LDP - Day 2 slides


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LDP - Day 2 slides

  1. 1. Agenda for Day 2• Recap of Day 1• Common Purpose• Controversy with civility• LUNCH• Consciousness of Self• Congruence• Systems Thinking• DINNER 1
  3. 3. RECAP SESSIONS 1 TO 3• Social Change (v/s charity)• Technical / Adaptive changes• Root Cause Analysis 3
  4. 4. THE MODEL 4
  5. 5. 5
  8. 8. RECAP Day 1• Leadership for Change v/s Change Leadership• Citizenship (Citoyenneté + Civisme)• JFK Speech 8
  9. 9. Community ValueCitizenshipBelieving in a process whereby an individual and/or group become responsibly connected to the community and to society through some activity. 9
  11. 11. COLLABORATIONCollaboration – The social changemodel defines collaboration as:• working together toward common goals / common purposes• by sharing responsibility, authority, and accountability in achieving these goals. 11
  12. 12. COLLABORATIONNot to be confused with…• Competition – Work hard to do better than others• Co-operation – helps each party to achieve its own individual goals, not common goals• Compromise – involves a party losing something in order to accomplish goals 12
  13. 13. DIVERSITYDiversity is an essential partof collaboration 13
  14. 14. MAKINGCOLLABORATION WORK• Building trust• Communicating• Our destinies are inter-related 14
  16. 16. COMMON PURPOSE 16
  17. 17. OBJECTIVES OF THE SESSION• By the end of this session, participants will be able to: – Describe the three key components of Common Purpose – Engage others within a group to generate shared Visions, Aims and Values – Identify or Develop Common Purpose within groups that they are part of – analyze the role of common purpose within other aspects of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development 17
  19. 19. COMMON PURPOSE• Common Purpose has 3 key components: – its occurrence within groups – its presence in shared visions, aims, and values – and its role in working with others. 19
  20. 20. COMMON PURPOSE 1 - GroupsWhat is a Group? – Groups contain more than just a single person – Groups strive to achieve a certain purpose or goal – Groups involve some sort of interaction, cooperation, or commitment to the common goal 20
  21. 21. COMMON PURPOSE2 – shared Vision, Aims, ValuesDefinitions• Vision: What is the group’s ideal future?• Aims: Why does the group exist?• [Core] Values: How do group members agree to treat themselves and each other 21
  22. 22. COMMON PURPOSE 2 – shared Vision, Aims, ValuesCP is a Steadying and Bonding Force if• it has truly originated from the group• the group is truly invested in that common purpose• it is fully embraced by all members of a group, not just its ‘leaders’. 22
  23. 23. COMMON PURPOSE 3 – Working Together• Decision making: 6 methods, depending on context, the type of decision, and time available for discussion – Decision by authority without discussion – Decision by authority after discussion – Expert member – Average members’ opinions – Majority control – Minority control 23
  24. 24. COMMON PURPOSE 3 – Working TogetherDecision making – Consensus – ALL team members have been given the opportunity to share their thoughts – ALL are comfortable with the decision – ALL are willing to support its implementation – Does not necessarily imply that everyone is satisfied – Can be a very difficult thing to achieve – Is not necessarily always the best option ! 24
  25. 25. COMMON PURPOSERelated Concepts :• Personalized vision• Socialized vision• Consensus 25
  26. 26. COMMON PURPOSERelated Concepts (1)• Personalized vision - Created when the “person in charge” comes up with their own vision or plan and passes it on to other group members or subordinates. 26
  27. 27. COMMON PURPOSERelated Concepts (2)• Socialized vision - Constructed when group members collectively contribute toward developing their group’s purpose and aims. 27
  28. 28. COMMON PURPOSERelated Concepts (3)• Consensus - Method of group decision- making in which all group members have had the opportunity to voice their concerns and are comfortable enough with the decision to support its implementation, regardless of whether all or most group members fully agree with the decision (Rayner, 1996). 28
  29. 29. COMMON PURPOSEChallenges• A person’s inflexibility with engaging others in their own personalized vision.• A group becoming paralyzed within the process of developing a socialized vision.• Regularly revolving memberships make it difficult to keep the group’s vision and common purpose meaningful. 29
  30. 30. LINKS WITH THE 6 C’S 30
  31. 31. The Model 31
  34. 34. OBJECTIVES OF THE SESSION• By the end of this session, participants will be able to: – Understand the differences between conflict and controversy. – Engage in meaningful dialogue and include it in the process of controversy. – Feel comfortable voicing one’s opinion and take into consideration the opinions of others.
