SlideShare a Scribd company logo

DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx

Drug repurposing is the process of applying already-approved drugs and compounds to treat a different disease. Also synonymously called drug repositioning; however, there is a difference. Identifying, developing, and commercializing new uses for existing or abandoned drugs Finding new uses outside the scope of the original medical indication for existing drugs or developing new indications for existing drugs or biologics

1 of 28
1
PRESENTED BY:
RIYA RAJESH GAGNANI
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY
CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB
2
 DRUG REPURPOSING
 RELATED TERMS
 HISTORY
 OBJECTIVE AND NEED
 STRATEGIES OF DRUG REPURPOSING
 METHODOLOGIES AND STEPS
 SUCCESSFUL REPURPOSING
 UNSUCCESSFUL REPURPOSING
 FUTURE ADVANCEMENT
 ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS
 REFERENCES
3
 Drug Repurposing is the process of application of an existing therapeutic
drug to a new diseases indication.
Or
 It is the process of application of already approved drugs and
compounds to treat a different disease.
 Also synonymously called Drug Repositioning however there is
difference.
4
DRUG REPOSITIONING
• Finding new uses outside the scope of the original medical indication for existing drugs or
developing new indications for existing drugs or biologics
DRUG REPURPOSING
• Identifying, developing, and commercializing new uses for existing or abandoned drugs
DRUG REPROFILING
• Reducing the risks and costs associated with drug development with the advantage that the
drug has already undergone preclinical and clinical testing
DRUG REDISCOVERY
• Investigating new uses for currently prescribed drugs
THERAPEUTIC SWITCHING
• Opening up new possibilities for old medicines that were not appreciated at the time of original
discovery and can be made therapeutically different through new formulations
INDICATION SWITCHING
• Exploiting established drugs that have already been approved for treatment
5
Initially, people were unaware of this term, although this method was practiced
in the late 1990s with the repositioning of thalidomide. The first example of
drug repositioning was an accidental discovery in 1920s.
The oldest example of Repurposing is without doubt aspirin. Intially marketed
by bayer in 1899 as an analgesic, aspirin was 1st repositioned in 1980s, at low
dose only, as an antiplatelet aggregation drug.
In mid 2000s sildenafil for angina repositioned to Erectile dysfunction and
thalidomide for morning sickness was repositioned to multiple myeloma. The
success created a big interest in repurposing which resulted in the formation of
many repurposing focused startup companies
According to one of the studies in recent years, more than 30% of the US Food
and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and vaccines have undergone
the drug repurposing process
6

Recommended

Pharmacogenomics
PharmacogenomicsPharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomicsshabrelhan
 
Drug discovery.ppt
Drug discovery.pptDrug discovery.ppt
Drug discovery.pptDeepakRx1
 
Drug Repurposing- Amazing Opportunity
Drug Repurposing- Amazing Opportunity Drug Repurposing- Amazing Opportunity
Drug Repurposing- Amazing Opportunity Dr Seema Kohli
 
Anti-Inflamatorios No Esteroideos (AINES) - Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory D...
Anti-Inflamatorios No Esteroideos (AINES) - Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory D...Anti-Inflamatorios No Esteroideos (AINES) - Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory D...
Anti-Inflamatorios No Esteroideos (AINES) - Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory D...Jorge Ramírez
 

More Related Content

Similar to DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx

Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4
Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4
Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4Javeriya_PPCD
 
Towards Personalized Medicine
Towards Personalized MedicineTowards Personalized Medicine
Towards Personalized MedicineMichel Dumontier
 
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosis
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosisThe role of natural products in regulating pyroptosis
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosisLucyPi1
 
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized Medicine
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized MedicineSoal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized Medicine
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized MedicineNesha Mutiara
 
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITISRECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITISRahul Bhati
 
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)Serena Hijazeen
 
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdf
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdfTherapeutics-1-Copy.pdf
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdfssuser9127b3
 
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...MP ADVISORS
 
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara Visha
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara VishaSynthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara Visha
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara VishaIJARIIT
 
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...Life Sciences Network marcus evans
 
