lady Gaga would wear this! 40
  42. 42. Bottle recognition testJ’adore Dior 10/12Focus group 1: 1. Olga Yes(6/7) 2. Ava Yes 3. Alana Yes 4. Jing Yi Yes 5. Roxane Yes 6. Lucie No 7. Marion YesFocus Group 2: 1. Sarah Yes(4/5) 2. Rachel Yes 3. Tiffany Yes 4. Janelle No 5. Stacy YesLancome Tresor 5/12Focus group 1: 1. Olga Yes(3/7) 2. Ava No 3. Alana No 4. Jing Yi Yes 5. Roxane Yes 6. Lucie No 7. Marion NoFocus Group 2: 1. Sarah No(2/5) 2. Rachel Yes 3. Tiffany No 4. Janelle No 5. Stacy Yes 41
  43. 43. Free associationsPerfumeFocus group 1. Olga 1. Fragrance 2. Message 3. Values1: 2. Ava 1. Brand 2. Identity 3. Feminine 3. Alana 1. Chanel 2. Fashion 3. Paris 4. Jing Yi 1. Flowers 2. Summer 3. Nights out 5. Roxane 1. Smelling good 2. Vanilla 3. Ads 6. Lucie 1. Endorser 2. Scent 3. Sex 7. Marion 1. Feminine 2. Powerful 3. ProfessionalFocus Group 1. Sarah 1. Scent 2. Color 3. Shape2: 2. Rachel 1. Smell 2. Liquid 3. Bottle 3. Tiffany 1. Designers 2. Fashion 3. Seduction 4. Janelle 1. Feminine 2. Dress 3. Love 5. Stacy 1. D&G 2. Luxury 3. Petales de fleursJ’adore DiorFocus group 1. Olga 1. Gold 2. Luxury 3. Charlize Theron1: 2. Ava 1. Feminine 2. Gold 3. Self confident 3. Alana 1. Sexy 2. Fashion forward 3. Modern 4. Jing Yi 1. Comfortable 2. Model 3. Fashionable 5. Roxane 1. Warm 2. Luxury 3. Sophisticated 6. Lucie 1. Beauty 2. Chic 3. Sensual 7. Marion 1. Charlize 2. Sexy 3. GoldFocus Group 1. Sarah 1. Slender body 2. Feminine 3. Luxury2: 2. Rachel 1. French 2. Love 3. Lust 3. Tiffany 1. Royal 2. Liquid Gold 3. Grown up 4. Janelle 1. Women 2. Mature 3. Rich 5. Stacy 1. Charlize Theron 2. Young 3. GoldLancome TresorFocus group 1. Olga 1. Treasure 2. French 3. Timidity1: 2. Ava 1. Old 2. Boring 3. Midrange 3. Alana - 4. Jing Yi 1. Maybelline 2. Revlon 3. Woman 5. Roxane 1. Musky 2. Mature 3. Fragile 6. Lucie 1. Powerful 2. Sunday (because nobody really likes Sunday) 3. The person next to you on an airplane 7. Marion 1. Signature scent 2. French 3. BoringFocus Group 1. Sarah 1. Special occasions 2. Self-confidence 3. Old2: fashioned 2. Rachel 1. Mature 2. Laundry 3. Mothers 3. Tiffany 1. Classic 2. French 3. Old school 4. Janelle 1. Strong 2. Mother 3. Professional 5. Stacy 1. Repulsive 2. Office clerk 3. Grandma 42
  44. 44. Purchase Intentions (1) How many perfumes do you Would you Would you currently own? consider consider purchasing purchasing J’adore Lancome Tresor? Dior?Focus 1. Olga 5 Yes Nogroup 1: 2. Ava 2 No No 3. Alana 1 Maybe No 4. Jing Yi 3 No No 5. Roxane 20+ Yes – in No the near future 6. Lucie 4 Yes No 7. Marion 5 (but only wears 2) Possibly NoFocus 1. Sarah 3 No NoGroup 2. Rachel 4 No No – maybe when2: I’m 40 3. Tiffany 3 Yes – well No maybe 4. Janelle 7 Yes No 5. Stacy 1 No No 43
  45. 45. Purchase Intentions (2) If you had to Would you recommend Would you recommend choose between J’adore to a friend? Lancome to a friend? the two to Why? Why? purchase, which one would you choose? Why?FG 1. Olga J’adore Dior, it I’d consider it, I have No, its too serious for1 just smells some friends that I any of my friends better could see wearing this 2. Ava J’adore Dior, I Probably not, I just No, the smell is terrible wouldn’t wear it don’t think it smells though that great 3. Alana J’adore Dior Ya, I have some friends No, I just can’t picture that are a bit older who any of my friends I think would like it wearing this 4. Jing Yi Neither? Yes, I think some of No my ‘fashionista’ friends would really like it 5. Roxane J’adore Dior, Yes, definitely! It Yes, to some of my it’s sexy and it’s smells great and it’s mom’s friends. None of DIOR Dior, I mean, who my friends though doesn’t love Dior? 6. Lucie J’adore Dior, its Yes. I mean, if Probably not, maybe younger and somebody asked me to when I’m older more suited for recommend one I me would. I wouldn’t just go on bragging about it. 7. Marion J’adore Dior No, it doesn’t appeal to No, no, my friends me too much. would make fun of me and call me ‘grandma’FG 1. Sarah J’adore Dior, Nope, not the type of I think my aunt would2 it’s the better of perfume I could see my like it? the two friends wearing. 2. Rachel J’adore Dior Probably not, I don’t If like, my boss asked see the appeal of it for a recommendation maybe. 3. Tiffany J’adore Dior Maybe, there are so Maybe to my sister’s many other perfumes friends. My friends just that are better though. wouldn’t wear this. 4. Janelle J’adore Dior, I’d Yes, it smells good and Absolutely not probably gift it its Dior. My friends though love anything Dior 5. Stacy J’adore Dior No No 44
