Towards a toolkit for
Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs):
Think everything distributed
Jean Vanderdonckt
Louvain Interacti...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
What is the situation today?
One user performing one tas...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Let us distribute Uis, but
one dimension at a time
3
• T...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Why take care of multiple monitor...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Mutiple PCs and Displays
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Why take care of multiple monitor...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Why take care of multiple monitor...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Why take care of multiple monitor...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Distribution of UIs across monito...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Distribution of UIs across monito...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Distribution of UIs across monito...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-monitor/device
• Extending a Desktop with another ...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
One dimension at a time
• The predominant paradigm: sing...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
10
100
1000...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• Problem: how to design a UI that takes ...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
The Painter’s Palette
+ =
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Digital Painter’s Palette
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Useful area is wasted !
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• Problem: how to design a UI that takes ...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
[Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Example using a Pocket PC
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detac...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detac...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• DEMIPLAT Principle for migration:
Detac...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-platform
• This is not a floating bar
Process
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Computer B
Process
Multi-platform
Process
Computer A
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
MigriXML Case study
• The user’s environment is a small ...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
One dimension at a time
• The predominant paradigm: sing...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multiple users
• Design guideline #1: provide multiple w...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multiple users
• Design guideline #2: support multiple w...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
One dimension at a time
• The predominant paradigm: sing...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Multi-context
• The Sedan-Bouillon Tourist Application w...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
One dimension at a time
• The predominant paradigm: sing...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
What we have for multi-tasking
• Ext/Tk toolkit
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Current shortcomings
– #1. No genuine ...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Current shortcomings
– #2. Distributio...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Current
shortcomings
– #3.
Distributio...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Current shortcomings
– #4. Distributio...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Towards a Toolkit of distribution prim...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Toolkit of distribution primitives: ex...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Toolkit of distribution primitives: ex...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
DUI development
• Toolkit of distribution primitives: ex...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
Conclusion
• Toolkit for DUI distribution primitives
– P...
Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010)
For more information and downloading,
http://www.isys.uc...
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Towards a toolkit for Distributed User Interfaces: think Distributed!

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Toolkit for Distributed User Interfaces. Invited conference given at University of Elche (Elche, November 23rd, 2010)

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Towards a toolkit for Distributed User Interfaces: think Distributed!

