SOURCE-BASEDQUESTIONS (SBQ)- Inference- Comparison (Differences and Similarities)- Reliability- Usefulness- Inference with purpose
What are sources in Source-Based Qns.Parts of a SourceSource A An interview with the National DevelopmentMinister on preparing Singapore for a largerpopulation made in 2001The Concept Plan of 2001, a 10-year blueprint for landuse, mayhave to be amended due to events suggesting that the populationhad grown faster than expected. Given that the population hadrisen to 4.5million in the last six years – mainly from the inflow offoreigners here to work and study – the 6.5 million figure could bereached as soon as 20years. With the growing economy, it wascrucial to plan and invest now for the future. Otherwise, preciousbusiness opportunities would be lost if potential investors foundinsufficient land and infrastructure for their needs. Our goal is notjust to provide space, but also to enhance our living environmentto the extent that it becomes our competitive advantages in theattraction of talent and investment.Provenance: (Heading)Source content
Basic Skills in Source-Based Questions• Inference means locating meaning behind the words,images and pictures used in a source.• Students need to look for meanings from the words in thesource and express these meanings in their own words.• Making inferences can be applied to all source-basedquestions
Basic Skill - Revision• What are the steps used in answering Inference questions• I_____• S_____• E______• (Infer, support, explain)
Inference QuestionsSteps What to do NotesStep 1 Analyse the Questiona. Break up the question into components- Identify the Question word:Why, Explain, What does this…- Identify keywords/IssueQuestion words help you to be certainof what skill is being tested.Keywords help you to identify the topicand also to narrow down the inferencesyou need to look for.Step 2 Apply the Basic Skilla. Infer: Make a point based on what you see or reada. Support: Quote the evidence from the source.a. Explain: Elaborate with details on your point (your inference)Step 3 Write out the answer (in good Eng.)a. Infer: “The source (Source __) says…a. Support: “ …this is seen in the source, (quote evidence from thesource)…”a. Explain: “…this shows that…(give more information about yourinference(Adapted from Seah ,Josee,Upper Secondary Social Studies Skills Application, Wisemann Publishing, Singapore: 2009, p.11-12)
Inference Question PracticeSource A: An interview with the National Development Minister on preparingSingapore for a larger population of 6.5millionQuestion: What does this source say about the government’s efforts in landuse planning in Singapore?The Concept Plan of 2001, a 10-year blueprint for landuse, may have to be amended due toevents suggesting that the population had grown faster than expected. Given that thepopulation had risen to 4.5million in the last six years – mainly from the inflow of foreignershere to work and study – the 6.5 million figure could be reached as soon as 20years. With thegrowing economy, it was crucial to plan and invest now for the future. Otherwise, preciousbusiness opportunities would be lost if potential investors found insufficient land andinfrastructure for their needs. Our goal is not just to provide space, but also to enhance ourliving environment to the extent that it becomes our competitive advantages in the attractionof talent and investment.
Check your answers!• Check the model answer given to you.• Was your team able to identify two inferences?• Was your answer supported with evidence from the source?
Comparison Questions• Type 1: Provide, support & explain similarities only; orProvide, support & explain differences only• Possible question words:• What are the similarities between these 2 sources?• In what ways are Sources A and B similar?• How do the 2 sources differ?• What are the differences between the 2 sources?
Comparison Question• Type 2: Provide, Support & Explain 2 Similarities + 1 DiffProvide, Support & Explain 2 Differences + 1 Sim• Possible question words:• How similar are these 2 sources?• How different are Sources A and B?• To what extent are the 2 sources similar?• How far are these 2 sources different?• How far does Source A support/differ from Source B?
Comparison Question• Once you know what type of comparison question itis…the next step is to find a way to “locate” similaritiesand/or differences.• Read the sources – seek meanings of each source that:• the sources have in common• make the sources different• look for POV (point-of-view),• tone (Negative tone, positive tone etc.)• Don’t describe the differences!• Common mistake: A is red in colour and B is blue in colour,therefore they are different.• Try: The difference bet. A and B is colour.
Comparison Question – Type 1Template and guiding wordsCommon factor Support ExplainBoth sources differ orare similar in (statecriteria for comparison)This is shown in SourceA, “…” However as seenin Source B, “…”Source A (Makeexplanation linking inferenceof Source A to the issue ofthe question)…However, Source Bhighlights/comments that(Make explanation linkinginference of Source B to theissue of question)InferSource A shows that(state inference)…whereas Source Bcomments (stateinference)Repeat Infer, Support and Explain (ISE) for every similarity/difference inferencethat has been identified.
Comparison Questions•Conclusion for comparison questions:• Link similarities/differences back to thequestion issueand;• Highlight the connection difference orsimilarity) with the issue.
