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WIPAC Monthly February 2018

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Welcome to the February 2018 edition of WIPAC Monthly, the magazine from the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group.

In this months edition, on top of the month's news from the industry, we have articles from

Mike Strahand of ATi in the first part of an article on the development of Smart Water Networks

An article from Endress & Hauser about the importance of Smart Instruments and the data quality in Smart Pumping Systems

An article from AMS about the online remediation of Hexavalent Chromium using online analysis to control chemical dosing.

I hope you enjoy the latest edition

Oliver

Published in: Engineering
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WIPAC Monthly February 2018

  1. 1. Page 1 WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control www.wipac.org.uk Issue 2/2018- February 2018 Circular Economy Strategies for Water & Energy 13–14 MARCH 2018 | LISBON, PORTUGAL PLATINUM GOLD SILVER
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue From the Editor.................................................................................................................... 3 Industry News................................................................................................................. 4 - 11 Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. The Journey towards Smart Networks Part I......................................................................... 12-13 In this first part of an opinion piece by Michael Strahand of ATI the journey towards intelligence in the water networks and how they can address some of the big issues that the water industry faces Smart Instruments enable improved pumping.................................................................... 14-15 In this article by Nathan Hedrick of Endress + Hauser the use of instrumentation and instrumentation verification systems is discussed with particular reference to flow measurement and its essential use in Smart Pumping Systems Online Hexavalent Chromium Remediation...................................................................... 16-19 In this article from Aqua Metrology System a case study from a trial to treat for hexavalent chromium is discussed with particular reference to its measurement to control stannous chloride dosing in the treatment of borehole water. Workshops, Conferences & Seminars................................................................................... 20-21 The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at olivergrievson@hotmail.com
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor Its with this issue of WIPAC Monthly that the Instrumentation Apprentice Competition is officially launched. It was something that I setup what is almost four years ago now copying the idea of the famous Drilling & Tapping competition that happens here in the UK and also on an international basis. It is designed to get more people, especially the Apprentices in the industry, thinking more about instrumentation and how it works. Little did I know since then the concepts of Water 4.0. Big Data & the Internet of Things has really taken off (although I did have an inkling that something was on the horizon). All of these concepts and the potential of the “Digital Industry” means that the instrumentation and the data that it gathers is even more important now than it was four years ago and in four years time will potentially be a central point within the operation of the industry. What is all important though is not only what data is collected and what instruments are installed to collect that data but also the quality of what is gathered. What is very satisfying to see is that data quality is becoming more and more of a hot topic across the industry. One of the things that is being updated at the moment is the British/CEN Standard for Wastewater and experts from across the industry are being consulted for their opinions. As part of this their is of course a section on instrumentation, automation & control and hopefully one of the keys to driving the industry forward is to get those that will use the standard to think of the data and signals that are needed to drive the instrumentation forward and ensure that the schemes that are put in place are aware of both data and informational needs whether it be for human or machine consumption in controlling the various wastewater systems. The discussions are ongoing and drafts of what can only be an “Umbrella” standard are currently being written and it will be interesting to see what comes from the final document. It is the data quality that is absolutely vital and there is a working group being established through the International Water Association that is looking at all aspects of data quality and it was fascinating phonecall that I had earlier on this month with the working group. In that particular call it was all about maintenance standards and what we can do to maintain the instrumentation to ensure that the data that we get is correct. There are various other aspects of the working group looking at different things but it was the practical nature of this particular conversation that attracted me to joining the call as it had refer- ence to other discussions that I’ve been party to recently. All of this leads to a concept that I’ve floated in bits within various articles over the past couple of years and to establishing the concept of the “Instrumentation Life-Cycle” a cradle to grave approach to not just the philosophy, installation and maintenance that the industry is practiced at delivering now but extending it to both before and after starting with the questions “what” information and what data do we need “what” instrument do we need to gather that data “how” do we install that instrument that will gather the data “how” do we turn the data into information “how” do we guarantee the quality of the data that feeds the information “how” do we maintain the data quality and reliability (including instrument replacement It is these “what” and “how” that often get missed and the instrumentation that we use is not used to its full effectiveness which leads to the concept of “re- sistance to the effective use of instrumentation,” which was one of the first discussions that the WIPAC group discussed. There is a plethora of instrumentation that is available to the water industry and in reality the industry needs to take stock and say “this is the data that we, as an industry, need” but to do that there needs to be an element of standardisation. As we head into a digital industry, the so called Water 4.0, the standardisation of the data that is collected will become vitally important as otherwise there is the risk that the industry falls into a trap of virtually bespoke solutions that it has fallen into before and the technology that is used becomes a “black box” that magically controls things with very little understanding of what the “things” are. One of my old bosses once said to me - “In wastewater 95% of the problems that are experienced are down to the absolute basics the remaining 5% is where things get interesting,” it took me a few years of experience to realise he was absolutely right and that most of what we should measure are the basic prin- ciples. This doesn’t make it the most exciting thing to do but that comes later in what we do with data but the most important thing to realise is what we do monitor, what we do measure, needs to be right and if it isn’t then the foundation of Water 4.0 will collapse. Have a good month, Oliver
  4. 4. WWEM Instrumentation Apprentice Competition And New WIPAC Learning Zone launch This year’s Water Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring (WWEM) Conference will take place in Telford on 21st - 22nd November 2018 and see the return of the WWEM Instrumentation Apprentice Competition which is organised by the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group (WIPAC). This year’s competition will see apprentices from both water companies and wider industry compete over three tasks on Thursday 21st November. The competition is being sponsored and supported this year by a number of water industry organisations including ABB, Analytical Technology (ATi), Partech, RS Hydro, Siemens, Siris, SWIG, Vega and WRc. Potential competitors need to be actively working within the water industry and on a registered apprenticeship programme. In order to participate in the competition, applicants should register with the organiser by emailing olivergrievson@wipac.org.uk. Terms of reference for the competition are available at http://goo.gl/1LbKKn WWEM 2018 will also feature the WIPAC Learning Zone which puts apprentices, technicians and engineers together with technical experts within the water and wastewater supply chain to learn about different aspects of instrumentation and control. Throughout the two days of the WWEM 2018 Conference & Exhibition there will be a total of 40 free workshops available. Attendees can pre-register to attend these hour-long sessions to learn about different aspects of instrumentation and control within the Water Industry. To register interest in attending theses workshops, contact olivergrievson@wipac.org.uk to receive details as they are released and to receive priority booking for the sessions. Circular Economy Strategies for Water & Energy 13–14 MARCH 2018 | LISBON, PORTUGAL PLATINUM GOLD SILVER Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Trimble Partners With Aquarius Spectrum To Add Leak Detection & Monitoring Solutions To Its Smart Water Portfolio Trimble announced recently an exclusive relationship with Aquarius Spectrum Ltd. to distribute a branded version of Aquarius