  46. 46. Criteria when purchasing a perfume, smell, brand, price (1=most)Focus group 1. Olga 1. brand 2. Smell 3. Price1: 2. Ava 1. brand 2. Price 3. Smell 3. Alana 1. brand 2. Smell 3. price 4. Jing Yi 1. brand 2. Price 3. smell 5. Roxane 1 brand 2. Price 3. smell 6. Lucie 1. smell 2. Brand 3. price 7. Marion 1. price 2. Smell 3. brandFocus Group 1. Sarah 1. brand 2. Smell 3. price2: 2. Rachel 1. brand 2. Price 3. smell 3. Tiffany 1. brand 2. Smell 3. price 4. Janelle 1. smell 2. Brand 3. price 5. Stacy 1. Smell 2. Price 3. Brand 45
  47. 47. Who uses ___________________ perfume? Describe her. J’adore Dior Lancome TresorFocus 1. Olga Women 20-50, mostly Older women, probably ingroup 1: European and Eastern their 40’s and 50’s, classy, European. (probed) Somebody elegant, has a quiet life. with a really good sense of Happy but doesn’t lead an fashion, likes to go out with envied life friends, show off 2. Ava Women in their 30’s, career- Much, much older women. oriented, have their lives Probably has a Mercedes and figured out, like going to fancy a rich husband, lives in the restaurants, shopping, spend a suburbs. Wants to appear lot of money on looking good young and classic. 3. Alana The mom that wants to stay A mid 40’s female, just got a young, takes care of herself – promotion and wants to show very fit, gets her hair done off a little bit, she has kids, is often. She is a good friend, best described as “nice,” kind-hearted, but speaks her probably a bit boring, likes mind and has a very successful spending time with her kids career and finding new recipes and cooking dinner for her family 4. Jing Yi Career oriented women, A professional woman who adventurous, spontaneous, has cares about her career, she’s travelled around the world, used it her entire life. She is glamorous but not afraid to get cautious “safety first,” very her hands dirty rational, thinks everything through. Enjoys going to classical music concerts 5. Roxane A classy French women who A woman who has lots of enjoys going out and is class (not for a girl). She tries empowered –she doesn’t need a to be classy and elegant, man, everyone envies where hobbies might include book she’s at in life. She is well-read club, garden club, bible study –likes philosophy and reading the classics, but also very hip and modern –adores fashion, food, travel 6. Lucie A blonde fashionable women, It reminds me of something elegant but ordinary. She that my mom would wear – enjoys reading, hanging out sophisticated older woman, with friends, tech savvy –has an has a routinized lifestyle iPad, very on-the-go lifestyle 7. Marion A woman with big The female CEO, married but responsibilities in her job but previously divorced. 46
  48. 48. wants to stay sexy, guys want Successful and happy, loves to be with her, girls want to be her job, but her priority is her her kids and husband. Enjoys road trips with her familyFocus 1. Sarah Tall slender woman in her mid A woman who shops at theGroup 20s – early 30s, likes to party Bay, 45 years old with a2: and have a good time but is also professional career. Very a great friend, good listener, traditional and old-fashioned always there for you –not too showy, very conservative. Places her family’s needs before herself, might not have great style and looks a bit dated 2. Rachel A business oriented fashionista, Wears Kenneth Cole, life of the party, always cool, probably wore Dior in the past calm, elegant under pressure, but has moved on. No longer never trashy leads an exciting lifestyle, more of a quiet, stay-at-home type of life in the suburbs, drives a