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Professor Julian Richards
Open Data in European Archaeology
• Context: The Open Agenda
• Past Reality – the development of data sharing
• The current state of play
– National data sh...
Open
Scholarship
Open
Access
Open
Bibliography
Open
Citation
Open Data
Open
Educational
Resources
Open
Research
Open
Knowl...
Open Data
• Open data is the idea that certain data should
be freely available to everyone to use and
republish as they wi...
The Open Data Movement
• Related to Open Access movement for
publications
• Data.gov & Data.gov.uk
• "A piece of data is o...
Linked Open Data Cloud
Linked Open Data in Archaeology
Open Data in Science
• The concept of open access to scientific data
was institutionally established in preparation for
th...
Open Data in Archaeology: Pros
• “Past belongs to everyone”
– democratisation of knowledge
• Accelerated pace of new knowl...
Open Data in Archaeology: Challenges
• Privacy issues – site location; indigenous
peoples; personal data
• Misuse of data
...
Creative Commons licensing
• Context: The Open Agenda
• Past Reality – the development of data sharing
• The current state of play
– National data sh...
The Reality
The prehistory of (non-)sharing
Rahtz, Sebastian 1988 `Reflections on an
Archaeological Information Exchange'
...
Harrison Eiteljorg, II 1994 ‘Archaeological Data
Archive Project’, CSA Newsletter VII(3)
Harrison Eiteljorg, II 2002 ‘The ...
“The second is the inability of the Archaeological Data Archive to
become self-sufficient within the next decade or so.......
• “I need to tidy my data”
(“I worry that people will think my data is poor quality”)
• “I’ll do it when the research is f...
13 June 2013 –
European
parliament
ratifies new rules
on Open Data -
includes cultural
heritage data
Open Data in Europe
h...
G8 Open Data Charter unveiled
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
18 June 2013: “a
new era in which
people can use
open da...
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
The Five Principles
1. Open Data by Default
2. Increase Quality and Quantity for re-us...
• Context: The Open Agenda
• Past Reality – the development of data sharing
• The current state of play
– National data sh...
National Preservation Infrastructures
• UK: Archaeology Data Service
• Netherlands: eDNA
• Sweden: SNDS
• Germany: IANUS
• United States: tDAR
http://archaeolog...
• Founded 1996,
University of York
• 17 staff
• Collections
• 1,300,000 metadata
records
• 25,000+ unpublished
fieldwork r...
Netherlands: eDNA
• 2004-6 pilot study –
DANS & Leiden
University
• 2007 eDNA
• 2 members of staff, plus
DANS infrastructu...
Sweden: SND
• Swedish National Data
Service, University of
Gothenburg
• 2012 first archaeological
archives, in collaborati...
Germany: IANUS
• 2012 – DAI scoping
project
• Initial staff of two
Italy: MAPPA project
• 2011 onwards
• University of Pisa
• Network of systems,
including spatial
handling
• MAPPAopenDATA
...
United States: Open Context
• Alexandria Archive
Institute
• 2007+
• 2 staff members
• Primarily data
publication tool
• C...
United States: tDAR
• 2009+
• Mellon start-up grant
• Based Arizona State
University
• Digital Antiquity
consortium
• 4+ s...
Canada: Sustainable Archaeology
• 2010+
• Western & McMaster
universities
• c.3 staff members
• Funded by Canadian
Foundat...
Australia: FAIMS
• Federated Archaeological
Information Management
System
• 2012+
• University of New South
Wales
• Funded...
Interoperability & Data Integration
Hansen, H.J., 1992
'European archaeological
databases: problems and
prospects', in J. ...
ARENA: Archaeological Records
of Europe: Networked Access.
ARENA 2002-4
• Culture 2000
programme
• Six European partners
• Portal and exemplar
archives
• Z39.50 & OAI
technology
07/03/2015 http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Z39.50 & OAI Search
Set When Query Set What Query
Where Query
Optional Sear...