Spectrum’s wireless leak detection and monitoring solutions for water utilities throughout the U.S. The collaboration will extend Trimble’s portfolio of smart water management sensors and software solutions to address the growing challenges associated with aging water infrastructure, leakage and non-revenue water (NRW) loss. Utilities globally are facing increasing pressure to limit NRW loss and reduce costly water main bursts. The innovative wireless leak monitoring and detection solutions allow utilities to proactively monitor their network, be notified when a leak occurs, assess the leak severity as well as accurately locate the site of the leak. As part of the collaboration, Aquarius Spectrum’s solutions will integrate with Trimble® Unity, a GIS-centric, cloud and mobile software solution offering a suite of applications and tools to support smart water management. The combination enables utilities to visualize leaks on a map as well as schedule, dispatch and track field repair activities to implement improvements in NRW performance. With this information, utilities can determine asset condition and make informed capital improvement decisions about replacement prioritization. Trimble will offer the Aquarius Spectrum technology through two new solutions: Wireless Leak Monitoring and Detection provides continuous pipeline and leak monitoring using cellular-based leak detection sensors and the Trimble Unity LeakManager cloud software. The solution enables detection and analysis of both small and large magnitude leaks. Repairs can be scheduled based on priority and leak intensity to avoid large water main bursts. These bursts can cause additional water loss, infrastructure and property damage, increased repair costs, and negatively impact customer service, public health and safety. Mobile Leak Detection provides a complete mobile leak detection kit with equipment and software for identifying and locating leaks in the field that have been identified by either Trimble Unity LeakManager, customer calls or utility field crews. The LeakLocator kit includes the Trimble Unity LeakLocator cloud and mobile software for empowering leak repair crews with easy-to-use tools to pinpoint leak locations and efficiently plan repair activities. The LeakLocator reduces the complexity of conventional leak locating equipment that requires a high level of expertise and significant setup time. The wireless leak monitoring and detection, and mobile leak detection solutions extend Trimble’s family of smart water monitoring and management solutions for addressing critical infrastructure and water supply challenges facing the global water market. “We are excited to partner with Aquarius Spectrum,’ said Marcus McCarthy, general manager of Trimble’s Water Division. “This is an advanced leak detection solution with proprietary technology that adds important capability to our family of smart water solutions for water utilities. We can now enable utilities to discover and address leaks in the early stages so that steps can be taken to mitigate non-revenue water loss and prevent costly, potentially dangerous, pipe bursts.” LG Sonic To Automatically Predict Algal Blooms LG Sonic will make use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to further develop the software algorithm which will make it possible to predict algal blooms based on water quality data automatically. Furthermore, it will provide detailed information about the intensity and the impact of the algal bloom on the ecosystem of the water body. The updated algorithm will be implemented in LG Sonic’s water quality software, MPC- View. Predicting algal blooms has been done manually so far by LG Sonic water quality experts by analysing the water quality data combined with Remote Sensing images and meteorological parameters. The updated algorithm will be able to automatically predict algal blooms based on the water quality data stored in the MPC-View software. The software receives its data from the MPC-Buoy, a floating solar-powered system that combines real-time water quality monitoring and ultrasonic sound waves to control algae effectively. MPC-View receives water quality parameters related to phytoplankton dynamics such as Chlorophyll-a, Temperature, DO, pH, Turbidity, and Redox, which are all essential for the prediction of (harmful) algal blooms. Importance of algae prediction Algal blooms can cause health threats to humans and animals; furthermore, it disturbs the whole ecosystem of the water. Algae reduce light penetration, deplete oxygen and release toxins. Such blooms should be prevented as they cause unfavourable conditions. However, many contributors can cause a rise in algal trends, and once an algae bloom is visible, it is more difficult to treat, and the water ecosystem will already be harmed. Data driven water treatment LG Sonic combines water quality and ultrasound technology to provide a complete algae solution for large water surfaces. LG Sonic has been gathering water quality information for many years in different water bodies all over the world. At the moment, LG Sonic is running projects in amongst other countries, such as Argentina, Chile, England, Singapore, Belgium and the United States. Page 5
  6. 6. UTILIS Earns Honours As A Most Innovative Company UTILIS has been bestowed a significant acknowledgement by Fast Company recently having announced its annual ranking of the world’s Most Innovative Companies (MIC) for 2018. The annual list honours leading enterprises and rising newcomers that exemplify the best in business and innovation. UTILIS was included on the Top 10 Most Innovative Companies in Israel list. 6 Billion gallons of drinking water are lost every day. In addition, 240,000 water main leaks occur throughout the year in North America alone. This massive loss of water grows every year due to aging infrastructure around the world. As our world population grows drinking water is a strained precious resource and places a basic human right at risk. UTILIS uses satellite imagery technology to help cities efficiently locate underground leaks within municipal piping systems. The technology works with microwaves emitted by satellites that penetrate the Earth’s surface by up to 3 meters (nine feet). The signal then bounces back up to the satellite with a signature trait that identifies treated water in contact with soil. These underground pools of water are then placed on geographic info system maps that water utility staff use via access on their mobile devices or computers. A targeted leak would mean that leaks would be occurring within a 50-meter (165 feet) radius of the location on the map. By using this technology, utilities may find up to 4x’s more leaks per day than traditional leak detection methods, thus attacking non-revenue water losses. Fast Company’s Most Innovative Companies Top 10 lists recognize pioneering companies across 36 categories, from artificial intelligence to wellness. More than three dozen Fast Company editors, reporters, and contributors surveyed thousands of companies—many of which were identified by a new MIC submission process—to create these lists. “Being chosen as one of Fast Company’s Most Innovative Companies is a prestigious honour, and we are delighted to be recognized in such a manner,” said Elly Perets, CEO of UTILIS. “Water infrastructure and its precious commodity is a basic human right. Around the world our drinking water systems are crumbling with crushing costs associated to replacing and repairing of these systems. UTILIS satellite innovation brings the most efficient and cost-effective way to fix and repair drinking water systems in the industry today,” said Perets. Most Innovative Companies is Fast Company’s signature franchise and one of its most highly anticipated editorial efforts of the year. It provides both a snapshot and a road map for the future of innovation across the most dynamic sectors of the economy. “This year’s MIC list is an inspiring and insightful window into how many companies have embraced innovation and are working to make meaningful change,” said Fast Company deputy editor David Lidsky, who oversaw the issue with senior editor Amy Farley. Innovative new study to monitor Scotland’s water from space Experts will use satellites to monitor the quality of water in Scotland’s lochs as part of a pioneering new project led by the University of Stirling. The Faculty of Natural Sciences is working with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) to investigate the feasibility of introducing earth observation technology to its day-to-day operations in a bid to improve the quality and efficiency of water sampling. The cutting-edge approach uses the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 satellite to identify potential contaminants in bodies of water, such as algal concentrations, harmful algal blooms, and mineral and organic matter. Stirling currently leads the £2.9 million GloboLakes project, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), which has established the world’s first satellite-based global lake surveillance system. The new feasibility study will allow scientists to understand how the technology may benefit end users, in this case SEPA, in developing the approach as an operational capability and, in turn, improving their approach to assessing lake water quality. Dr Claire Neil, a Research Fellow in Biological and Environmental Sciences, is leading the project with SEPA, funded through a NERC Knowledge Exchange Fellowship. She said: “This is the first step in implementing satellite remote sensing as a regulatory data resource and will produce a step change in the way we monitor quality in the UK.” Dr Neil will use reflectance measurements, taken from the satellite, to estimate concentrations of chlorophyll-a, in Scottish lochs. The data will then help to assess risk to water quality status and allow SEPA to better target and enhance their sampling efforts. “Recent scientific achievement through projects such as NERC GloboLakes have provided the scientific know-how which allows us to characterise a large range of optical water types with satisfactory accuracy,” Dr Neil explained. “This method of monitoring provides a more detailed and representative view of the whole lake, when compared to current sampling techniques that typically assess water quality in samples taken close to the lake edge. “As such, measurements obtained from satellite remote sensing will increase our confidence in assigned water quality status and will provide an opportunity to direct sampling efforts.” The £70,000 year-long study will begin this month - further funding may allow the project to be extended by another two years. Page 6