  36. 36. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYControversy with civility challengesgroup participants to discuss diverseopinions and perspectives, whilemaintaining respect for those sharingother views
  37. 37. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITY• Controversy – involves differing opinions, but positions are not staked out. Controversy draws everyone together to discuss differing perspectives.• Civility – voicing disagreement and responding to disagreement from others in a way that respects others’ points of view. Civility can be a value, an attitude, or a behavior.
  38. 38. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYKey concepts: Conflict v/s Controversy• Conflict – opposition in nature, conflict draws a line with people taking one side or another.• Conflict builds opposing sides and seeks to convert members to one side. It is oppositional in nature.• Controversy allows for sharing and considering multiple points of view before coming to a group decision.
  39. 39. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYKey concepts: Dialogue v/s Debate• Dialogue – coming to a shared meaning or new understanding, engaging for everyone to understand an issue better.• Debate – opposing sides trying to show the other side as wrong with the goal of winning the argument. Defense of position and challenging of other viewpoints are evidenced.
  40. 40. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYKey concepts: Worldview• Worldview – perspectives (or frames of reference) that impact an individual’s approach to any situation..• It depends on one’s – gender view – racial or ethnic view – religion, and other cultural contexts or heritages,
  41. 41. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYWorldview• A person’s worldview, or frame of reference, determines what perspectives they bring to the group.• Members of a group must be aware of and respect each other’s worldviews in order to pursue their common purpose.
  42. 42. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYWorldview• What other factors influence an individual’s worldview?• Is it possible to change one’s worldview?• Can 2 persons have the same worldview?• Are disagreements ‘normal’?>> It is all about how disagreements aredealt with
  43. 43. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYPositive and Negative Controversy• Positive controversy comes from group members’ differences in values and ideas.• Negative controversy comes from such group flaws as a lack of decision-making processes or unresolved prior disagreements.
  44. 44. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYWhen absent, we see that• Those who disagree are treated as: – Disloyal – Less intelligent – Negative• People avoid disagreeing openly• Less Collaboration, Common Purpose?• Less Commitment
  45. 45. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYWorking towards it : Trust• Group members must trust that the other members of the group will respect their opinion, whether or not they agree.• Group members must trust that the process of controversy with civility, although it calls for vulnerability, will help the group arrive at a better decision.
  46. 46. CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITYWorking towards it : Dialogue• Dialogue engages each differing point of view• Dialogue seeks to bring everyone to a shared understanding of the issue.• Dialogue encourages individuals to examine what underlies their assumptions.
  47. 47. LINKS WITH THE 6 C’S
  48. 48. The Model
  50. 50. BREAK
  51. 51. ROKEACH SURVEY Debrief 51
  52. 52. ROKEACH SURVEY To Be or Not to Be
  53. 53. TO BE OR NOT TO BE• Take your Top 5 Values• Assess how much Time & Energy you spend per week – Going TOWARDS your own values – Going AGAINST your own values• Identify the Obstacles
  54. 54. ROKEACH SURVEY Always, Sometimes, Never
  55. 55. Walking the Talk• I value Ethnic Diversity – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I stop my friends when they make inappropriate jokes on race and religion – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I value Honesty – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I always tell the truth to my father – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-
  56. 56. Walking the Talk• I value Freedom – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I stop my friends when they criticise the way other people dress – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I value Equality – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-• I will refuse a job if I do not go through the normal recruitment process – Always- ,Sometimes- ,Never-
  57. 57. Discussion Questions• The essence of learning is … – Change• Can we speak of learning if no change has taken place?• What do we need to do to ensure learning?• The essence of leadership is … – Change• Can we speak of leadership without change?• How important is change, vision, mission, values to leadership?
  59. 59. OBJECTIVES OF THE SESSION• By the end of this session, participants will be able to: – demonstrate a clearer meaning of ‘consciousness self’ – demonstrate a better consciousness of themselves – understand the link between consciousness of self and leadership
  62. 62. What is consciousness of self?• Consciousness of Self refers to an awareness of one’s own relatively stable personality traits, values, and strengths and being mindful of actions, feelings, and beliefs.• It is not an end point that can be reached; instead, it is adopting a way of life that promotes constant learning about what is most important… it is an inner journey.