DARIAH: ARENA2
2009-10
Technical demonstrator
Web services architecture
What: When: Where search
ADS: DANS: CIMEC
Europeana: CARARE
FASTIONLINE
• Established 2000
• AIAC/ LP
Archaeology
• Database of
excavations for
classical archaeology
• 12,000 excavat...
arachne
• DAI central object
database
• 300,000 images
• Metadata mapped to
CIDOC-CRM
PELAGIOS
Classical Archaeology : Open Linked Data
ARIADNE
Why ARIADNE
• Huge number of archaeological data
available in digital format
• Large number of non-communicating
archaeolo...
What is ARIADNE
• ARIADNE is a Research Infrastructure project
aiming at the integration of archaeological
datasets in Eur...
The ARIADNE Partnership
• Coordinator
• Partner
• Associate
Project Goals
• Shape the research community
• Share, access, use and re-use archaeological data
• Overcome fragmentation
...
Progress in the first year
Joint Research
• Creation of the ACDM (ARIADNE Catalogue
Data Model) and of the Registry descri...
Success stories
• Agreement with PACTOLS (multilingual French
thesaurus) for integration in the ARIADNE system
• Mapping t...
SITAR
• Geographic coverage: Rome (incl. Ostia) and Fiumicino
• Temporal coverage: from Paleolithic to present
• Georefere...
• Context: The Open Agenda
• Past Reality – the development of data sharing
• The current state of play
– National data sh...
Why should we share our data?
The Sticks
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
• Because
governments and
funding bodies
tell...
• Research Councils
– EPSRC
• Published research papers should include a short
statement describing how and on what terms ...
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
The policy states that, to be eligible for submission to
the post-2014 REF, authors’ f...
Mandated Deposition
Mandated deposition
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk 62
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Open Data: Case Study - Archaeology Data Service
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
• Context: The Open Agenda
• Past Reality – the development of data sharing
• The current state of play
– National data sh...
Why should we share our data?
The Carrots
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
• Professional ethics
“Excavation as
destruc...
Why should we share our data?
The Carrots
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Plus, increasingly:
• Data citation i.e.
DOI...
• Cool, H. E. M. & Bell, M. (2011) Excavations at
St Peter’s Church, Barton-upon-Humber [data-
set]. York: Archaeology Dat...
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
DOIs within archives
Internal references
to other collections
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
DOIs within Collections too
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Data Papers
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Transparent refereeing
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Other data paper initiatives
• Is there a difference?
• The archive tradition
• The archive as part of dissemination strategy
• Linking publication and...
LEAP: Linking Electronic archives and publications
British Archaeological Awards 2008 Best Archaeological Innovation
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Year on year usage 1997-2011
0
2000000
4000000
6000000
8000000
10000000
12000000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2...
Grey Literature Library
Re-use statistics
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Who is using ADS?
Primary use of data
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
“The Value and Impact of the ADS”
September 2013
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
Neil Beagrie Charles Beagrie Ltd.
Joh...
The KRDS Benefits Framework
– Framework arranged on 3 dimensions with two sub-
divisions each
– Individual benefits identi...
Traditional Value
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
The Economic Impact of the ADS
07/03/2015
http://archaeologydataservice
.ac.uk
97
Return over 30 years?
Increase in return...
How to achieve integration
Data sharing requires:
•Suitability of someone else’s data
•Interoperability of datasets
•Trust...
Looking to the future
• 50% of all journals now require data to be
deposited in an archive
• Need a new metaphor for publi...
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
Julian D. Richards -  Open Data in European Archaeology
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Julian D. Richards - Open Data in European Archaeology

Julian D. Richards - Keynote Open Data in European Archaeology.