  7. 7. Yorkshire Water to publish majority of operational and service data by 2020 In a bid to increase transparency and boost operational performance, Yorkshire Water has announced that it aims to release the majority of its operational and service data by 2020. The company plans to start with critical areas such as leakage and pollution with the first major data release being all leakage data for the last 12 months, which will be published in March this year. It will then engage with the public and data users to see what they would like to see published next. Following this consultation, it will commit to a two-year programme of data releases until it reaches the open by default position. The firm is the first in the water sector to commit to an ‘open by default’ data approach and has partnered with the Leeds Open Data Institute (ODI) Leeds to make it happen. The only exceptions to the open data policy will be personal identifiable data and information with security implications. By becoming ‘open by default’, the firm aims to empower citizens to scrutinise data and create a new cohort of “citizens regulators” holding the company to account on its performance. In the future, customers may have the ability to create their own service dashboards, tracking the company’s performance in areas which matters to them the most. It also aims to stimulate innovation, by encouraging outside experts to look at operational performance and identify new and innovative solutions to traditional industry issues. It is hoped that in the future, this could help spur the development of data tools such as water use apps which could be used to incentivise customers to reduce future consumption. Working with Leeds ODI, the company will hold a series of events to kick start the open data process. On March 23, a workshop will give users their first look at the leakage data and will also ask them what Yorkshire Water’s priorities for future data release should be. This will coincide with the company publishing the full data set for its leakage performance for the last year on the Data Mill North. Yorkshire Water will profile its programme at the Leeds Digital Festival in April and will then hold a full hackathon in May working with the released data. The hackathon will allow people who would not normally access the data to work with it, providing insights, innovation and new ideas and could aid to quicker detection and resolution of leakage. Richard Flint, chief executive at Yorkshire Water, said: “By sharing data sets through Leeds ODI we want to encourage data scientists and analysts to become something akin to citizen auditors who are able to openly and freely monitor our performance and hold us to account. “By 2020, it is our aim that all our operational data will be available for public scrutiny. This approach will also expand intelligence of our infrastructure, helping us to predict and prevent incidents, such as leakage, which is what our customers demand and deserve. We also want to collaborate with other agencies and authorities in the region to see if our data can be combined with theirs to benefit the communities we all serve.” Paul Connell, founder of Open Data Institute (ODI) Leeds, said: “We are very pleased that Yorkshire Water have joined the founding sponsor group of ODI Leeds and committed to be ‘Open by Default’. They are now part of one of the strongest data and open innovation eco-systems in the country and open data is fundamental to its progress, as Leeds becomes The Data City.” Overall, three data sets will be published by Yorkshire Water between March and May including historic leakage data, pollution incident data from the last five years, and new leakage data derived from acoustic ear listening devices which listen to the flow of water inside water mains. Organisations such as the NHS and San Francisco Transport Authority have already identified millions of pounds worth of savings through the use of Open Data. Yorkshire Water’s move to open data follows a major announcement by the firm to cut leakage by 40 percent and sewer flooding by 70 per cent, as it aims to become a leading performer in the sector. Page 7
  8. 8. United Utilities invests in robots to monitor network United Utilities has announced that it has become the first water company in the UK to use Robotic Process Automation (RPA). The North-West water company has invested in 10 robots from software producer Blue Prism and worked with partners Deloitte to monitor its network for faults that could disrupt supply at peak times. The software robots monitor signals and alerts from the water network and automatically inform engineers to issues so that they can locate them and more efficiently fix them before they affect customers. The system will also streamline many of the company’s processes, enabling it to respond more efficiently to customers. Beyond fault detection, UU is already investigating a range of other purposes, including: • Helping to monitor reservoir levels, and water pressure in the network. • Significantly speeding up free home meter applications. • Introducing text messaging appointment reminders for customers. • Scheduling of daily domestic water samples from houses, to ensure the company continues to meet compliance obligations. William Hewish, Chief Information Officer at United Utilities, said: “Installing the software represented a significant investment in modernising UU’s water and wastewater network, which would result in many benefits to its customers and is an important part of our digital strategy. “Ofwat has talked about the water industry being an analogue industry operating in a digital world. We have listened to what they had to say and this is just one of the investments we are making in our strategy to become a digital company in a digital world. “We’re proud to become the first water company in the UK to introduce robots into our systems that can efficiently monitor our entire network at peak times, ensuring our customers benefit from the best possible service we can provide. “The software will enable us to respond much more quickly to problems in the network, which will reduce incidence of breaks in supply and other issues that cause inconvenience to our customers. “There are a host of different things that we can use the robots for to help us to provide an even better service, which is great news for the seven million customers we serve.” RPA is a process where mundane, repetitive and boring tasks are undertaken by robots, freeing up people to work on more complicated jobs that keep the network running more efficiently. Louise Beardmore, Customer Services and People Director at United Utilities, said: “Robotics provides us with lots of opportunities to automate tasks and activities that will make us more efficient at what we do and that’s better for everyone. “What’s more it allows the great people we employ more time to focus on delivering great customer service.” Martin Flood, EVP of Global Sales at Blue Prism, said: “Driving a true digital transformation requires more than merely automating or streamlining processes. United Utilities is integrating our Digital Workforce, with help from our partners at Deloitte, to improve operational efficiencies and enhance customer service, while not comprising on governance, security and compliance.” Duncan Barnes, Energy & Resources sector lead for Deloitte Digital in the UK, said: “The start of the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ is seeing increasing levels of automation of business processes, and ultimately the application of artificial intelligence to business decisions. The application of RPA and other digital technologies will radically transform the effectiveness of organisations that adopt them, with many of our clients already seeing the benefits of this. “It’s great to see United Utilities stepping forward to be part of this change – a clear signal to those who doubt the ability of the privatised water industry to invest in innovation. The new ground that this particular programme is breaking is in automating processes linked to the ‘OT’ (Operational Technology) network, as well as the IT network – and so driving the IT/OT integration agenda too. I’m delighted that Deloitte have been able to support them.” Page 8