  1. 1. Towards a toolkit for Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs): Think everything distributed Jean Vanderdonckt Louvain Interaction Lab Université catholique de Louvain Jean.Vanderdonckt@uclouvain.be
  2. 2. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) What is the situation today? One user performing one task on one domain in one context of use • The predominant paradigm: single… • Monitor, device • Computing platform • User • Environment • Context of use • Domain and task 2 one many
  3. 3. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Let us distribute Uis, but one dimension at a time 3 • The predominant paradigm: single… • Monitor, device • Computing platform • User • Environment • Context of use • Domain and task one many
  4. 4. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Why take care of multiple monitors? – Device side • Monitor surface is increasing, while price is decreasing – User side • Users prefer more display surface • User’s productivity increases from 10% to 30% (although some usability problems are raised) [Harris,2002] Projected LCD Pricing 2002-2005 $437 $378 $327 $283 $699 $597 $510 $436 $1,089 $905 $752 $625 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 2002 2003 2004 2005 $US 15" -13.5% 17" -14.6% 18" -16.9%
  5. 5. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Mutiple PCs and Displays 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% None Multiple monitors attached to multiple computers. Laptop and desktop monitor connected together. Dualmon or higher Config PercentRespondants All Multi-monitor/device • Why take care of multiple monitors? – User side [Harris,2002]
  6. 6. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Why take care of multiple monitors? Effects of Display Size on Task Times 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 DISPLAY AverageTaskTime(Seconds) Small Large [Czerwinsky,2005]
  7. 7. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Why take care of multiple monitors? [Czerwinsky,2005] The tasks were easy to perform 0 1 2 3 4 5 Small Large Display Size AverageRating(1=Disagree, 5=Agree)
  8. 8. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Why take care of multiple monitors? [Czerwinsky,2005] I was satisfied with the ease of windows layout 0 1 2 3 4 5 Display Size AverageRating (1=Disagree, 5=Agree) Small Large
  9. 9. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Distribution of UIs across monitors (hardware) – Coupling different monitors to the same workstation  Hard wired, manual solution  Opportunistic  Lack of reusability
  10. 10. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Distribution of UIs across monitors (hardware) – Coupling different monitors: control rooms © 2010 www.symbio.pro
  11. 11. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Distribution of UIs across monitors (software) – Partitioning of a window across several screens to obtain a DUI
  12. 12. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-monitor/device • Extending a Desktop with another Monitor Ref_1 SCREEN_1 SCREEN_2 1 2 4 5 3 6 8 9 1 2 4 5 3 6 8 97 2 4 8 5 5 5 6 Without anti- aliasing. No pixel information is lost. But proportions are. Rendering quality is quite bad. 1 1-2 32-3 With anti-aliasing. Pixel information are lost (e.g. pixel 2). Proportions are quite ok. Rendering quality is good 1-4 3-6 4-7 6-9 7 97-8 8-9 7 [Demeure et al.,2004]
  13. 13. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) One dimension at a time • The predominant paradigm: single… – Monitor, device – Computing platform – User – Environment – Context of use – Domain and task 13 one many
  14. 14. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 10 100 1000 10000 (Amount of end users) (Amount of interactive systems) 50 500 5000 50000 1 system for 100 users 1 system for 1 user 2 or 3 systems for 1 user 10 to 50 systems for 1 user Source: Forrester Research, 2002
  15. 15. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • Problem: how to design a UI that takes care of multiple computing platforms? • Two examples: – The Painter's palette [Grolaux et al., 2005] – Migration [Molina et al., 2006]
  16. 16. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) The Painter’s Palette + =
  17. 17. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Digital Painter’s Palette
  18. 18. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Useful area is wasted !
  19. 19. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • Problem: how to design a UI that takes care of multiple computing platforms? Pencil Palette Painting Painting tool [Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]
  20. 20. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform [Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]
  21. 21. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform
  22. 22. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Example using a Pocket PC
  23. 23. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform
  24. 24. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach
  25. 25. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate
  26. 26. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify
  27. 27. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify - Attach
  28. 28. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-platform • This is not a floating bar Process
  29. 29. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Computer B Process Multi-platform Process Computer A
  30. 30. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) MigriXML Case study • The user’s environment is a small office, with five different platforms
  31. 31. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) One dimension at a time • The predominant paradigm: single… – Monitor, device – Computing platform – User – Environment – Context of use – Domain and task 31 one many
  32. 32. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multiple users • Design guideline #1: provide multiple ways to carry out a task by different users – Interactive systems should better support multiple users in multi-tasking because group definition changes Extended from [Mandviwalla & Olfman, 2000]
  33. 33. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multiple users • Design guideline #2: support multiple work methods – A same task could involve different sub-tasks depending on the context • Design guideline #3:support group evolution – GR1 et GR2 changent en fonction du temps [Mandviwalla & Olfman, 2000]
  34. 34. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) One dimension at a time • The predominant paradigm: single… – Monitor, device – Computing platform – User – Environment – Context of use – Domain and task 34 one many
  35. 35. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Multi-context • The Sedan-Bouillon Tourist Application with Plasticity • The Slides Manager Title Content N A V I G A T I [Demeure et al.,2004]
  36. 36. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) One dimension at a time • The predominant paradigm: single… – Monitor, device – Computing platform – User – Environment – Context of use – Domain and task 36 one many
  37. 37. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) What we have for multi-tasking • Ext/Tk toolkit
  38. 38. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Current shortcomings – #1. No genuine distribution
  39. 39. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Current shortcomings – #2. Distribution is predefined, opportunistic or optimized for some task Desktop ComputerTablet PC Designer's Outpost [Klemmer et al., 2002]
  40. 40. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Current shortcomings – #3. Distribution is at the container level (high granularity) [Czerwinsky et al., 2000]
  41. 41. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Current shortcomings – #4. Distribution is not replicable [Vandervelpen et al., 2000]
  42. 42. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Towards a Toolkit of distribution primitives (more…) – DISPLAY – COPY – MOVE – REPLACE – MERGE – SWITCH – DISTRIBUTE – …
  43. 43. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Toolkit of distribution primitives: examples – COPY button_1 TO shared_display Meta-UI [Coutaz 2006] Source UI Shared_display
  44. 44. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Toolkit of distribution primitives: examples – REMOVE outputText FROM "window_comp_0" Source UI Target UI
  45. 45. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) DUI development • Toolkit of distribution primitives: examples – MERGE "window_comp_0", "window_comp_1" TO "window_comp_2" Source UI Target UI
  46. 46. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) Conclusion • Toolkit for DUI distribution primitives – Pros • Distribution is regulated by primitives in a scenario • Distribution is model-based, at any level of granularity, is replicable, etc. – Cons • Still need to develop a model-based approach • What is the best distribution graph? – Distribution scene – Concrete User Interface Model • More distribution algorithms are required (optim.)
  47. 47. Invited conference, University of Elche (Elche, 23 November 2010) For more information and downloading, http://www.isys.ucl.ac.be/bchi User Interface eXtensible Markup Language http://www.usixml.org FP7 Selfman project http://www.ist-selfman.org/ Thank you very much! FP7 Serenoa project http://www.serenoa-fp7.eu

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