OpenPompei Stvdivm (6-7-8 marzo 2015)
www.openpompei.it

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Julian D. Richards - Open Data in European Archaeology

  1. 1. Professor Julian Richards Open Data in European Archaeology
  2. 2. • Context: The Open Agenda • Past Reality – the development of data sharing • The current state of play – National data sharing infrastructures – International e-infrastructures in archaeology • Why should we share our data - Sticks • Why should we share our data - ..and Carrots Outline http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  3. 3. Open Scholarship Open Access Open Bibliography Open Citation Open Data Open Educational Resources Open Research Open Knowledge Foundation Open Source Software Open Agenda Wikimedia Foundation Course materials Learning objects Content modules Linked Open Data Research Data Management Open Notebook Science myExperiment.org Open Spending Wikipedia Wikimedia Commons Operating system Applications
  4. 4. Open Data • Open data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control (Wikipedia, 9 June 2013) • Open data tradition and archaeology
  5. 5. The Open Data Movement • Related to Open Access movement for publications • Data.gov & Data.gov.uk • "A piece of data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike”
  6. 6. Linked Open Data Cloud
  7. 7. Linked Open Data in Archaeology
  8. 8. Open Data in Science • The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957-8. The International Council of Scientific Unions established several World Data Centers to minimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility, further recommending in 1955 that data be made available in machine- readable form. • The Open-science-data movement long predates the Internet
  9. 9. Open Data in Archaeology: Pros • “Past belongs to everyone” – democratisation of knowledge • Accelerated pace of new knowledge • Economic benefit of Open Data • Public benefit of Open Data – Community engagement in heritage e.g. Finds.org.uk; Europeana; – Justification of taxpayer investment
  10. 10. Open Data in Archaeology: Challenges • Privacy issues – site location; indigenous peoples; personal data • Misuse of data • Funding of data management & data infrastructures • Importance of provenance • Legitimate concerns of information providers
  11. 11. Creative Commons licensing
  12. 12. • Context: The Open Agenda • Past Reality – the development of data sharing • The current state of play – National data sharing infrastructures – International e-infrastructures in archaeology • Why should we share our data - Sticks • Why should we share our data - ..and Carrots Outline http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  13. 13. The Reality The prehistory of (non-)sharing Rahtz, Sebastian 1988 `Reflections on an Archaeological Information Exchange' Archaeol Comput Newslett 16, 10-15 “The AIE in operation at Southampton University contains so far: mailing list; distribution service for data and/or software; and an on- line service. Problems include: the labour-intensive nature of the mailing list; little use of the service by archaeologists as opposed to UNIX-addicts....”
  14. 14. Harrison Eiteljorg, II 1994 ‘Archaeological Data Archive Project’, CSA Newsletter VII(3) Harrison Eiteljorg, II 2002 ‘The Archaeological Data Archive Project Ceases Operation’, CSA Newsletter XV (2) “There appear to be two insurmountable problems with the archives. One is the absence of any real possibility for assembling a large enough body of material to be truly useful within a reasonable time. This reflects primarily the unwillingness of scholars to deposit materials in the archive......”
  15. 15. “The second is the inability of the Archaeological Data Archive to become self-sufficient within the next decade or so.... Data depositors may be willing to pay for deposit and long-term preservation, but there has been no evidence of that for the near term....... Archaeologists have too often treated their objects and their data as privately owned...... Archaeology is hardly alone in finding it impossible to fund an archive for digital data. Archaeologists will, however, be taken to task more strongly than many scholars because their data cannot be recreated, once lost.”
  16. 16. • “I need to tidy my data” (“I worry that people will think my data is poor quality”) • “I’ll do it when the research is finished / published” (“I worry that people will steal my credit”) • “It’s too expensive” (“I forgot to budget for it”) • “I haven’t got permission” (“I can’t be bothered/ haven’t got the time”) Common excuses.... http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  17. 17. 13 June 2013 – European parliament ratifies new rules on Open Data - includes cultural heritage data Open Data in Europe http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  18. 18. G8 Open Data Charter unveiled http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk 18 June 2013: “a new era in which people can use open data to generate insights, ideas, and services to create a better world for all.”