  9. 9. Yorkshire Water uses VR gaming technology to design new treatment sites Engineers at Yorkshire Water are turning to virtual reality technology developed by The University of Sheffield to help design and visualise new treatment works which could help save the company £1million in design costs by 2020. The university’s Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) has developed virtual reality headsets that allows Yorkshire Water engineers to bring to life plans for new treatment works and other equipment. The technology is similar to that used by immersive game designers but with a manufacturing focus. VR Headset The cutting-edge technology is seen as a viable alternative to traditional modelling packages such as CAD as it allows for powerful interaction with conceptual design models. So far, it has saved Yorkshire Water £180,000 by not having to build real-life prototypes and instead enter a virtual reality world which engineers can walk around and check design plans. Nevil Muncaster, Director of Asset Management at Yorkshire Water, said: “Virtual reality is a brilliant way of communicating with all our stakeholders, providing an instantly recognisable visual experience that enables them to not only understand the design, but also to contribute to making it more efficient and effective. It takes a technical drawing and converts it into a powerful, immersive experience.” The AMRC’s mission is to help companies based in the UK introduce innovative technologies and the virtual reality technology has already helped the likes of Boeing and Mercedes-Benz. For Yorkshire Water, the technology will allow the firm to manufacture more equipment off-site that has been rigorously tested in a virtual environment, helping to improve construction accuracy and reducing on-site health and safety risks. Mike Lewis, Technical Lead at the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre, said: “At the end of this project, Yorkshire Water will have the equipment and the skills to be able to do this themselves. From there, we could work with them on more advanced systems, pulling in real-time data from sites that improve productivity and maintenance regimes. We could also develop augmented reality training systems, including health and safety, that take the same assets and use them to upskill the Yorkshire Water workforce of the future.” A detailed virtual reality model has already been made of Yorkshire Water’s Irton water treatment works in Scarborough which is in the process of having a £17.5 million upgrade. The virtual design has enabled engineers to check that everything fits where it is supposed to fit before it goes on site to ensure that operators and maintenance engineers have a site that is simple to run. Nevil Muncaster of Yorkshire Water added: “What we now have is an immersive experience that enables us to check all the interfaces; to check that everything fits where it is supposed to fit before it goes on site; to ensure that safety and efficiency are fully integrated into the design, to give our operators and maintenance engineers a plant that is easy to run. It is a step change in how we design our new engineering projects and has the potential to generate significant cost savings.” Less reliance on expensive physical prototypes will also help the form lower its carbon footprint by keeping design in the virtual, rather than the real world. Affinity Water customers can manage accounts via Amazon Alexa The UK’s largest water only supplier, Affinity Water has announced that customers can now manage their accounts via a new Alexa Skill for Amazon Echo devices including Echo and Echo Dot. The southeast water supplier is the first water provider to take advantage of the new technology which will help customers manage their account. When linked with Affinity Water’s online ‘My Account’ service, customers can ask Alexa for their account balance, find out when their last payment was and even ask for water saving tips. Customers with a meter can also use their Amazon Echo to submit a meter reading or find out their last one just by asking Alexa, helping them to stay in control of the water they use. Amanda Reynolds, Customer Relations Director at Affinity Water said: “This is an exciting leap forward for us. Our vision is to be the leading community-focussed water company and we’re transforming the ways we work with our customers and the services we provide to them. We’re investing in technology that will save customers time such as the Alexa Skill and the recently relaunched ‘My Account’ which helps customers manage their account online.” Peter Rowland, Chief Information Officer at Affinity Water commented: “Voice-activated services have begun to transform the customer experience –by launching our service on Alexa we can now offer our customers a seamless way to get the information they need.” The process for customers who want to start using the Affinity Water Skill is straightforward. Customers simply sign up to the Affinity Water ‘My Account’ at www.affinitywater.co.uk/myaccount. Customers can then enable the ‘Affinity Water’ Skill and link to their Affinity Water account through the Alexa app. Page 9
  10. 10. Live Environment Agency data helps Thames Water fill reservoirs Live data from the Environment Agency (EA) has helped Thames Water fill its large London reservoirs at the start of a wet 2018. The damp Christmas period and steady rain since has increased river levels in the Thames and Lee after what had been a drier than average year. Using live data transmitted from EA monitors which show precise depth levels, the company has been maximising how much water is pumped from the river without harming the environment. Data is accessed on an interactive map developed by Thames Water’s innovation team in collaboration with the system operators who liaise with the EA to manage abstraction. The information refreshes every 15 minutes to provide as close to real-time information as possible. Leo Kiernan, from Thames Water’s innovation team, said: “This tool has helped us to rapidly fill our reservoirs and protect water supplies for our customers for the immediate future, after what had been a very dry year. “We can now better identify opportunities to pump more water and boost reservoir levels when we need to, but also slow things down if the river gets too low. It has streamlined the process and optimised how we work. “We have always had a close working relationship with the Environment Agency to set abstraction rates, but this new tool means less information needs to be passed over the phone to check the depth levels in the river, and decisions are easier to make. We’re always looking into innovative new ways to be more efficient, and we’re delighted at how this has worked so far.” The greatest spike in water levels has been at the William Girling reservoir in north east London, which can store 16,511 million litres and feeds into the nearby Coppermills water works, which supplies 3.5 million people. It was down to 39 per cent full in mid-November but is now approaching a healthy 80 per cent capacity. The situation is similar at the company’s large reservoirs near Heathrow, which supply the majority of Londoners. The Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Mary and Wraysbury reservoirs had been severely depleted at the start of December but are now all above 95 per cent full. Stuart Hyslop, modelling and forecasting team leader from the Environment Agency, said: “We work with water companies to provide guidance on the amount of water that can be taken from rivers to ensure the environment is protected. “Following the recent rain in the south east, river flows have increased and many reservoirs have risen. This is welcome news following the dry autumn in this part of the country.” Southern Water trials smart sensors to monitor water quality Southern Water is trialling smart sensors to monitor water quality in Rownhams, Hampshire. The water company is trialling a network of over 100 sensors that monitor the quality of water in its pipelines, enabling it to observe water quality parameters from reservoirs to customer taps. The technology ensures Southern Water has an excellent understanding of, for example, why water may occasionally have slight discolouration so it can make improvements to customers’ water. The sensors can test for many parameters including colour, pH and chlorine. The smart sensors may also help predict leaks before they happen so the utility can resolve issues before they occur and minimise disruption for customers. Drew Brown, R&D Project Manager at Southern Water, said the water company is predicting that in ten years time, smart water networks will be the norm. Page 10
  11. 11. Optiqua and KCIE collaborate to supply real time water sensors for new South Korean smart cities Dutch-Singapore based water sensor supplier Optiqua Technologies and Korean water chemicals supplier firm KCIE Co Ltd announced their collaboration to bring Optiqua’s real time water quality sensors, EventLab and MiniLab, to the South Korean market. The companies report a growing demand for real time monitoring of drinking water quality in the light of expanding smart city programs in South Korean cities such as Paju, Sejong, Busan and Songsan. Chemical contaminants KCIE and Optiqua’s collaboration will introduce EventLab (on top photo), a real time sensor platform that can measure chemical contaminants in water immediately. It has a wide range of applications including the monitoring of water quality at treatment plants, monitoring of water quality in smart distribution networks and monitoring the water quality at intake points/surface water monitoring. The collaboration will also introduce MiniLab for sensitive and fast analysis of samples and the need to identify and quantify target contaminants on the spot. Minilab results are available within minutes and does not require specialized staff to operate. Smart network solutions Mr. David Yoo, President and Chairman of KCIE: ‘In addition to our current activities, we will be focusing on online water quality monitoring with the state of the art sensor solutions of Optiqua.’ Yoo: ‘For safe supply of drinking water, water quality needs to be monitored online at real time. Its unique characteristics make EventLab ideal for smart network solutions.’ Water security Melchior van Wijlen, Managing Director Optiqua said, ‘There is a strong interest in water quality in Korea, ranging from applications for smart water networks to environmental monitoring, water security and industrial water applications.’ Van Wijlen: ‘Our solutions are proven internationally and will allow us to bring impor- tant benefits to a wide range of water quality applications in this important market.’ Van Wijlen considers KCIE a strong partner, enabling Optiqua to provide Korean customers with smart water sensoring technology, as well as a strong service and support. Korean smart cities South Korean cities Sejong and Busan have been selected as smart city pilot locations for the next five years. Both cities are to include next-generation network, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), autonomous driving, smart grid and virtual reality. Sejong is to become the new administrative capital of South Korea, housing 36 ministries and government agencies and more than 10,000 civil servants. The idea is to create a more efficient government centre. Busan is to develop new smart urban technology within the concept of an eco-delta city. The city will built a new residential and business area that, in the centre, connects three rivers. The area is designed to include attractive water friendly features on the riversides. The water landscape is to connect nature, culture and leisure. Offline MiniLab that can measure the concentrations of eight high priority water pollutants within 15 minutes. Impression of eco-delta city area in Busan, South Korea, where smart water solutions will be used Page 11
  12. 12. Article: The journey towards smart water networks Part 1 The water industry is awash, pun intended, with talk of smart water networks and big data. The industry lives in a largely reactive world, an incident occurs, it is detected or, as more often the case, is reported by a member of the public, investigated and some time later controls are put in place to minimise the risk of a re-occurrence. This is a risky and costly way to run something as large and complex as a water distribution system. It is unimaginable that a large scale industrial manufacturing process of something like a soft drink or a pharmaceutical liquid would be run this way. Distribution systems are run this way because by and large there has been no alternative. Things are changing. The mass deployment of pressure and flow monitors and associated data logging and data transport devices has changed the way water companies think of big data. As recently as 10-15 years ago it would have been unimaginable that there would be 10’s of thousands of these devices in water distribution networks. Today it is unimaginable that a system could be operated and managed without them. Companies such as ABB have developed equipment and algorithms to use flow monitoring as an aid to detecting and locating leaks with case studies of reducing leakage with effective flow monitoring (click here) Deeper within networks at the DMA level Companies like Technolog have equipment, data transmission and data analysis that can be used to detect the smallest of events close to the customers almost in real time (click here) What about water quality monitoring as part of the journey towards smart networks? Here the story is more hit and miss. A distribution network is made of many thousands of kilometres of pipes that connect a water treatment plant (WTW) to a customer’s tap or facility inlet. In between production and consumption there are a variety of assets. Service reservoirs, pumping stations, control valves, pressure reducing valves (PRV), water flow meters, hydrants and boundary boxes. Any and all of these assets and the operation of them can and does affect water quality at the tap. Let’s look at two big water quality issues. In the UK the single biggest cause of customer dissatisfaction, as measured by the number of contacts, is discolouration. The second is taste and odour. What is the biggest provocation of discolouration events? It is, perhaps surprisingly to the uninitiated, actions that water companies undertake on their own networks. The most common is poorly executed valve operations. A valve adjusted incorrectly can cause pressure effects in the network that can dislodge material from pipe walls and lead to discolouration. Fully automated control valves from suppliers such as Rotork (click here ) and R2M are a great advance in minimising the risk of discolouration from valve operations. Replacing all manually operated valves would be an onerous and very expensive undertaking. This means there will always be some risk of self-induced discolouration events. The “normal” day to day or hour by hour changes in flow patterns inside the DMA’s in networks can also provoke discolouration. These are harder to prevent, demand will always follow patterns, but with on line measurement in place they are easier to predict and manage. Taste and odour is often associated with chlorine residuals and disinfection by products. Very little is known about chlorine residual in the network. Some water companies have residual chlorine measurement at the service reservoir level. Service reservoirs have been identified by the DWI as high risk assets. Flow patterns, mixing, streaming and ingress are just some of the factors can affect the level of residual chlorine as water moves through a reservoir. Deeper into the network at DMA and inter DMA level almost nothing is known about residual chlorine. How does demand affect residual chlorine? Are some parts of a system more prone to losing chlorine than others? Are there times of the day in some parts of the network when there is no chlorine in the water? Today those questions are unanswered. What does this mean? With little known about these key water quality parameters water companies are running the risk of delivering poor quality, and potentially unsafe, water to the customer. In summary the UK water industry is operating in a reactive mode with respect to its distribution systems. Even when monitors are deployed they are often used to gather data on known “trouble spots” or to investigate a part of system after an incident. There are many definitions of a smart water network. Definitions aside, for a network to be smart some of the features it must have or exhibit are: 1) Self-maintaining to some extent 2) Manageable 3) Resilient 4) Understanding the relationships between water quality and for example demand, flow, temperature 5) Predictability Page 12
  13. 13. If the UK water industry is indeed on a journey towards smart water networks what are some of the first steps that must be taken? Data collection on a massive scale is vital to gain an understanding of how the networks are performing now. Manual sampling at a few key points is simply put, incapable of delivering the type of data at a high enough frequency deliver meaningful insights into the dynamic interactions between the water and the network it is moving in. On line sensors must be used to gather data. For now this data can be historic. At this point on the journey we are trying to gain an understanding of how the network behaves. Historical data can be pumped into models and analysed. In the future, if the goal is a predictive world where incidents are managed or even better avoided, real time (or near real time) data will be needed. What must these sensors look like? How should they function? What type of features do they need? Amongst the list of things on that list are: 1. Small enough to be used even in hydrant chambers 2. Low powered to minimise energy usage and allow battery operation when needed 3. Have low or zero water usage 4. High reliability 5. “Good enough” accuracy 6. Low maintenance 7. Waterproof, submersible for long periods 8. Simple 9. Easy to install 10. Cheap to install 11. Reasonably priced to deliver data at a good relationship between cost and price Traditional water quality monitors tick almost none of the above boxes. Water usages of litres per minute and power consumptions of 5-10W are fairly typical. They also tend to be large and expensive to install. New sensors are coming on to the market which fulfil all or many of the above requirements. Sensors are only part, albeit an important one, of the story. Mass deployment of sensors is not something that most water companies or instrument manufacturers are capable of. If the goal is a smart water network the possible number of sensor location is huge. A typical water utility has hundreds of service reservoirs, hundreds of pumping stations, thousands of PRV and thousands of DMA’s. A daunting thought, but let’s remember, pressure and flow monitoring is carried out at similar sensor densities. There are companies with a lot of experience installing, calibrating and maintaining tens of thousands of sensors. The journey towards smart water networks will involve not only innovative technology, innovative business models will be fundamental to the outcome. Companies such as Hydrosave have decades of experience installing, calibrating and maintain sensors in water distribution networks. Sensor manufacturers will have to work hand in hand with installers to ensure that the sensors are correctly installed in the correct locations and subsequently maintained and calibrated. Logistics, work planning and scheduling will be almost as important the sensor itself. Once the sensors are installed and generating data what next? How will theses data stream be handled? The answer will depend on the customer. Long term it is possible that data will be moved into the cloud for analysis; some customers will want the data to be moved into their existing SCADA systems. Some companies are already making measurements at the DMA level. These measuring points are not connected to SCADA and there is no power source available. This throws up its own set of problems. Batteries never last as long as the manufacturer