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTESRaul Soto
 
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactions
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactionsPharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactions
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactionsAreej Abu Hanieh
 
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) final
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) finalMetoprolol (ellen soyombo) final
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) finalesoyombo
 
Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics and PharmacogenomicsPharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics and PharmacogenomicsRaul Soto
 
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive Drugs
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive DrugsExploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive Drugs
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive DrugsYogeshIJTSRD
 

Similar to DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx (20)

Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4
Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4
Pakistan Pharma Career Door Newsletter ,Issue 4, Volume 4
 
Towards Personalized Medicine
Towards Personalized MedicineTowards Personalized Medicine
Towards Personalized Medicine
 
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosis
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosisThe role of natural products in regulating pyroptosis
The role of natural products in regulating pyroptosis
 
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized Medicine
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized MedicineSoal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized Medicine
Soal dan Pembahasan Farmakogenomik dan Personalized Medicine
 
Pharmacogenomics june24
Pharmacogenomics june24Pharmacogenomics june24
Pharmacogenomics june24
 
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITISRECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
 
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)
 
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdf
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdfTherapeutics-1-Copy.pdf
Therapeutics-1-Copy.pdf
 
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...
NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH): AN ANALYSIS OF DISEASE PREVALENCE, DRUG...
 
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara Visha
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara VishaSynthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara Visha
Synthetic Drugs/Hormones - Boon or Bane- Concept of Dooshivisha and Gara Visha
 
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...
The Importance of Biomarkers in Hematology/Oncology Drug Development - Steven...
 
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES
[Final] Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - WITH NOTES
 
Drug induced diseases
Drug induced diseasesDrug induced diseases
Drug induced diseases
 
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactions
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactionsPharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactions
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug interactions
 
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) final
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) finalMetoprolol (ellen soyombo) final
Metoprolol (ellen soyombo) final
 
Pharmacogenomics
PharmacogenomicsPharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
 
Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics and PharmacogenomicsPharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
 
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive Drugs
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive DrugsExploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive Drugs
Exploring Molecular Targets for Repositioning of Hypertensive Drugs
 
Seminar quinazolines
Seminar quinazolinesSeminar quinazolines
Seminar quinazolines
 
Pharmaogenomics
PharmaogenomicsPharmaogenomics
Pharmaogenomics
 

Recently uploaded

Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...leejalashrestha2
 
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.Divya Kanojiya
 
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptx
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptxApproach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptx
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptxKTD Priyadarshani
 
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdf
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdfCell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdf
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdfMedicoseAcademics
 
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Brian Peacock
 
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.vrchk912
 
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdfHongBiThi1
 
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.ppt
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.pptpediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.ppt
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.pptArun170190
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Dr. Madduru Muni Haritha
 
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurHow to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurArlen Meyers, MD, MBA
 
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.JULIANA BENAVIDES GUERRERO
 
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...KavyasriPuttamreddy
 
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdf
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdfSeminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdf
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdfsusiedapp
 
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...bkling
 
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...semualkaira
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Subrata Roy
 
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptx
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptxAutism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptx
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptxScripted Symptoms
 
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic management
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic managementPresentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic management
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic managementeshasmalik27
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...Rajshri
 
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...Abhinav S
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
 
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.
ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG - RAUWOLFIA ROOT.
 
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptx
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptxApproach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptx
Approach to maternal collapse and cardiac arrest.pptx
 
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdf
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdfCell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdf
Cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors.pdf
 
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
 
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.
USG,CT AND MR IMAGING OF HEPATIC MASS LESIONS.
 
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
 
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.ppt
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.pptpediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.ppt
pediatrics. epilepsy and seizures in children 8.ppt
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
 
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurHow to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
 
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
Seminario biologia molecular-Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
 
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...
SUNSCREEN, definition, classification, SPF value, history, mechanism, develop...
 
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdf
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdfSeminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdf
Seminario Biología Molecular - Susana Cano V.pdf
 
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
 
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
 
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptx
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptxAutism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptx
Autism and Savant Syndrome|Study|The Good doctor .pptx
 
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic management
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic managementPresentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic management
Presentation on Cerebral Palsy and its orthotic management
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
 
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...
GERIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY Geriatric pharmacology is a specialized field focusing...
 

DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx

  • 1. 1 PRESENTED BY: RIYA RAJESH GAGNANI DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB
  • 2. 2
  • 3.  DRUG REPURPOSING  RELATED TERMS  HISTORY  OBJECTIVE AND NEED  STRATEGIES OF DRUG REPURPOSING  METHODOLOGIES AND STEPS  SUCCESSFUL REPURPOSING  UNSUCCESSFUL REPURPOSING  FUTURE ADVANCEMENT  ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS  REFERENCES 3
  • 4.  Drug Repurposing is the process of application of an existing therapeutic drug to a new diseases indication. Or  It is the process of application of already approved drugs and compounds to treat a different disease.  Also synonymously called Drug Repositioning however there is difference. 4
  • 5. DRUG REPOSITIONING • Finding new uses outside the scope of the original medical indication for existing drugs or developing new indications for existing drugs or biologics DRUG REPURPOSING • Identifying, developing, and commercializing new uses for existing or abandoned drugs DRUG REPROFILING • Reducing the risks and costs associated with drug development with the advantage that the drug has already undergone preclinical and clinical testing DRUG REDISCOVERY • Investigating new uses for currently prescribed drugs THERAPEUTIC SWITCHING • Opening up new possibilities for old medicines that were not appreciated at the time of original discovery and can be made therapeutically different through new formulations INDICATION SWITCHING • Exploiting established drugs that have already been approved for treatment 5
  • 6. Initially, people were unaware of this term, although this method was practiced in the late 1990s with the repositioning of thalidomide. The first example of drug repositioning was an accidental discovery in 1920s. The oldest example of Repurposing is without doubt aspirin. Intially marketed by bayer in 1899 as an analgesic, aspirin was 1st repositioned in 1980s, at low dose only, as an antiplatelet aggregation drug. In mid 2000s sildenafil for angina repositioned to Erectile dysfunction and thalidomide for morning sickness was repositioned to multiple myeloma. The success created a big interest in repurposing which resulted in the formation of many repurposing focused startup companies According to one of the studies in recent years, more than 30% of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and vaccines have undergone the drug repurposing process 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. The objective of drug repurposing was assumed to be to identify or discover new targets for a drug marketed 8
  • 9. 9 Drug development can be time consuming and expensive. Recent estimates suggests that, on average , it takes 10 years and at least $ 1 billion to bring a drug to market Moreover, investment in drug development has been gradually increasing, as reported by Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) So pharma companies have become increasingly interested in finding new uses for existing drugs- a process referred to as drug repurposing or repositioning
  • 10. There are two main strategies of Drug Repurposing viz.,  on-target  off-target 10
  • 11. ON TARGET DRUG REPURPOSING In on-target DR, the known pharmacological mechanism of a drug molecule is applied to a new therapeutic indication. In this strategy, the biological target of the drug molecule is same, but the disease is different. 11 OFF TARGET DRUG REPURPOSING In the off-target profile, the pharmacological mechanism is unknown. Drugs and drugs candidates act on new targets, out of the original scope, for new therapeutic indications. Therefore, both the targets and the indications are new.
  • 12. METHODOLOGIES AND STEPS INVOLVED TRADITIONAL DRUG DISCOVERY VS DRUG REPURPOSING 12 DRUG REPURPOSING (3-8 YEARS) TRADITIONAL DRUG DISCOVERY (19-17 years)
  • 13. Drug repurposing starts with collection of raw data related to disease-drug-targets Followed by establishment of drug-target-disease relationship. With an extensive support of potential evidence and in silico screening techniques proof of concept is generate which is then experimentally proved Further the shortlisted compounds pass through clinical trials for the new indication and enter the market with FDA labelling FDA approval Successful repurposing of drug 13