Hybrid 3. Tiffany A young urban professional that A mature woman who wears wears Zara and lives in a trendy it everyday to feel classy, loft –glamorous lifestyle, the career oriented. Probably a bit girls everyone wants to be boring in real life, her life has quieted down but she’s still successful in her professional life, is probably an accountant or part of senior management of a random company that no one really knows 4. Janelle Single woman that works in A self-confident women, likes marketing in NYC, willing to the brand because its reliable, pay for the brand, successful lives in the suburbs, married woman but not vapid or to an accountant shallow, has meaningful interests 5. Stacy A fierce, attractive female, A working woman, wears it single but likes to mingle, has a everyday to work. Kind- good time but is very intelligent hearted, family-oriented and hopeless romantic. Likes to read romance novels (nothing too intellectually deep), favours running shoes with her outfits, probably would never notice or remember her if we met her quickly 47
  49. 49. What would the women say about J’adore Dior? Woman 1 Woman 2 Woman 3 Woman 4Focus 1. Olga Yes, I like it, my Not for me, I It smells good, Chanel no 5group mom wears it, prefer Prada I’m going to for me1: and I sometimes (probed) it buy it next time please steal it from her. feels younger I go to the store and more sexy 2. Ava I like to wear it to I like Dior, it It’s great for Dior is too feel like a sexy fits my image everyday use. young for lady of being me strong and sexy 3. Alana I love using it to It makes me I’m a classy Dior is too go out feel smart and business sexy, I’m (probed) not sophisticated woman, this not 20 something I could perfume suits anymore! wear everyday to me school 4. Jing I prefer Marc Dior, J’adore! I like Chanel This reminds Yi Jacobs Daisy –I I love it! Not better me of first love the bottle too serious, (probed) more job and it smells like but still classic and (probed) too spring and sophisticated timeless which young for flowers and fun is what I’m me at this looking for stage 5. I like to wear it to I’m going to Love it, very Never! Way Roxane go out partying wear it once I elegant and too sexy for (probed) –I would get new sophisticated me, gives only wear it out at promotion but light me a night, too strong (probed) more enough to be headache for daytime use mature, worn because the professional everywhere! scent is too and serious strong 6. Lucie I wear it daily, Why not, I’ll I’ve been This smell men love it! try it! wearing it since brings back I’m 20, still so many represents my good tastes memories, so I wear it because it makes me nostalgic 7. I smell great, and I’m original This is my My daughter Marion I know it, but I and unique – scent wears this! 48
  50. 50. prefer Princess like this (probed) been from Vera Wang perfume wearing it for –more youthful so long, will and to my tastes never switch because so used to itFocus 1. Sarah I wear it to go I wear it on I wear it I wear it onGroup out, too mature dates to feel everyday, put it special2: for everyday use hot and sexy on every occasions right now morning to start like my day off weddings, dinner parties 2. Rachel I use it everyday, I use it when I I use it when I It’s too makes me feel go out, gives want to have young for smart, sexy and me fun me empowered confidence and makes me feel powerful 3. Not my perfume I spray it on I have a job, I smell like a Tiffany of choice, too myself for I’m married to Queen. I expensive, prefer dates after my career – prefer to something from work NOT my wear Tresor Victoria’s Secret. perfume If it were more affordable I would definitely buy it! 4. Janelle I love it, I wear it I don’t pay for She wears it Why didn’t all the time, obnoxious everyday, very this exist 20 makes me feel brands, all fresh, feminine, years ago? good you’re paying modern yet (probed) I’m for is labels! classic, makes too old for it me feel now, but I confident still love the scent! 5. Stacy She would love it She would This perfume This for occasions, not wear it fits my career perfume is everyday everyday to perfectly part of my feel sexy, life, I will lady-like and wear it elegant forever 49