claims and using 4G to connect to the cloud is at best 90% reliable. Solutions exist. New technologies mean processors and hence instruments need less and less power whilst delivering more processing capabilities. Composite hydrant covers and marker posts with in built antennae improve the reliability of data transmission. It would seem that the stars are lining up and that water quality data within the networks can now be measured transmitted and analysed to deliver real value. In next month’s part 2 real case studies and data demonstrating the value of water quality monitoring will be presented. About the Author Michael Strahand has 25 years experience in building businesses that operate in the water industry, in both the clean and the wastewater treatment market. He is a PhD chemist who has the ability to apply that knowledge to solving process application problems. He has helped thousands of people in hundred of companies to optimise their processes working at all stages of the business from design, manufacture and application of on line instrumentation to the monitoring and control of processes, especially water processes. Through in depth knowledge and application of that knowledge he has earned the nickname Doctor Chlorine from both his customers and peers. He specializes in applying my in depth knowledge of chemistry to the application of sensors to the monitoring and control of water treatment and waste water treatment processes and building sales organisation businesses based on this. Page 13
  14. 14. Smart pumping applications are designed to adjust the speed of a pump to compensate for changing process conditions or plant requirements. To accomplish this, they typically use adjustable speed drives to control pump speed; smart valves to control flow; pump controllers ranging from on-board microprocessors to PLCs, PACs and DCSes and—of course—smart instruments. For instrumentation, a smart pumping system (Figure 1) needs flow, pressure and temperature devices that are reliable, accurate, able to detect process conditions that can cause problems, and able to predict when maintenance is needed. Several instrument manufacturers offer various types of “smart instruments,” and their approaches vary. In this article, we’ll cover how Endress+Hauser flow sensors with Heartbeat Technology provide the kind of information needed to implement smart pumping. What’s a Smart Instrument? Smart instruments provide a great deal of information to an automation system, in contrast to standard instruments which only provide a 4-20mA output proportional to the process variable. This article will focus on smart instruments, and we’ll drop the “smart” prefix going forward. A flow transmitter, for example, typically provides a flow signal and a variety of status and diagnostic information. A Coriolis flowmeter not only sends a flow signal, it can also send data on temperature, mass, density or even viscosity. This data is typically sent via fieldbus or a 4-20mA signal with HART. Some instruments take the smart concept even further. Not only do they send a signal for flow or pressure with diagnostic information, their built-in electronics continuously monitor device and process health to provide timely information with suggested remedies when problems occur. In pumping applications, such an instrument doesn’t tell operators there’s a problem with a pump, but it does say when it detects conditions that can lead to pump problems. For example, the Endress+Hauser Proline flowmeter can detect entrained air, vibration (which could be caused by pump cavitation), coating, corrosion, and inhomogeneous or unsuitable media. All of these could negatively affect the pump and its performance. The flowmeter can also diagnose itself for problems with its electronics or subcomponents. When process conditions warrant it (Figure 2), the flowmeter will generate an event message. The diagnostics and error reporting are accomplished with Endress+Hauser’s Heartbeat Technology, which is built into the flowmeter. No external software is required. While every instrument manufacturer’s diagnostics differ, each typically monitors internal parameters, observes changes, and diagnoses problems. For ex- ample, Proline Coriolis flowmeters can monitor oscillation damping and frequency, temperature, signal asymmetry, exciter current, carrier pipe temperature, frequency fluctuation and other parameters. Changes in these parameters indicate potential problems. For example, a deviation in the frequency fluctuation is an indicator of rapidly changing process conditions such as gas present in a liquid fluid, while drift in oscillation damping can be caused by the formation of coating or build-up—or by fouling, corrosion or abrasion. Heartbeat Technology can also generate a Heartbeat Sensor Integrity (HBSI) parameter using Heartbeat Verification. This parameter represents the relative change of the entire sensor, with all its electrical, mechanical and electromechanical components. The reference HBSI is set at the factory when the flowmeter is calibrated. Any deviation between the calculated HBSI and the reference HBSI indicates a change in the sensor which can be caused by excessive mechanical or thermal strain on the sensor, increased wear from corrosion or abrasion, multi-phase fluids, wet gases, the formation of build up in the measuring tube, or other conditions. Article: Smart Instruments Enable Improved Pumping Figure 1. With smart pumping, cascading pumps from large reservoirs ensure required flow rates are achieved reliably and efficiently based on system demand. Figure2. Typical errors that can be generated by a Proline flowmeter, which can detect up to 125 different problems. Page 14
  15. 15. Whenever a deviation occurs in the HBSI, built-in intelligence examines changes in all the parameters, determines the probable cause, and sends an alarm or warning message to the operator. A Proline flowmeter has a choice of outputs—including 4-20mA with HART, EtherNet/IP and PROFINET—and Proline 300 and 500 devices can also have a WLAN enabled display. The pump control system can get the Heartbeat diagnostics, monitoring information and alarm messages via any preferred communication protocol. In addition, operators or maintenance technicians can see the diagnostics on the display of the meter, or on their laptop, smartphone or tablet via the WLAN connection. Minimizing Maintenance Smart pumping systems depend on accurate data from flow transmitters, so each instrument must be able to detect when it is in need of verification or recalibration. In some industries, such as water recovery, flowmeters have to be verified at regular intervals. Verification has to be performed by a qualified third party with an accepted inspection method based on quality regulations such as ISO 9001, and a test report needs to be provided for documented proof of evidence. Verification can be done in the field as a manual process with a verification tool and a simulation box. During field verification, the transmitter is opened to the atmosphere, and the meter cannot be used for measurement and control of the process for the duration of the test. External verification must be performed by a trained technician, and the verification tool itself is defined by ISO 9001 as test equipment, which means that it must periodically undergo traceable calibration. Some plants do not have the capability to manually verify a flowmeter, or do not want to shut the pumping system (Figure 3) down to accomplish it. If a plant doesn’t have internal capability, a third-party firm must be hired to verify the meter, or the meter must be removed from service and sent to an offsite calibration facility. Modern flowmeters have integrated verification into the device itself, so that verification does not require a skilled technician, removal of the instrument or a process shutdown. For example, Proline flowmeters from Endress+Hauser have integrated self-verification that can be initiated from the pump control system at any time. During flowmeter verification, the current conditions of various parameters are compared with their reference values, thereby determining the device status. Heartbeat Technology produces a “pass” or a “fail” statement based on the tests, which is performed by traceable and redundant internal references. The individual tests and test results are automatically recorded in the flowme- ter and used to print a verification report. A traceable and redundant reference, contained in the verification system of the device, is used to ensure reliability of results. In the case of an electromagnetic flowmeter, this is a voltage reference, which provides a second, independent reference value. Integrated self-monitoring replaces the need for external test equipment only if it is based on factory traceable and redundant references, as with the Proline flowmeters. The reliability and independence of the testing method is ensured by traceable calibration of the references at the factory, and by the constant monitoring of the flowmeter’s long-term stability during the lifecycle of the product. The verification procedure for Endress+Hauser flowmeters typically takes less than five minutes. If the flowmeter has a permanent Ethernet or other digital bus connection to the pump control system, the procedure can be performed remotely from a PC located in the maintenance department or the plant’s control room, or from the control system. If the verification procedure determines that the flowmeter needs maintenance or re-calibration, Heartbeat Technology notifies the plant operators. Summary Smart instruments ensure that reliable, accurate data is always provided to a smart pumping system. When problems arise in the process or the instrument itself, the smart instrument notifies the pumping system controller and makes a recommendation. And, with automatic self-verification, the plant will know when an instrument needs to be removed for maintenance or re-calibration, and can remain in compliance with regulations. All this ensures reliable operation and minimum maintenance. Figure3. This smart pumping application in UV disinfection uses smart instruments to monitor flow control and pump speed to ensure water is passing through the system at precise rates to guarantee quality. About the Author Nathan Hedrick has more than seven years of experience consulting on process automation. He graduated from Rose-Hulman in 2009 with a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering. He began his career with Endress+Hauser in 2009 as a Technical Support Engineer. In 2014, Nathan became the Technical Support Team Manager for Flow where he was responsible for managing the technical support team covering the flow product line. He has recently taken on the position of Flow Product Marketing Manager. Page 15
