Energy sources used in different european countries
Spain imports most of the oil consumed domestically.There are 10 refineries in Spain.52% of Italy’s energy comes from oil, 20% of which comesfrom Italy, the rest is imported.40% of Bulgaria’s energy comes from oil.Slovenia heavily depends on imports of oil and oil products.The countrys only refinery (Lendava) ceased its activity inOctober 2000Finland imports all the oil consumed domestically. It has tworefineries.
Spain imports natural gas but has experimented in the past10 years an spectacular growth in the natural gas industry.There are about 50 companies in Spain in charge of naturalgas transport, distribution, and marketingItalys natural gas imports supplied 84 percent of thecountrys domestic consumptionIn Bulgaria, natural gas represents 22% of its non renewableenergySlovenia imports natural gas. Its geographical situationenables the country to have a gas network connected to themost important international networks, coming from Russiaand since 1992 from AlgeriaFinland also imports natural gas.
Spain has 8 nuclear reactors. Nuclear Energy generates a fifth ofSpain’s electricity.10% of Italy’s electricity is from nuclear power – all imported.Italy is the only G8 country without its own nuclear power plants,having closed its last reactors in 1990.8% of Bulgaria’s energy comes from nuclear power plantsSlovenia has one nuclear power plant and provides more thanone-quarter of Slovenias electrical powerFinland has four nuclear reactors in two power plants and a fifthnuclear reactor is currently under construction.
Spain has recently become the leader in production of windpower in Europe and is the fourth biggest wind producer in theworld. It covers 16 % of Spains energy demand.Italy ranked as the world’s sixth largest producer of wind power.In Bulgaria wind energy represents 4% .It is used to produceelectricityThere is currently little use of wind energy in Slovenia. most ofthe potential sites are situated in ecologically sensitive mountainregions which are under consideration for national parksIn Finland only 0,2 % of electricity consumption come from windpower. In 11 years time the prediction is of 20-30% of it’s energy.
Spain’s hydropower depends on the changes of climate andrainfall so it is everchanging. It depends on the level of water inits reservoirs.Hydroelectricity in Italy is exploited to about 90%.Due to the limited hydro-potential of the country (excluding theDanube), the importance of hydro power is not so big in BulgariaHydropower supplies about one-third of Slovenias electricitygenerating capacity60% of Finland’s renewable energy comes from water
Spain is the fourth largest manufacturer in the world of solarpower technology. It is the most advanced country in thedevelopment of solar energy in Europe. It covers 2.7% of theelectricity demandSolar energy in Italy represents as much as two percent of thecountry’s energy capacity.In Bulgaria solar energy represents 1%. It is used in the most ofthe hotels. They have solar panels.Slovenia has good conditions for both solar thermal andphotovoltaic energy use.Finland does not use solar thermal energy.
Spain has a potential for bio-energy because it has a lot of forestry andagricultural residues that can be used for biomass.3,5 % of Italy’s energy comes from biomassIn Bulgaria people make biodiesel from a plant called rapitza and evenfrom wood.Half of Slovenia is covered with forests and wooded areas. Wood is animportant fuel for space heating, particularly in the residential sector.The highest potential for development is given in the areas of forestbiomass. Biogas has an even higher potential. Currently, 6 mostlyagricultural biogas plants are in operationBiomass is the most important renewable energy source in Finland,with its use accounting for about 20% of primary energy consumption.
Spain does not used geothermal energy.0,8% of Italy’s energy is geothermal energy.Bulgaria is very rich in geothermal springs. They represent 5%.Geothermal energy is currently not used for electricity productionin Slovenia.The use of geothermal energy in Finland is restricted to theutilization of ground heat with heat pumps.