  • 14. 14 Drug name Original target Original indication New target New indication Thalidomide Inhibition of TNF‐α Anti-emetic Inhibition of cancer cells Multiple myeloma Aspirin COX-1 inhibitor Anti-platelet COX-2 inhibitor Anti-cancer and Analgesic effect Carvedilol Autophagy Inducer Anti-inflammatory Autophagy Suppresser and promoted Apoptosis Acute myocardial infarction Sildenafil Inhibiting Phosphodiesterase type‐5 Vasodilation Inhibiting Phosphodiesterase type‐5 (at low dose) Pulmonary arterial hypertension Dimethyl Fumarate NRF2‐dependent antioxidative genes Psoriasis Enhance nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional pathway (high dose) Multiple sclerosis Minoxidil Adenosine 5'- triphosphate- sensitive potassium channel opener Antihypertensive vasodilator Hyperpolarization of cell membranes Androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata Amantadine Blocks the M2 viroporin channel Antiviral activity toward RNA viruses Variably influences different neurotransmitter systems Neurological drug Zidovudine Blocking nucleotide synthesis Anticancer Inhibited the murine leukemia virus (MLV) Anticancer
  • 15.  It is well known that the WHO banned thalidomide in 1962 due to its teratogenicity, mainly through its use as an antiemetic for pregnant women.  In 1964 Dr Jacob Sheskin demonstrate its dramatic efficacy against erythema nodosum leprosum, by inhibiting the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF‐α.  Thalidomide was repositioned for a second time in the field of oncology, by its antiangiogenic activity, responsible for the arrested limb development (phocomelia) . Due to its potential use to block or destroy blood vessels supplying malignant tumours, in 2006 in its second repositioning as a first‐line treatment for multiple myeloma.  This example illustrates how even drugs with an exceptionally poor toxicity profile can be repositioned if the new indication is a rare disease 15
  • 16. 16 • The oldest example of drug repositioning is without doubt acetylsalicylic acid. • It shows at low doses only, as an antiplatelet aggregation drug. • It is widely used second indication to prevent cardiovascular events. analgesic and anti‐inflammatory effects inhibition of COX‐2, in particular vascular COX‐2, which is involved in the synthesis of PGs that generate pain and inhibit platelet aggregation Prevent many cancers particularly colorectal cancer protective effect against cancer after daily administration for at least 5years, by COX‐2 inhibition, thus blocking the anti apoptotic effect of COX‐2 in malignant cells and promoting their apoptotic death Inhibit Platelet aggregation by inhibiting platelet COX‐1, responsible for the formation of the PGs precursor of thromboxane A2, a potent stimulator of platelet aggregation Low doses aspirin has partial selectivity for COX‐1 and exerts its antiplatelet aggregation effect, At higher doses is circumvented by concomitant COX‐2 inhibition
  • 17. 17 Potential indications and mechanisms of carvedilol The effect of carvedilol on autophagy. In liver fibrosis, carvedilol suppressed autophagy and promoted apoptosis, while it was repurposed as an autophagy inducer with beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases and after acute myocardial infarction.
  • 18.  Sildenafil was initially investigated by Pfizer in 1985 as a potential antihypertensive drug, shown to produce vasodilation and to inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type‐5 (PDE5), the enzyme that degrades cGMP. Due to its these properties, the focus was shifted onto its potential in the treatment for angina.  Sildenafil only produces an erection in the presence of sexual stimulation, leading to the release of nitric oxide (NO), which in turn leads to cGMP production.  This physiological effect led Pfizer to market sildenafil in 1998 for erectile dysfunction, under the brand name Viagra.  Sildenafil was subsequently repositioned for a second time, to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension, at one‐fifth of the dose used in erectile dysfunction. 18
  • 19.  Dimethyl fumarate is commonly used to treat psoriasis, under the brand name Fumaderm®.  Dimethyl fumarate’s anti‐inflammatory activity was mediated by increased expression of NRF2‐dependent antioxidative genes used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS),at higher doses, act centrally by enhancing the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional pathway, which regulates enzymes to counter act oxidative stress under the brand name Tecfidera®. 19