  19. 19. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk The Five Principles 1. Open Data by Default 2. Increase Quality and Quantity for re-use 3. Usable by All 4. Releasing Data for improved Governance 5. Releasing Data for Innovation
  20. 20. • Context: The Open Agenda • Past Reality – the development of data sharing • The current state of play – National data sharing infrastructures – International e-infrastructures in archaeology • Why should we share our data - Sticks • Why should we share our data - ..and Carrots Outline http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  21. 21. National Preservation Infrastructures
  22. 22. • UK: Archaeology Data Service • Netherlands: eDNA • Sweden: SNDS • Germany: IANUS • United States: tDAR http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk National Preservation Infrastructures
  23. 23. • Founded 1996, University of York • 17 staff • Collections • 1,300,000 metadata records • 25,000+ unpublished fieldwork reports • 700+ rich archives • Guides to Good Practice • DPC Decennial Award 2012 The Archaeology Data ServiceArchaeology Data Service
  24. 24. Netherlands: eDNA • 2004-6 pilot study – DANS & Leiden University • 2007 eDNA • 2 members of staff, plus DANS infrastructure • 2011 – 17,000 fieldwork reports
  25. 25. Sweden: SND • Swedish National Data Service, University of Gothenburg • 2012 first archaeological archives, in collaboration with Uppsala University – GIS files, Östergötland • Swedish Rock Art archives
  26. 26. Germany: IANUS • 2012 – DAI scoping project • Initial staff of two
  27. 27. Italy: MAPPA project • 2011 onwards • University of Pisa • Network of systems, including spatial handling • MAPPAopenDATA • DOIs • CC-BY-SA
  28. 28. United States: Open Context • Alexandria Archive Institute • 2007+ • 2 staff members • Primarily data publication tool • California Digital Library provides long term preservation
  29. 29. United States: tDAR • 2009+ • Mellon start-up grant • Based Arizona State University • Digital Antiquity consortium • 4+ staff members
  30. 30. Canada: Sustainable Archaeology • 2010+ • Western & McMaster universities • c.3 staff members • Funded by Canadian Foundation for Innovation / Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation • Physical and digital infrastructure
  31. 31. Australia: FAIMS • Federated Archaeological Information Management System • 2012+ • University of New South Wales • Funded by Australian government NECTAR programme • Mobile apps • Using instance of tDAR as repository infrastructure
  32. 32. Interoperability & Data Integration Hansen, H.J., 1992 'European archaeological databases: problems and prospects', in J. Andresen et al. (eds) Computing the Past. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Aarhus. 229-37.
  33. 33. ARENA: Archaeological Records of Europe: Networked Access.
  34. 34. ARENA 2002-4 • Culture 2000 programme • Six European partners • Portal and exemplar archives • Z39.50 & OAI technology
  35. 35. 07/03/2015 http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Z39.50 & OAI Search Set When Query Set What Query Where Query Optional Search Map
  36. 36. DARIAH: ARENA2 2009-10 Technical demonstrator Web services architecture
  37. 37. What: When: Where search
  38. 38. ADS: DANS: CIMEC
  39. 39. Europeana: CARARE
  40. 40. FASTIONLINE • Established 2000 • AIAC/ LP Archaeology • Database of excavations for classical archaeology • 12,000 excavation reports
  41. 41. arachne • DAI central object database • 300,000 images • Metadata mapped to CIDOC-CRM
  42. 42. PELAGIOS Classical Archaeology : Open Linked Data
  43. 43. ARIADNE
  44. 44. Why ARIADNE • Huge number of archaeological data available in digital format • Large number of non-communicating archaeological datasets – the “information silos” • Increasing interest of the research community for data sharing, both passive (“access”) and active (“provide”) • Social pressure for opening data vaults
  45. 45. What is ARIADNE • ARIADNE is a Research Infrastructure project aiming at the integration of archaeological datasets in Europe • Four years’ duration • Starting 1st February 2013 • 23 partners from 17 countries • Coordinated by PIN-U. of Florence (IT) • Affiliated to DARIAH
  46. 46. The ARIADNE Partnership • Coordinator • Partner • Associate
  47. 47. Project Goals • Shape the research community • Share, access, use and re-use archaeological data • Overcome fragmentation • Foster/support interoperability • Establish accepted standards and common protocols • Enable resource discovery and faceted searches • Explore new methods • Create useful tools for searching and browsing Connect, not assemble Make data discoverable, accessible, understandable, usable
  48. 48. Progress in the first year Joint Research • Creation of the ACDM (ARIADNE Catalogue Data Model) and of the Registry describing archaeological digital resources • Designing dataset integration • Working on an extension of CIDOC-CRM suitable for archaeological documentation – Mapping metadata schemas to CIDOC-CRM – Draft proposal for excavation data
  49. 49. Success stories • Agreement with PACTOLS (multilingual French thesaurus) for integration in the ARIADNE system • Mapping the Italian documentation system on the ARIADNE standard • Progress into incorporating SITAR (archaeological datasets on Rome) • DAI implementing the novel ARIADNE extension for new datasets • ARIADNE inspiring new research projects in Austria • and more…
  50. 50. SITAR • Geographic coverage: Rome (incl. Ostia) and Fiumicino • Temporal coverage: from Paleolithic to present • Georeferenced dataset • Open Data • 3100 reports • Images, documents, etc. • Unique of its kind in Italy