  51. 51. What would the women say about Lancome Tresor? Woman 1 Woman 2 Woman 3 Woman 4Focus 1. Olga My mom wears it, Maybe I’ll start I like it, it’s Not for me,group it’s nice on her wearing once romantic Chanel no. 51: I’m promoted only (probed) too mature for me right now 2. Ava Way too old for Too strong for All my friends My friends me, smells like everyday use are wearing it at the my grandma’s assisted assisted living living home home love it! 3. Alana My aunt working I don’t like it, My mother My daughter at L’Oreal gave it smells like my used to wear it gave it to to me…don’t care great-aunt a couple of me, starting for it years ago to grow on me 4. Jing I like it! My It’s appropriate My daughter I like Yi friends make fun for my lifestyle likes when I Lancome, of me for it (probed) wear it my husband though professional has liked it (probed) they say career, not too for years too it’s too old for me young 5. Bought it on If I wore it, French classy Lancome is Roxane GroupOn, regret people would perfume, I like a very it trace me by my it mature smell fragrance, perfect for me 6. Lucie Makes me feel Great to wear to I’ve used this Lancome is sophisticated and work everyday perfume for 10 mature and fancy! Reminds years and I love romantic – me of being in it! only for Paris special occasions though! 7. I could see myself Again, the CEO I gave this to A timeless Marion wearing it in 7 wears this one! my friend for classic years Christmas last yearFocus 1. Sarah Too old for me, The right Old-school, Been 50
  52. 52. Group maybe I’ d like it mix….not too classic wearing it2: in the future flirty or too fragrance since my sweet, perfect late 20s, still mix of love it everything 2. Rachel I stick to my Ed I prefer I like it, but I like Kate Hardy something only once I Winslet, so younger….Prada have my baby, I’ll buy it or nada because I can’t because of stand strong her scents 3. Yuck, not the one Might suit me in Makes me feel I used to Tiffany for me, I want a few years, not sweet, romantic wear this a something sexier right now and feminine! few years ago 4. Janelle I wear it on dates My aunt gave it I’m the older I’m the to appear more to me and I re- sister and I like mother and I mature and gifted it to my it –fits my like it too – sophisticated, I’ll older sister – lifestyle: office also like wear it more suits her job, three kids, Chanel no.5 consistently when lifestyle more lots of running and Guerlain I’m older, now I around and prefer Gucci cooking meals Envy Me for for everyone everyday use 5. Stacy My older sister It’s ok but I Smell is too Never tried wears it, but I prefer something overpowering, it, don’t plan don’t like it more fun, less it repulses my to classic and kids traditional 51
  53. 53. If J’adore was a ____________, it would be: Job Magazine Location EraFocus 1. Olga Model Elle Avenue 90’s/2000’sgroup 1: Montaigne 2. Ava PR Vogue Paris 90’s/2000’s representative organizing big fancy events 3. Alana Fashion Vogue Upper East 90’s/2000’s forward Side division manager 4. Jing Yi Lawyer Flare Paris 90’s/2000’s wearing sexy pumps 5. Roxane Jewellery Glamour Place Today salesperson Vendome in Paris 6. Lucie A news anchor Elle New York 90’s fashion show 7. Marion VP for a Vogue Paris 90’s fashion companyFocus 1. Sarah Marketing Cosmopolitan Montreal 2000’sGroup 2: intern 2. Rachel Advertising Elle California 2010’s firm 3. Tiffany Fashion Vogue Paris 90’s magazine editor 4. Janelle Business Vogue Montreal 2000’s woman 5. Stacy Swimsuit Elle Paris 2000’s model 52