  16. 16. Article: Online Hexavalent Chromium Remediation Introduction When you think of Hexavalent Chromium you think of the film Erin Brockovich, and you think of a water supply contaminant which has been responsible for many problems in human health. Hexavalent chromium compounds are genotoxic carcinogens. Due to its structural similarity to sulfate, chromate (a typical form of chromium(VI) at neutral pH) is transported into cells via sulfate channels. Inside the cell, hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) without the aid of any enzymes. The reduction occurs via direct electron transfer primarily from ascorbate and some nonprotein thiols.[5] Vitamin C and other reducing agents combine with chromate to give chromium(III) products inside the cell.[5] The resultant chromium(III) forms stable complexes with nucleic acids and proteins. This causes strand breaks and Cr-DNA adducts which are responsible for mutagenic damage.[5] According to Shi et al., the DNA can also be damaged by hydroxyl radicals produced during reoxidation of pentavalent chromium by hydrogen peroxide molecules present in the cell, which can cause double-strand breakage. There are mainly three types of methods to remediate hexavalent chromium in ground water and drinking water: 1. reduction of toxicity, 2. removal technologies 3. containment technologies Reduction of toxicity of hexavalent chromium involves methods using chemicals, microbes and plants. Some removal technologies include transporting contaminated soil offsite to a landfill, using ion exchange resins to reduce chromium(VI) concentrations to less than detectable limit and granular activated carbon (GAC) filter. Containment technologies can be employed with the use of physical barriers such as grouts, slurries or sheet piling. Attempts have been made to test the removal or reduction of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions and environment. For example, a research study conducted by the School of Industrial Technology, University Sains Malaysia in 2010 found that chitosan coated with poly 3-methyl thiophene can be effectively employed for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solutions. Chitosan is a very cheap, economical, and environmentally friendly substrate for coating of this polymer. Adsorption of chromium(VI) is found to be effective in the lower pH range and at higher temperatures and subsequent desorption is readily achieved upon alkaline treatment of the adsorbent. Another study done by the American Industrial Hygiene Association indicates that the airborne hexavalent chromium in acidic mists of an electroplating tank collected on PVC filters was reduced over time after mist generation. A number of other emerging technologies for removing chromium from water are also currently under research, including the use of cationic metal-organic frameworks to selectively adsorb chromium oxyanions. New data on the efficacy of stannous chloride (SnCl2) to treat Cr(VI) released in Autumn of 2016 highlighted the methodology as an economical treatment approach with the potential to significantly reduce the capital, operations, and maintenance costs of chromium remediation compared to Best Available Technologies (BATs) which have been surrounded by controversy over their high capital and operating costs. Research has shown the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by both stannous chloride and ferrous ions to be highly effective. However, conventional stannous rea- gent dosing methodology is not without disadvantages. Stannous salt solutions are a highly corrosive, toxic, and hazardous reagent requiring special shipping, storage, and handling. The reagent has a limited shelf life due to its chemical instability and once expired, it must be disposed of safely. Due to the high density, viscosity, and acidity of stannous salt solutions, the reagent may also require a complex delivery system design and control. All combined, conventional dosing approaches for stannous reagents are associated with high capital and operational costs. An innovative approach to generate a stannous ion reagent1 in-situ via an electrolytic process, SafeGuard™ H2O, has been developed by Aqua Metrology Systems (AMS). The SafeGuard H2O system also features an online Cr(VI) monitoring analyzer for real-time monitoring for the control, optimization, and treatment of Cr(VI). The fully integrated SafeGuard H2O online Cr(VI) remediation system eliminates the pitfalls of conventional dosing and aids in the delivery of an affordable and reliable Cr(VI) remediation process. The SafeGuard H20 System The AMS online Cr(VI) analyzer was the first fully automated, online multi-stream Cr(VI) analyzer commercially available to monitor drinking and wastewater. The online Cr(VI) monitor uses a self-calibrated voltammetric detector specifically developed to allow selective determination for hexavalent and total chromium down to 1 ppb. The analyzer features a robust and stable design that is capable of maintaining its sensitivity and calibrated status for an unlimited timeframe while operating reliably regardless of sample matrix conditions. The monitor evaluates multiple process streams and produces results in as little as 3 minutes. The monitor operates fully unattended and continuously, 24/7, delivering between 45 and 50 analytical readings per day. The online Cr(VI) monitor technology has been used at several Cr(VI) treatment sites in California (e.g. Coachella Valley, Watsonville, and Citrus Heights) to support cities and engineers in their performance evaluation of Cr(VI) remediation and treatment plants (e.g. RCOF, SnCl2 ). The monitor provides a high frequency of reliable data on influent and effluent Cr(VI) levels which helps to monitor critical process steps and aid in remediation process control and optimization. As part of their work with Cr(VI) treatment sites, AMS supported the evaluation of SnCl2 as a potential lower cost chemical reagent for treating the contaminant. Based on the results of these studies, industry peer observations, and the extensive experience of senior scientists at AMS, the company believes thatcertain characteristics of the traditional SnCl2 reagent make it unsuitable for treating Cr(VI) in a consistent and predictable manner. As a result AMS designed the SafeGuard H2O, a patent-pending online Cr(VI) remediation system that generates a stannous ion reagent in-situ via an electrolytic process Page 16
  17. 17. and also features an online Cr(VI) monitoring analyzer. SafeGuard H2O is a patent-pending online Cr(VI) remediation system that generates a stannous ion reagent in-situ via an electrolytic process and also features an online Cr(VI) monitoring analyzer. SafeGuard H2O generates a stannous ion reagent on demand using non-toxic, food grade reagent precursor material. As a result, there is no shelf life of the reagent and operational costs are drastically reduced since shipping and handling of a hazardous solution are eliminated. The system has built in online sensors to monitor influent water quality parameters and an online Cr(VI)/Total Cr/Tin monitoring system — a unique feature not offered by other Cr(VI) remediation technologies. Whereas other Cr(VI) remediation systems such as SnCl2 are operated based on data from manual sampling and analysis, the SafeGuard H2O system has a highly accurate and reliable stannous ion dosing process because of the real-time Cr(VI)/Total Cr/Tin data provided every thirty minutes by the online trace metals analyzer. The fully integrated Cr(VI) remediation system generates a stannous ion reagent onsite, and Cr(VI) levels are measured in real-time to ensure the efficacy of the SafeGuard H2O system. Data generated from the onboard Cr monitoring system helps drive a highly accurate remediation process by ensuring reliable reagent dosing control through manipulation of site-specific process parameters since real time adjustments to process parameters can be made and then reported to the main control system. Remote access capability allows system performance monitoring 24/7 by AMS. In the standard process design of the SafeGuard H2O system, contaminated water flow is split into two streams, a main stream and a reagent generation stream, with a relative flow ratio of up to 99:1. Online sensors continuously monitor incoming water parameters including pH, conductivity, and chromate. A stannous ion reagent generator is installed inline with the reagent generation stream and controlled by an automated galvanostat (amperostat). Galvanostat maintains a certain electric current sufficient to generate a stannous ion reagent into the stream at targeted levels, according to incoming Cr(VI) contaminant levels and flowrate. A stannous ion reagent is continuously produced and delivered by waterflow to the main water stream where it is mixed and further reacts with Chromate reducing it into Cr(III) in the contactor vessel. An online Cr/Tin monitoring system continuously analyzes Tin and Chromate levels at critical process steps and reports the results to the main control system. Tin dosing is adjusted according to real time process data, ensuring a high level of system automation and integrity. Treated water proceeds to the storage tank where it can either be incorporated into a water blending scheme or discharged for public consumption. The process flow diagram for a standard SafeGuard H2O system design is detailed in Figure 2. SafeGuard H2O Pilot Study A SafeGuard H2O demonstration unit was installed at Los Banos Well #14 for a two-week demonstration period (11-22 December 2017). In addition to elevated Cr(VI) levels of 40 ppb, the characteristics of source water for Los Banos Well #14 includes high levels of uranium, conductivity and hardness. The demonstration evaluated the SafeGuard H2O system’s performance for consistently treating Cr(VI) below 10 ppb under extremely challenging water Figure 1: SafeGuard™ H2O Online Cr(VI) Remediation System Demonstration Unit Figure 2- SafeGuard™ H2O Online Cr(VI) Remediation System Standard Process Diagram Page 17