  51. 51. • Context: The Open Agenda • Past Reality – the development of data sharing • The current state of play – National data sharing infrastructures – International e-infrastructures in archaeology • Why should we share our data - Sticks • Why should we share our data - ..and Carrots Outline http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  52. 52. Why should we share our data? The Sticks http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk • Because governments and funding bodies tell us to.... • And invoke sanctions if we don’t
  53. 53. • Research Councils – EPSRC • Published research papers should include a short statement describing how and on what terms any supporting research data may be accessed. • Research organisations will ensure that EPSRC-funded research data is securely preserved for a minimum of 10-years Sticks in the UK http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  54. 54. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  55. 55. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  56. 56. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  57. 57. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk The policy states that, to be eligible for submission to the post-2014 REF, authors’ final peer-reviewed manuscripts must have been deposited in an institutional or subject repository on acceptance for publication. Deposited material should be discoverable, and free to read and download, for anyone with an internet connection. The requirement applies only to journal articles and conference proceedings with an International Standard Serial Number.
  58. 58. Mandated Deposition Mandated deposition
  59. 59. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  60. 60. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk 62 http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Open Data: Case Study - Archaeology Data Service
  61. 61. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  62. 62. • Context: The Open Agenda • Past Reality – the development of data sharing • The current state of play – National data sharing infrastructures – International e-infrastructures in archaeology • Why should we share our data - Sticks • Why should we share our data - ..and Carrots Outline http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  63. 63. Why should we share our data? The Carrots http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk • Professional ethics “Excavation as destruction” • Academic reputation • International impact/ exposure • Re-use • Feedback
  64. 64. Why should we share our data? The Carrots http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Plus, increasingly: • Data citation i.e. DOIs • Publication citation e.g. Data papers • Research Impact credit
  65. 65. • Cool, H. E. M. & Bell, M. (2011) Excavations at St Peter’s Church, Barton-upon-Humber [data- set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] <doi: 10.5284/1000389> • NB http://dx.doi.org/10.5284/1000389 http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Sample citation
  66. 66. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk DOIs within archives Internal references to other collections
  67. 67. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk DOIs within Collections too
  68. 68. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  69. 69. Data Papers http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  70. 70. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Transparent refereeing
  71. 71. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Other data paper initiatives
  72. 72. • Is there a difference? • The archive tradition • The archive as part of dissemination strategy • Linking publication and archive • Supporting and testing • Supplementary data – needs to be archived Open Access vs Open Data http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  73. 73. LEAP: Linking Electronic archives and publications
  74. 74. British Archaeological Awards 2008 Best Archaeological Innovation
  75. 75. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  76. 76. Year on year usage 1997-2011 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 10000000 12000000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  77. 77. Grey Literature Library
  78. 78. Re-use statistics http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  79. 79. Who is using ADS?
  80. 80. Primary use of data http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  81. 81. “The Value and Impact of the ADS” September 2013 http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk Neil Beagrie Charles Beagrie Ltd. John Houghton Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University
  82. 82. The KRDS Benefits Framework – Framework arranged on 3 dimensions with two sub- divisions each – Individual benefits identified and assigned within this Internal External WHO BENEFITS? Benefit from Curation of Research Data
  83. 83. Traditional Value
  84. 84. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk
  85. 85. The Economic Impact of the ADS 07/03/2015 http://archaeologydataservice .ac.uk 97 Return over 30 years? Increase in returns on investment in data and related infrastructure arising from additional use facilitated by ADS ADS Value/Impact Analysis £1 cost provides up to £8.30 return
  86. 86. How to achieve integration Data sharing requires: •Suitability of someone else’s data •Interoperability of datasets •Trust in data collected by others •Guarantee of data “provenance” •Suitable licensing agreements •Suitable repositories
  87. 87. Looking to the future • 50% of all journals now require data to be deposited in an archive • Need a new metaphor for publication • Blurring of publication and other forms of dissemination • Data management not for its own sake – no preservation without re-use

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