Music

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Music

  1. 1. Civil War Music: Public Performances and Private Amusements
  2. 2. Lowell Mason <ul><li>(Note connection with George Root.) </li></ul><ul><li>Boston! </li></ul><ul><li>1 st one to bring music to public education </li></ul><ul><li>Composed many songs in hymn format </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to reform religious music </li></ul><ul><li>Although influenced by William Billings a Yankee Tunesmith (mid-1700s) Mason sought to bring European (art) Music to New England </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cultivated v. Vernacular Music <ul><li>Vernacular would include: Minstrel Songs, Folk Songs, sentimental ballads… versus classical music </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular would feature popular songs with accessible lyrics that a common audience understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated music might include opera, choral music, think Handel, Haydn, Verdi, Mozart </li></ul>
  4. 4. Dwight’s Journal of Music <ul><li>Began as an attempt to elevate the public’s taste in music </li></ul><ul><li>Began 1852-1881 </li></ul><ul><li>Reports on different musical groups </li></ul><ul><li>Gottschalk was criticized for his implementation of vernacular banjo…but was praised for his virtuoso piano playing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Jenny Lind <ul><li>Swedish Nightingale </li></ul><ul><li>PT Barnum </li></ul><ul><li>$10,000 a night </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. income was $500 a year </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated music in circus </li></ul><ul><li>130 concerts in 93 cities (1850-1851) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Bishop’s 1 st track “Home Sweet Home” was commonly performed by Jenny Lind </li></ul><ul><li>Trills! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Home, Sweet Home by Bishop <ul><li>Simple with 4 bar phrases and a range of an octave. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics originate from a French play translated by John Howard Payne (American playwright) </li></ul><ul><li>Plot is similar to Beauty and the Beast </li></ul>
  7. 7. Louis Moreau Gottschalk <ul><li>1829-1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Grew up in New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Studied music in Paris in the 1840’s </li></ul><ul><li>Technique and incorporating vernacular music from New Orleans heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Dwight’s was not complimentary on his vernacular style, but liked his technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular songs: The Banjo and The Bamboula (drums) </li></ul><ul><li>Banjo includes quote from Camptown Races (Foster) </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular piano work was “The Last Hope” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Orchestras and Choral Societies <ul><li>Vocal music was sacred in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Handel and Haydn Society in Boston around 1815 performed oratorios (operas) </li></ul><ul><li>Men sang in falsetto to fill soprano sections. (Women generally weren’t allowed to join.) </li></ul><ul><li>H&H were normally accompanied by 12 orchestra players on loan from a philharmonic society. This was the most prominent of the choral groups. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Germania Society <ul><li>Played 900 concerts between 1848-1854. </li></ul><ul><li>Boston was home until they disbanded in1854. </li></ul><ul><li>25 musicians from Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Monster concerts (Gottschalk and Patrick Gilmore) </li></ul><ul><li>National Peace Jubilee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized by Patrick Gilmore who composed/directed “When Johnny Comes Marching Home” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to reunify and heal America after the Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Monster Concert Louis Jullien in 1853 came from France w/ 25 musicians he brought over Fireman’s Quadrille which featured a real blaze. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Claudio Grafulla <ul><li>Washington’s March features the Dodworth Saxhorn band and was composed by Claudio Grafulla </li></ul><ul><li>Grafulla leads the 7 th Regiment Band of New York during the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Was a composer/arranger of others songs: Un Ballo in Maschera Quickstep, too </li></ul><ul><li>Washington’s March was composed for virtuoso players, technically difficult, unusual in that has no introduction!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Today the Washington Greys exist but are from the 8 th Regiment 42 nd Infantry Division not the 7 th regiment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Washington Greys were named for our President, traditionally grey was the color of US soldiers prior to the Civil War. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brass Instruments & Marches <ul><li>Woodwinds were used prior to 1830s as they had greater range, with the development of valves for brass instruments greater range could be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Bugle most popular , Halliday created the 5 valve standard issue military bugle </li></ul><ul><li>Aldophe Sax created saxhorns by 1845 the saxhorn was made as well as the saxophone. </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion-snare drum placed high on the left side since 1600s, Bass drum and cymbals were issued too </li></ul><ul><li>Brass Bands and Marches become popular by 1845 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Marches <ul><li>Marches typically begin with an Intro. </li></ul><ul><li>Strains or sections are different, typically 8 bar length, usually there is a contrasting section called a trio that is played in a subdominant and is lyrical. </li></ul><ul><li>The trio section is usually softer in dynamics and more sparse in texture </li></ul><ul><li>Marches on the CD: Washington March, The Battle Cry of Freedom, Un Ballo in Maschera Quickstep </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stephen Foster <ul><li>Known as the American Minstrel </li></ul><ul><li>Died nearly broke yet wrote many popular songs, no royalties for songwriters yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Sold to Christy’s Minstrels and others, actually sold rights of his songs to a publisher (Firth & Pond) that would rip him off so he could get a cash advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Hit songs include: Jeanie with the light brown hair, Camptown Races , Oh’ Susanna, Suwannee River…Beautiful Dreamer last song he wrote </li></ul><ul><li>Many thought he was from the South but like Dan Emmet was not. </li></ul><ul><li>See hyperlink for timeline and correlating links </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/foster/timeline/timeline2.html </li></ul>
  14. 14. Minstrel Shows <ul><li>Originates with the Virginia Minstrels , popularized what was coined Ethiopian Style but its caricature of blacks was negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts 1 st opening semi-circle …..2 nd olio… 3 rd walk around </li></ul><ul><li>Interlocutor- straight man, not in blackface </li></ul><ul><li>Tambo and Bones (blackface) on either side They spoke in black dialect and were very racist. Olio featured banjo solos, clog dances, speeches. Walk around parodied the ring shout. </li></ul>

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