  • 20.  Minoxidil is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure and pattern hair loss. It is an antihypertensive vasodilator.  When patients taking the antihypertensive agent minoxidil in clinical trials in the late 1960s started getting a bit hairy. Then a US based pharmaceutical company (Upjohn) that made the drug — dismissed it as a harmless side effect.  Used in androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata  Minoxidil is an adenosine 5'-triphosphate- sensitive potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes. 20
  • 21.  It effectively blocks the M2 viroporin channel of the influenza A virus, display antiviral activity toward RNA viruses other than influenza A, such as Chikungunya virus.  In 1966 it was the first antiviral approved by USFDA for prophylaxis against influenza A ,specifically the subtype H5N1 known of its high case fatality rate but soon after that influenza viruses developed resistance to these drugs and amantadine is no longer recommended.  Currently amantadine is used mainly as a neurological drug, for Parkinson’s disease, and is also used off-label in traumatic brain injury (TBI), multiple sclerosis, etc. Amantadine displays good penetrance to CNS and variably influences different neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, adrenergic, glutamatergic) 21
  • 22.  The first FDA approved anti-HIV medication, zidovudine, was initially developed as an anti- cancer medicine.  Several scientists demonstrated that the molecules that were blocking the nucleotide synthesis were not only proven to be used as anti-cancer drugs but also potent antibacterial as well as antiviral drugs.  These discoveries eventually led to the development of zidovudine (AZT) by Horwitz in 1964 as a potent anticancer agent.  A decade later, Ostertag et al., demonstrated that zidovudine specifically inhibited the murine leukemia virus (MLV) by blocking the virus life cycle at a very early stage 22
  • 23.  Trastuzumab is a Monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of the HER2 receptor  Trastuzumab (Herceptin) and Pertuzumab (Perjeta) are given as neoadjuvant therapy and only Trastuzumab is continued post- surgery  It Reduces cell growth and enzyme helps body in using Herceptin.  It is currently the only FDA-approved therapeutic antibody for HER2-positive breast cancer. That targeting of HER overexpression  Side effects are body pain, chills, cough, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, headache and heart problems. 23
  • 24. 24 Drug name Original target Original indication New target New indication Bevacizumab VEGF Multiple cancers Unchanged Failed clinical trials for gastric cancer Buproprion Unknown Depression Synergistic inhibition of appetite and energy expenditure Obesity(rejected by FDA due to adverse effects Naltrexone Opioid receptors Opioid addiction Synergistic inhibition of appetite and energy expenditure Obesity(rejected by FDA due to adverse effects Naltrexone Unknown Alcohol dependence Synergistic inhibition of appetite and energy expenditure Obesity(rejected by FDA due to adverse effects Sunitinib Multiple kinases Renal cell carcinoma Multiple kinases Failed clinical trials for multiple cancer
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27.  http://drugrepurposing.info/  Rudrapal, M., J. Khairnar, S., & G. Jadhav, A. (2020). Drug Repurposing (DR): An Emerging Approach in Drug Discovery. Drug Repurposing - Hypothesis, Molecular Aspects and Therapeutic Applications. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.93193  Trinh L. Doan, Michael Pollastri, Michael A. Walters, Gunda I. Georg,Chapter 23 - The Future of Drug Repositioning: Old Drugs, New Opportunities,Editor(s): John E. Macor,Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry,Academic Press,Volume 46,2011,Pages 385-401  https://pharmaceutical-journal.com/article/news/how-minoxidil-was-transformed-from-an-antihypertensive- to-hair-loss-drug  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoxidil#External_links  Cantrell MS, Soto-Avellaneda A, Wall JD, Ajeti AD, Morrison BE, Warner LR, McDougal OM. Repurposing Drugs to Treat Heart and Brain Illness. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Jun 16;14(6):573. doi: 10.3390/ph14060573. PMID: 34208502; PMCID: PMC8235459.  Jean-Pierre Jourdan, Ronan Bureau, Christophe Rochais, Patrick Dallemagne, Drug repositioning: a brief overview, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 72, Issue 9, September 2020, Pages 1145– 1151, https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13273  Trivedi J, Mohan M, ByraredSN. Drug Repurposing Approaches to Combating Viral Infections. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3777. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113777. 27
  • 28. 28