Comparison Question PracticeSource B: From a letter published in the Straits Times, 22 June 2001Source B: A letter written on 23 June 2001 to the Straits Times by aMember of Parliament who was the deputy chairman of theGovernment Parliamentary Committee for HealthShouldn’t healthcare services, which are needed by everyone, be available and affordable toall, and not just the majority? It might seem unbelievable that many Singaporeans, like mymother, have no CPF savings of their own, and so cannot use any of the healthcare schemeslike MediSave, Medifund etc. Even for people with CPF savings, the money would quickly beused up due to high medical costs.I would agree that healthcare services should be available and affordable to all people. Theneedy and the elderly have always been my concern. In Parliament, I have frequently spokenfor better medical care and affordability. Our healthcare system already offers service to themajority of Singaporeans who have MediSave and Medishield. For those who do not have suchinsurance, we have Medifund to pay their bills. Thus nobody is left unprotected.How similar are sources B and C ?c
Comparison Question – Answer templateCommon factorCommon Factor 1 (Similarity)Common factor 2 (Similarity)Common factor 3: (Difference – use for Type II Qns only)Infer Support ExplainInference No. 1:Sources A and B show that…Inference No. 2:Sources A and B also show that…Inference No. 3:However, Sources B and C are alsodifferentSupport for Inference 1Support for Inference 2Support for Inference 3Explanation for Inference 1Explanation for Inference 2Explanation for Inference 3
Check your answers• Check the model answers that have just been given to you?• Were you able to identify at least two similarities?• Was your team able to know what type of comparison question it is?
Reliability Questions• How would you check if a product or a service you want tobuy is reliable?• Check for a label or something to show that it is a genuine article.• Check with Internet reviews on consumer blogs etc.• Check with friends who have purchased similar types of products• If these “checks” match what you already know of theproduct…then the product is likely to be reliable.• Students must do the same for sources when checking forreliability.
Reliability Questions• Checks on reliability can be affected/influenced by thesefactors:• Bias of the author of the source –• Date the source was recorded –• Why the source was produced – based on facts or propaganda.
Reliability Questions• Step 1: State the point which makes the source“reliable” and check if the author of the sourceis biased or is it objective.• Step 2: Cross reference to the othersources/Background Information either toi) support the point that the source is reliableorii) Contradict the point that source is reliable
Reliability QuestionsSource A: A lecturer at the Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University of Jakartasharing his views on the success of racial and religious harmony inSingaporeWith a highly urban character and predominantly Chinese population of 77% (Malay 14%,Indian 8%), Singapore had become South-east Asia’s most thriving entrepreneurial state and amajor regional and global communications centre by the early 1990s. It is highly likely thatbecause of this economic prosperity, Singaporeans are able to enjoy religious freedom and invarious aspects, pragmatic and tolerant minds can be developed in this multi-racial society.As such, there can be minimal discrimination as Singaporeans benefit from the country’spositive economic development regardless of race or religion.Does Source A prove that there is a strong correlation between racial harmonyand economic development?
Reliability QuestionsSource B: A view by a sociologist on the importance of racial awareness in a multi-racial societyCultures of different races may be unique, but should never be used to segregate thepopulation of a multi-racial society like Singapore. As a citizen of the country, one shoulduphold the national identity and be loyal to the country regardless of race and religion. Peoplemust be aware that the racial and religious harmony the country has established along years ofeconomic development can be easily destroyed if their mindsets are less tolerant and lessmature. Any form of positive development in the country shall be the efforts ofevery citizen inmaintaining the peace andharmony of society.
Reliability Question – Answer TemplateInfer Support ExplainYes, Source A proves that…(or)No, Source A does not provethat…“…because (State Inference1):Inference 2:Source also proves that (statethe issue) because (StateInference 2)As seen from the Source, itsays…When cross-referenced toSource B, it (supports orcontradicts what source A issaying)This is also seen from thesource when it says…When cross-referenced toSource B again, it (supports orcontradicts)This implies that ……and that
Check Your Answers• Check the model answers that have just been given toyou?• Were you able to identify the reliability?• Was your team able to cross reference to support your answer?
Usefulness Questions• For usefulness questions, students are asked to statewhether a source is useful in helping you understand atopic or an issue• Different from reliability.• Focus is on whether the source guides yourunderstanding not whether the source is reliable(trustworthy).• Approach to developing the answer is similar to reliability– must cross-reference.