  63. 63. What is consciousness of self?• Is being conscious of self the same as being self-conscious? – Being afraid to act because of what others will say …
  64. 64. Benefits of Consciousness of self• It is important for leaders to understand their own inner sense of identity.• This understanding helps building self- confidence while recognizing limitations.• Individuals become aware of their motivation and consider new ways to contribute to groups and teams.
  65. 65. Aspects of Individual Identity• There are multiple ways that individuals can differ.• Our identity can by influenced by 1. our values and principles, culture, faith, family, generational peers 2. our personal style – timid aggressive, organized, optimistic, patient, easy-going 3. our talents, skills and specialized knowledge 4. our aspirations and dreams – how do we define success 5. others’ perceptions of us.
  66. 66. Importance of introspection• Constant ‘busyness’ does not let itself to consciousness of self – need to retreat from doing – introspection (not what should I do next BUT who am I, how would I describe myself? What are my values? Why am I here? What is the meaning of life? Making a career or making a difference?• When you decide to go, it is a different going because you stopped. Stopping makes the going more vivid.
  67. 67. LeisureWhat is this life if, full of care,We have no time to stand and stare.No time to stand beneath the boughsAnd stare as long as sheep or cows.No time to see, when woods we pass,Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.No time to see, in broad daylight,Streams full of stars, like skies at night.No time to turn at Beautys glance,And watch her feet, how they can dance.No time to wait till her mouth canEnrich that smile her eyes began.A poor life this is if, full of care,We have no time to stand and stare. William Henry Davies
  68. 68. Food for thought• Sometimes a person’s greatest flaw is a positive style that has gone too far.• How?• Improvement on weaknesses is useful but the greatest room for growth is in areas of greatest strength – work on one’s talents
  69. 69. Becoming Conscious of Self• Developing consciousness of self requires intentional actions.• These include1. a practice of reflection2. openness to feedback – strength and weaknesses - non defensive, listen without interrupting, ask clarifying questions – does not imply accepting everything – should not take a toll on self-confidence and motivation, integrating advice of others3. learning about the self through assessment.
  70. 70. Mindfulness• Mindfulness focuses on more than simply understanding our personality.• It is the ability to simultaneously act and observe our actions in the present moment.• Being mindful allows us to choose how to respond in situations (Covey).
  71. 71. LINKS WITH THE 6 C’S
  72. 72. Consciousness of Self & 7 Cs• Becoming conscious of self lets us assess our readiness to engage in social change.• It helps us be better aware of how issues affect us and others and enhances our citizenship• It allows us to better collaborate and engage in valuable experiences with the group or team.• It helps us clarify our values and agree on common purpose and understand how values affect our behavior and judgment• Encourage seeing things from others perspective – empathy – and engage in controversy with civility• It boosts self-confidence while highlighting limitations
  73. 73. Connection to the Other Cs• Although all of the Cs are interrelated, Consciousness of Self directly affects Congruence and Commitment.• Becoming more mindful of preferred ways of being makes it clear when actions are not Congruent with our inner truth.• Also, reflection and other practices help create an improved sense of Commitment.
  74. 74. Consciousness of self - closing wordsTo develop intrapersonal intelligence andform an accurate model of ourselves and beable to use that model to operate effectivelyin everyday lifeTo develop the awareness that new skills,behaviors and approaches are needed
  75. 75. The Model
  76. 76. Questions
  77. 77. Becoming Conscious of Self• Developing consciousness of self requires intentional actions.• These include1. a practice of reflection2. openness to feedback – strength and weaknesses - non defensive, listen without interrupting, ask clarifying questions – does not imply accepting everything – should not take a toll on self-confidence and motivation, integrating advice of others3. learning about the self through assessment.
  78. 78. Food for thought• To live is to choose. But to choose well, you must know who you are and what you stand for, where you want to go and why you want to get there Kofi Annan
  79. 79. CONGRUENCE
  80. 80. OBJECTIVES OF THE SESSION• By the end of this session, participants will be able to: – demonstrate a clearer understanding meaning of ‘congruence’ – demonstrate a better congruence in their behaviour – appreciate the link between congruence and leadership
  82. 82. What is Congruence?• Acting in ways that are consistent with our values and beliefs.• Requires a person to have a deeply felt consciousness of self• When values, beliefs, and convictions are echoed in person’s actions, congruence will exist.