  54. 54. If Lancome was a ___________, it would be: Job Magazine Location EraFocus 1. Olga A writer Chatelaine Venise 1990’sgroup 2. Ava Bank teller Home and Ottawa 1970’s1: Garden (probed) a really boring city, only really has government there 3. Alana Mature Country Country 1990’s business Living town women (probed) not necessarily successful though 4. Jing Older, single East Coast Grande Present day Yi homemaker Living Roue 5. A novelist Art and Somewhere 1990’s/2000com’s Roxane Decoration boring, like Utah 6. Lucie Retired Chatelaine Florida, in a 2000’s retirement village 7. Air hostess Vanity Fair Palm 1960’s Marion SpringsFocus 1. Sarah Accountant Canadian Suburbs in 1960’sGroup Living North2: America 2. Banker Fashion France 1990’s Rachel over 50 3. Sales Chatelaine Winnipeg Present day Tiffany representative 4. Librarian Home & France 1990’s Janelle Garden 5. Stacy Translator Vanity Fair Retirement 2000’s village 53
  55. 55. How do you describe your relationship with ________________? Why? Your favourite perfume J’adore Dior Lancome TresoreFocus 1. Olga I’m in an open relationship In an open Haven’t evengroup with a small number of high relationship. I’ll met Lancome1: end perfumes that I wear on check it out yet different occasions occasionally 2. Ava My best friend, I wear it all the Just friends, to Independent to time, and need it all the time stay on good Lancome terms in case I change my mind 3. Alana Dating, I like to go out with it Dating, we’ve Divorced and but I’m open to other ones only had a few have a dinner dates restraining order against Lancome 4. Jing Yi I’m married to my favourite I’d consider No relationship perfume, I see and use it every having a fling day when I’m a few years older 5. In a super weird relationship Just friends, we Haven’t met Roxane where I only see it on super dated once but Lancome in special occasions because I it didn’t really real life want it to last work out. He’s a bit too mature for me, I’m still looking to have some fun. 6. Lucie Married and happy for life I’d consider Just friends, dating a bit nice to have it later, not right to rely on much now later in life 7. Marion In an open relationship. It Dating Dior, Future really depends on the weather, not sure where relationship – where I’m going, how I’m things are going we tried it dressed etc. with it earlier and it didn’t work out. We’ll try again when I’m older and more mature.Focus 1. Sarah Best friends, we see each other Casual Just friends, I’dGroup all the time. Special occasions, friendship, we consider 54
  56. 56. 2: every day, it doesn’t matter. see each other something more occasionally later in life 2. Rachel Married, because I don’t think Nothing, I No relationship I’m going to be changing any wouldn’t time soon. consider any other perfume 3. Dependent, my favourite Attracted to, I’d consider Tiffany perfume is who I am but haven’t dating later in really met. life 4. Janelle Open marriage, we really like Courtship, we No relationship each other but looking for just started other possibilities dating and its pretty exciting 5. Stacy Secret affair (probed) I don’t Fling, it was a Casual want to say what perfume I one time thing. friendship, its use, but it smells really really Not again like your friend good (laughs) unless I’m you keep drunk trying on around because perfumes he’s nice but won’t really go anywhere 55
  57. 57. Which women would wear ____________ perfume? - Image J’adore Dior Lancome TresorFocus group 1: 1. Olga Top left, top right, Woman with the business women baby, old women in second row 3rd row 2. Ava Top right, top left, Sad woman, ballet Kate 2nd row, girl Catherine Zeta Jones 3. Alana Top right, business Oprah, duchess, old women in the 2nd woman row, sexy lady cleaning up 4. Jing Yi Top right, Catherine Oprah, old woman Zeta Jones, sexy lady cleaning up 5. Roxane Top left corner, top Woman with gray right corner hair in the middle 6. Lucie Top right corner, Sad woman, old blonde girl in 2nd woman row 7. Marion Business women in Oprah, old woman 2nd row, top rightFocus Group 2: 1. Sarah Bottom right, 3rd Girl with glasses, row girl on the right French maid 2. Rachel Top left, blonde girl Business women, in second row Oprah 3. Tiffany Business women in Oprah, old woman 2nd row, bottom left 4. Janelle Top left, women Old woman with lollipop, ballet dancer 5. Stacy Swimsuit model, 3rd girl top row, old girls in green, woman cheerleaders 56