Usefulness Question - PracticeSource A – A response by the Free Media Movement (FMM), a Sri Lankan based Non-governmental Organizationworking for the welfare of media personnel on the forced eviction of jobless Tamils by the Sri Lankan governmentThe police claim that they were simply aiding Tamils’ return to their home towns. However; the reports fromresidents, owners and staff of lodges, eye witnesses to the expulsion are in complete contrast to these policeaccounts. People were forced to leave, even those who were in Colombo for health reasons and were not fit totravel. The FMM unequivocally decries this action, which we see as a heinous act that grossly underminesdemocracy, violates the civic rights of the Tamil community and makes a mockery of this Government’s avowedcommitment to strengthening human rights of all citizens. The Government’s action is the same as ethnic cleansing.Source B – An appeal by the Communist Party of India’s (CPI) District Secretary R. Shanmugavelu to help theTamils in Sri Lanka.Several thousands of innocent Tamils were killed in the war. Several people came here (India) as refugees and losttheir livelihood. There seems to be no end to the killings by the Sri Lankan Army. The Central government (in India)should find a solution in the interests of Tamils. India should desist from providing all assistance to Sri Lanka andprevail upon it to find a solution to the ethnic crisis.Source C – A report by the Sri Lankan navy on the rescues of Tamil civiliansThe escapees of whom the majority were in the prime of youth longing for a meaningful life away from LTTEterrorism, claimed that they were living in constant fear of being forcefully conscripted despite their vehementdispleasure to be in league with the terror outfit waging a senseless killing spree of the innocent and its opponents.They gratefully thanked the navy for the safe and cordial manner in which they were rescued, the hospitality shownby providing them with basic needs and the swift measures taken for their immediate well-being.
Usefulness Questions - Practice• Qn: How useful is Source A in showing that the SriLankan government is to be blamed for the plight of theTamils?How useful =Usefulness questionIssue/ Topic focus:- Are the Sri Lankan government policies to be blamed forthe plight of the Tamils?
Usefulness Question – Answer templateInfer Support ExplainSource A is useful…(state to whatextent) +State inference no. 1 (Usefulness ofSource)From Source A we learn thatWhen cross-referenced to Source B,it supports Source A as …(say why itsupports)…This is seen in Source B(put in the quotation)…”This shows that the source suggeststhatThis shows that (describe howSource B enhances the explanationof Source A)However, Source A has itslimitations,State Inference No. 2 (Limitations)When cross-referenced to Source C,it highlights what is missing inSource A.This is seen in source C when itpoints out, (put in quotation fromsource C)Provide explanation for how SourceC points to the limitations in SourceA. Students should provide abalanced answer (by stating whySource is both useful and also whyit is not so useful)
Check your Answers• Check the model answers that have just been given toyou• Were you able to identify at least one inference on usefulness?• Was your team able to cross-reference to support your answer?
Inference with purpose• Use the same format as you would for Inference Questionbut now your focus is on:• Discovering the reason behind why the cartoonist, the author, theartist created the source.• For purpose type inference questions, students should also attemptto identify tone from the source.• Is the author, poet, artist unhappy with the issue he/she is trying toexpress? Students must include a statement on the purpose behind asource.• Use phrases like: author is trying to raise awareness, or artist is trying tocriticise a government policy…etc.
Format of question, essay approach andplanningSKILLS LECTURE:STRUCTURED-ESSAYWRITING
Lesson References• Seah, Josee., - Upper Secondary Social Studies SkillsApplication for Source-Based studies & Structured EssayQuestions, Wisemann Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore:2009• Social Studies textbook
Introduction to Structured EssayQuestions• Structured essay questions test the students ability to:• “…to explain,• “analyse and make judgements”• The candidate answers will be assessed using essayLevels Of Response Marking (LORM)s
Requirements for O’Level SocialStudies Paper• Candidates are expected to:• Select one question from a list of three (3) questions.• Answer all parts of the question!• Answer whole essay in 45 minutes!
Types of Structured Essay Questions• Examples of Part (a) questions:• To what extent was the dispute over territory the most importantfactor that worsened the relations between Iraq and Kuwait?Explain your answer.• How far was the competition for investments and markets achallenge for sustaining Singapore’s economic development?Explain your answer.• To what extent are the foreign threats a significant reason for thefall of Venice? Explain your answer.
Types of Structured Essay Questions• Examples of Part (b) questions:• The Americans were the only ones to respond to the Iraqi invasion ofKuwait. Do you agree?• Here are three ways in which Singapore can increase its competitivenessby managing the following resources:• Attracting Foreign Talent• Developing people• Managing the environmentWhich do you think is the best way to manage Singapore’scompetitiveness? Explain your answer.
Handling Structured Essay Questions• Structured Essay Question approach in the following way:• Step 1: Analyse the question: highlight the following:• Words that ask for your stand (“what do you think?”, Which is )• The Given Factor (if any) (Given factor is: the factor identified by the question itself)• The keywords for linking sentence• Step 2: Plan an outline to capture the key points:• State Factor in the Topic Sentence… … … … … …(F)• Make an elaboration on the Factor… … … … … … …(E)• Make another elaboration on the same factor… … … ..(E)• Make a link to the issue identified… … … … … … … …(L)
Handling Structured Essay Questions1st paragraph (introduction)2nd paragraph (Given factor):3rd paragraph (1st other factor)4th paragraph (2nd other factor)5th paragraph (conclusion)
Structured-Essay Group Practice• See question provided…and work out an outline together.• You may refer to your Social Studies text book