  83. 83. What is Congruence?• Congruence is the harmonious union of a person’s inner and outer worlds.• L’habit ne fait pas le moine• The clothing does not make the monk
  84. 84. What is Congruence?• Considering that leadership is a relational process, how is congruence relevant?• Congruence means that a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are guided by an unwavering honesty, authenticity, and genuineness towards others.
  85. 85. Congruence & Authentic Leadership• Authentic leaders nurture relationships driven by a transparency of values and intentions.
  86. 86. Congruence & Authentic Leadership• Congruence is the foundation of trust and credibility
  87. 87. Discussion• How is congruence related to mindfulness?• Congruence requires taking inventory of one’s intentions, actions, and motives AND constant adjustment
  88. 88. What is the link betweenCongruence & Integrity?
  89. 89. Congruence in content and process• Content refers to a person’s goals or purpose – what a person does• Process is how a person accomplishes his/her goals or purpose.• Hitler?
  90. 90. Congruence in content and process• Leaders should not only be concerned with congruent goals and purpose, but also congruence in process.• The choice of end and of means must be equally ethical and value-driven.
  91. 91. Courage to Act Congruently• It takes courage to be congruent, in a world that is so diverse and ever evolving.• Includes standing up against peer pressure, forfeiting popularity, or risking looking foolish.
  92. 92. Courage to Act Congruently• Doing what feels right and is congruent sometimes is not synonymous with social norms and may not be in line with the status quo• It takes courage to be the only one standing in congruence• Mahatma Gandhi … Nelson Mandela
  93. 93. Congruence & Authentic Leadership• Authentic leadership occurs when we accurately represent ourselves in the world in a manner that is ‘in tune’ with our nature.
  94. 94. Being Congruent in Groups• Is it easier or harder?
  95. 95. Being Congruent in Groups• It is easy to be congruent in a room by oneself.• Congruence is harder to achieve when one exists in a group, and even harder when one is a leader.• We often encounter situations where our values are in conflict with the values of members in a group.
  96. 96. Being Congruent in Groups• Being a leader requires the realization that not all the members of our group will share our values, but we are still required to lead them
  97. 97. Being Congruent in Groups• Leading them effectively and congruently requires that a leaders validate their followers’ truths and learn to see from their point of view – Leading with inclusivity towards people’s values and perspectives, even when they are not identical – Bridging
  98. 98. Adaptive Leadership• Adaptive leadership involves identifying the values that are conflicting and make the necessary changes to ensure adjustment that mitigates the level of discrepancy between the group’s values and the reality of the group’s situation.
  99. 99. Adaptive Leadership• The group must face incongruence head on and the leadership is seen as central to fulfilling the role of identifying and remedying the incongruence.• The gap between what is, and what should be, is an opportunity for leadership – An opportunity for change• This kind of change requires “work”
  100. 100. Conclusion• Congruence means not being afraid to stand alone for what one believes in and knows is right• It requires being in tune with our spirit and constantly taking stock to ensure that our actions reflect our values and beliefs• Congruence is required both in private and public systems• Congruence is the foundation of trust
  101. 101. LINKS WITH THE 7 C’S
  102. 102. Congruence & 7 Cs• Congruence is difficult to achieve without consciousness of self• Congruence and the resulting credibility and trust leads to more effective collaboration, impacts the selection of a common purpose• Congruence contributes effectively to our ability to handle controversy with civility• Congruence encourages us to express our citizenship in social change initiatives
  103. 103. Congruence and Leadership• True leadership happens whenever an individual makes the decision to act congruently with the intention of making positive change• What is needed is not popularity or charm or power, but a sense of core purpose and values and the courage to take action that is consistent with those.
