Submitted by :- Lavi bharti
Class :- Msc 1 yr
Subject code :- ZOM -702
Submitted to :- Dr. Nikita
•Ticks are parasites that feed on warm blooded hosts by biting them.
•A rock bite can infect humans and animals with bacteria ,viruses and protozoans that cause disease
Tick-borne parasitic infections occurs throughout the world, with approximately 5,000 to 12,000
reported cases per year in Europe.
•The vector, tick which is a small arachnid belongs to the order Parasitiforms.
•It is blood sucking ectoparasite that can not survive and move from one stage to another without a
blood meal. It is thus described an obligate parasite and are therefore an excellent vector for disease
•They extract the blood of their host by cutting a hole into the host epidermis and inserting the
hypostome. They keep the host blood from clothing by excreting an anticoagulant.
•Blood is a major requirement for ticks survival and moving from one stage of their life to the next.
• Ticks are not insects, they are arachnids. Ticks have two body parts: the cephalothorax and the
•It consists of capitum (head) and a flattened oval shaped. Bost called idiosoma .there are four pair
of legas which terminates in a pair of claws.
•Tick have no annntea , wingless, blood sucking arthropods
•It has extremely small mouth that usually go unnoticed when they bite Approximately 800 species
have been described worldwide with only two well established family; Ixodidae (the hard ticks) and
Argasidae (the Soft ticks).
Ticks have their skeleton on the outside of their body. This is called an exoskeleton. ticks also have a
scutum. A scutum is a hard plate that covers the tick’s back. It is just like a shield
Class : Arachnida
Super family: Ixodoidea
Taxonomically ticks are classified in to main groups -
Soft tick :
• An acute inflammatory disease caused by a tick-borne spirochete bacteria, Borrelia Burgdorferi,
characterized by recurrent episodes of joint swelling, fever, rashes, and cardiac and nervous
• Transmitted by ticks, Lyme Disease is usually characterized initially by a rash followed by flu-like
symptoms including fever, joint pain, and headaches.
• Lyme Disease is one of the newest and now most prevalent diseases in North America and
certain parts of Europe.
• Infection of Lyme Disease occurs when a tick infected by Borrelia Burgdorferi, the bacteria
responsible for creating the disease, bites a human host.
• Lyme Disease is able to strike people in all provinces and states throughout North America,
except for Antarctica
Lyme disease is the most frequently diagnosed tick-borne disease in the United States, where
133 cases were reported in Texas in 2002 and 85 cases were reported in 2003
• Lyme Disease bacterium can infect more than one part of the body, producing many
different symptoms at many different times. Lyme Disease sufferers go through 3 stages
of distinct symptoms:
• The first stage of Lyme Disease infection is called early Lyme Disease. Symptoms at this
stage include fatigue, chills, headaches, fever, sore throat, dry cough, nausea, and mild
muscle and joint pain. A red rash called erythema migrans, or EM, also appears at this
stage, which can reach up to 12 inches in size. This stage is where flu like symptoms are
mimicked, making Lyme Disease difficult to diagnose.
• The second stage of Lyme Disease infection is called early disseminated Lyme
Disease. At this stage, the infection of bacteria has begun to spread throughout the
entire body, interrupting many bodily functions. Symptoms at this stage include
severe migraines, fever, stiff neck, muscle paralysis, numbness and pain.
• The third stage of infection is called late, or chronic, Lyme Disease. This stage can
occur anywhere from 2 weeks to 3 years after the initial infection. Symptoms at this
stage include arthritis, swelling of the brain, neurological complications, memory
loss, tingling of the hands and feet, shooting pains in many parts of the body,
dizziness due to an abnormal heartbeat, and muscle pain.
• Anaplasmosis is a tick borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It was
previously known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and has more recently been called
human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA).
• Human anaplasmosis (HA) was first recognized during 1993 in several patients from Minnesota
• Sporadic cases seen throughout the world
• The bacteria infect white blood cells called neutrtrophills
• Transmitted to humans by tick bites primarily from the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapulars) in the
northeastern and upper midwestern U.S. and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) along
the Pacific coast.
Sign - included sudden high fever ,. Lymph node swelling , severe headache , mucle aches ,chills and
Severe complications can include respiratory failure and renal , and secondary infection
• Powassan is a rare, but often serious disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected ticks. Of
the 75 cases of Powassan (POW) virus disease reported in the United States over the past 10
years, a few cases have been reported in southern New England in recent years. POW virus is
one of a group of arthropod-borne virus (arbo viruses)that can cause inflammation of the brain
• Anyone bitten by a tick in an area where the virus is commonly found can get infected with POW
virus. The risk is highest for people who live, work or recreate in brushy or wooded areas,
because of greater exposure to potentially infected ticks.
• Many people infected with Powassan virus do not have symptoms. For people with symptoms,
the time from tick bite to feeling sick ranges from 1 week to 1 month.
• Initial symptoms can include fever, headache, vomiting, and weakness.
• Powassan virus can cause severe disease, including infection of the brain (encephalitis) or the
membranes around the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).
Symptoms of severe disease include confusion, loss of coordination, difficulty speaking, and
• Approximately 1 out of 10 people with severe disease die
• There are no medications to prevent or treat Powassan virus infection. Antibiotics do not treat
• People with severe disease often need to be hospitalized to receive support for breathing,
staying hydrated, or reducing swelling in the brain.
• Babesiosis is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Babesia.
• It is transmitted by deer tick, Lxodes scapularsis
• Many different species of Babesia parasites have been found in animals with only a few found
• Treatment is with babesial drugs parasites have been found in animals with only a few found in
combination of atovaquone and azithromycin,anti-Babesiosis Vaccines people.
babesiosis vaccines. a Tick control through insect SYMPTOMS
• They ranges from fever, chills, repellent. headache, muscle pain, nausea, cough, sore throat, to rash
in 30% to 40% of adults.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease spread through the bite of an
It’s caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii.
There are about 6,000 cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever each year in the U.S. Despite its
name, it’s most common in North Carolina
include a high fever and headache. Rash may start three or more days after other symptoms.
RMSF can be life-threatening if not treated quickly with antibiotics. RMSF is found in most
states in the U.S.
RMSF can be deadly if not treated early with the right antibiotic.
Later, more severe symptoms include:
Confusion or weakness.
Anxiety, nervousness or agitation.
Shortness of breathing
It is world wide disease caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. Cattle sheep and goats are the
Infection of humans usually occurs by inhalation of organisms from air that contains airborne
barnyard dust contaminated by dried placental material,birth fluids and excreta of infected animals
Rick's of genus icodes and amblyomma are vector organism survive in contaminated milk 3 month
and also survive in ticks feces
Minimize Exposure To
• Wear light colored clothing in wooded areas or places that tick are known to infest. Ticks are easier
to see on light colors so you can remove them before they attach.
oRemove leaf litter
oRemove brush and leaves around stone walls and wood piles
oMove firewood piles and bird feeders away from the house
oTrim tree branches and shurbs around the lawn edge to let in more sunlight bright
• Treat or eliminate the host animals (deer, mice etc.) because ticks are ectoparasites
• Restrict application of pesticides to high-risk tick habitat such as edges of lawn and woodlands.
Spraying open fields and lawns is not necessary
• Selectively use insecticides. Ticks can survive longer period so treat the pet area on the same day
as you treat the pet
• Application at the interval of 2 to 4 weeks may be needed