  104. 104. Questions• What happens when there is no authenticity, no credibility, no trust?• What kind of leadership results from this deficit in credibility and trust?• What are possible consequences of this kind of leadership? 106
  105. 105. The Model
  106. 106. Questions
  107. 107. Q&AFEEDBACK 109
  109. 109. The JOHARI window
  110. 110. The JOHARI window Think of a person you know and have a close relationship with.how willing you are todisclose informationabout yourself to thisperson how open you are to receiving feedback from the person
  111. 111. The JOHARI window
  112. 112. The JOHARI window
  113. 113. Becoming Conscious of Self• Developing consciousness of self requires intentional actions.• These include1. a practice of reflection2. openness to feedback – strength and weaknesses - non defensive, listen without interrupting, ask clarifying questions – does not imply accepting everything – should not take a toll on self-confidence and motivation, integrating advice of others3. learning about the self through assessment.
  114. 114. Systems Thinking- a brief introduction 117
  115. 115. What is a system?A system is any group of interacting,interrelated, or interdependent partsthat form a complex and unifiedwhole that has a specific purpose 118
  116. 116. What is a system?• A collection of people and/or parts which interact with each other to function as a whole 119
  117. 117. Characteristics of a System• Systems have a purpose that defines it as a discrete entity that holds it together –Purpose of a car:Take you from one place to the other 120
  118. 118. Characteristics of a System• All parts must be present for a system to carry out its purpose optimally – Car without its spark plugs? The car doesn’t work 121
  119. 119. Characteristics of a System• The order in which parts are arranged affects the performance of a systemA car with the driver in the backseatand the tires in the front seat 122
  120. 120. Feedback• Systems attempt to maintain stabilitythrough feedback• Feedback provides information to the system that lets it know how it is doing relative to some desired state 123
  121. 121. THE FISHBONE DIAGRAM 124
  122. 122. Linear Perspective AB C D E Cause = Effect 125
  123. 123. Feedback Perspective AB C D E 126
  124. 124. What is Systems Thinking? Examining how we create our ownproblems Seeing the big picture Recognizing that structure influencesperformance 127
  125. 125. Why Systems Thinking?"Systems thinking is a discipline forseeing wholes. It is a framework forseeing interrelationships rather thanthings, for seeing patterns of changerather than static snapshots...." Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline 128
  126. 126. Systems thinking is a way of seeingand talking about reality that helps usbetter understand and work withorganization and communities toinfluence the quality of our lives. 129
  127. 127. “The significant problems we face todaycannot be solved at the same level ofthinking at which they were created.” - Albert Einstein 130
  128. 128. Systems Archetypes• Fixes that Fail / Backfire• Growth and Underinvestment• Limits to Success• Shifting the Burden / Addiction• Success to the Successful• Tragedy of the Commons
  129. 129. Systems Thinking Tools• Causal Loop Diagrams - to represent dynamic interrelationships• Provide a visual representation to communicate that understanding• Make explicit ones understanding of a system structure 132
  130. 130. Reinforcing loops compound changein one direction with even more changein that direction Saving Interest Balance Payments 133
  131. 131. Reinforcing Loop Structure Behavior Over Time Employee Supportive Performance Perf. BehaviorS Level S Unsupportive Supervisor’s Behavior Supportive Behavior Time 134
  132. 132. Give Examples? ? 135
  133. 133. Balancing Loop Structure Behavior Over TimeDesired S DiscrepancyInventory O Actual Inventory 100 ++ S Desired Inventory Actual Inventory 100 Inventory Adjustment 100 - - S Time 136
  134. 134. Corruption – Poverty - 1 Party Financing Reduction of disposable PoliticalHigher profits income - victory POVERTY Addiction Crime Higher sales Payback Ineffective control on certain activities (gambling, credit buying, narcotics (?) 137
  135. 135. Corruption – Poverty - 2 Less disposable income POVERTY Easily ‘bought’Lower salaries / by politicianspensions Victory Dependence Less public funds available Poor service Waste Payback Inefficiency / overstaffing Appointment of ‘wrong’ people 138
  136. 136. Leaders work on the systemnot in the system 139
  137. 137. The Social SystemSociety Education Outputs
  138. 138. The Education System Parental involvementReward and Social Values/Recognition/ Content Objectives Sanctions Educational Methodology Teachers’ Objectivesperformance SchoolTraining Management LearningEvaluation Outcome Corrective Teacher measures Assessment training
  139. 139. Reward andRecognition/ Attracting good candidates to the profession SanctionsTeachers’Performance Training Training Evaluation
  140. 140. Leaders work on the systemnot in the system 143