  18. 18. conditions. Due to water characteristics unique to Los Banos Well #14, pH adjustment and additional contact time (mixing chamber) were not required. As a result, a simpler SafeGuard H2O process was used for the City of Los Banos. The process flow diagram of the SafeGuard H2O demonstration unit tested at the Los Banos Well #14 facility is detailed in Figure 3. Water quality is of paramount importance to the efficiency and effective operation of water treatment technologies. The water quality parameters of Las Banos Well #14 are noted in Figure 4. In addition to elevated Cr(VI) levels of 40 ppb, the facility has extremely challenging water quality due to high levels of uranium, conductivity and hardness in their source water. This type of water composition is particularly problematic for ion exchange, and zerovalent Cr(VI) remediation technologies and excellent for detailing the efficacy of the SafeGuard H2O system. The SafeGuard H2O system automatically treats incoming raw water flow by injecting targeted stannous reagent levels into the stream. Influent and effluent Cr(VI) levels were analyzed by online and manual samples. Aqua Metrology Systems’ SafeGuard Cr(VI) monitor (0.5 ppb Quantitation Limit), that is integrated into the SafeGuard H2O system, analyzes treated water samples online in near real-time of 5-6 minutes (0 h). Following a 24 hour delay (24 h), the samples are then reanalyzed at Aqua Metrology Systems’ lab using another SafeGuard Cr(VI) monitor. In addition to analyzing online samples taken in real time, the SafeGuard Cr(VI) accepts manually collected samples via a grab sample port for analysis. Manual water samples were split, preserved, and sent to certified analytical laboratory three times per week for third party analysis of the samples. Manual sampling was used to further validate performance of the SafeGuard H2O system against standard laboratory analysis (EPA Method 218.6 Practical Quantitation Limit 0.2 ppb). BC Laboratories (BC Labs), a certified third party laboratory, undertook analysis of the manual samples for the duration of the demonstration period. The SafeGuard H2O system was commissioned 11 December 2017 and the demonstration project concluded on 22 December 2017. The treatment objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate the SafeGuard H2O system’s ability to consistently generate targeted stannous reagent levels (0.25-100 ppm) into the raw water stream. Other objectives included: • Study efficiency of hexavalent chromium conversion into trivalent form • Investigate Tin-chromium reaction kinetics at different stannous/chromate ratios • Optimization of the reagent generation parameters and reagent dose In the study raw well water was continuously treated by in-situ generated stannous reagent (1.0 ppm dose). Six samples of treated water were collected on 11 December 2017 and 13 December 2017 and immediately analyzed for Cr(VI) using the online SafeGuard monitor at site within 5-6 minutes after sampling (SG 0 h) and then again at 24 hours later at Aqua Metrology Systems’ lab (SG 24 h) on another SafeGuard Cr(VI) monitor. One representative sample from each daily series was split, preserved and delivered to third party certified lab (BC Labs) for further Cr(VI) analysis. The residual Cr(VI) results from the 12 field samples that were analyzed by the online SafeGuard Monitor (SG) monitor and BC Labs are shown in Figure 5. Immediately after sample collection (SG 0 h Data) hexavalent chromium residuals levels were 2-3 ppb. However, within 24 hours Cr(VI) levels decreased to 1-2 ppb (SG 24 h Data) Hexavalent chromium results obtained in two split samples by the third party certified laboratory (BC Labs) were under the detection range (below 0.2 ppb). Some additional decrease in residual hexavalent chromium levels in treated raw samples indicates ongoing reduction process after sampling. Low residual hexavalent chromium levels detected by the SafeGuard monitor as well as BC Labs indicates a high hexavalent chromium conversion efficiency Conversion efficiency (η) calculated using (1). η (%) = (CInf -CEff /CInf )x100 (1) CInf – concentration of hexavalent chromium in influent; CEff - concentration of hexavalent chromium in effluent (6 test average) Figure 3: SafeGuard H2o System used in Los Banos Figure 4: Water Quality parameters at Los Banos Figure 5: Residual Cr(VI) levels in treated raw water determined by online SafeGuard™ monitor and by EPA Method 218.6 Page 18
  19. 19. Hexavalent chromium conversion kinetics (rate) is represented as fraction of converted Cr(VI) related to the initial level in untreated raw water as a function of reaction (contact) time. The SafeGuard H2O system was set to generate stannous reagent into raw water flow at 1.0 ppm and 0.5 ppm. Treated water samples were collected and analyzed on the online SafeGuard Cr(VI) analyzer at 3-, 10- and 15-minute intervals. The minimal time required for testing on the SafeGuard analyzer is 3 .minutes. Results are shown in figure 6 .The hexavalent chromium conversion reaction rate is fast. At the 1.0 ppm reagent dose rate over 90% of initial Cr(VI) levels can be converted into trivalent form within a 3 minute contact time. At the 0.5 ppm reagent dose rate approximately 88% of initial Cr(VI) converted into trivalent form during a 3 minute contact time. There was an insignificant effect on conversion reaction at both dosing levels (1.0 ppm, 0.5 ppm) when the contact time was increased to 15 minutes. For the duration of the trial period important process parameters, such as reagent generation efficiency, water flow, and reagent dosing were studied and optimized. The highest reagent generation efficiency and reagent- contaminant reaction rate occurred with a stannous generation rate of 50-100 mg/min at given (3 l/min) treated water flow. The SafeGuard H2O system performance under optimal conditions is detailed in Figure 7. At the 1.0 and 0.75 ppm reagent dose rates, the online SafeGuard Cr(VI) monitor detected trace levels of residual hexavalent chromium while outside lab results (BC Labs) were under the detection range. These low residual Cr(VI) contaminant levels indicate a high efficiency (over 90%) of the conversion process from Cr(VI) to the trivalent form. High kinetics of Cr(VI) conversion reaction were confirmed in under five minutes from the treated water sample collection to the SafeGuard analyzer displaying results. Decreasing the reagent dose rate down to 0.5 ppm resulted in a lower conversion efficiency, approximately 90%. At a stannous reagent dose of 0.25 ppm, data from the online SafeGuard analyzer and BC Labs support a conversion efficiency of less than 50 %. Conclusion Aqua Metrology Systems has supported the evaluation of SnCl2 as a potential lower cost chemical reagent for treating Cr(VI) contamination through studies at remediation sites. AMS believes that certain characteristics of the traditional SnCl2 reagent make it unsuitable for treating Cr(VI) in a consistent and predictable manner. As a result, AMS designed the patent-pending SafeGuard H2O, an online Cr(VI) remediation system that generates a stannous ion reagent in-situ via an electrolytic process and also features an online Cr(VI) monitoring analyzer. The SafeGuard H2O demonstration unit installed at Los Banos Well #14 underwent a two-week demonstration (11-22 December 2017). The demonstration was a success; the SafeGuard H2O system consistently generated targeted stannous reagent levels (0.25-100 ppm) into the raw water stream. The novel SafeGuard H2O system successfully demonstrated the ability to efficiently generate stannous reagent into contaminated well water source and to convert hexavalent chromium into trivalent form with high efficiency and stability. The performance of the SafeGuard H2O system was monitored in real-time using the automated SafeGuard Chromium monitor, a feature that contributed to fast system set up and optimization. Analytical data from the online method and laboratory showed good agreement, further validating the ability of the SafeGuard H2O system to monitor the Cr(VI) remediation process in real-time. The experimental results suggest a high probability for the scalability of the SafeGuard H2O system for point-of-supply systems and point-of-entry systems. Full-scale evaluation is required Figure 6: Hexavalent chromium conversion rate obtained with 1.0 and 0.5 ppm stannous reagent dose plotted vs reaction time Figure 7: Residual Cr(VI) levels in treated raw water determined by SafeGuard™ Monitor and by EPA Method 218.6 Aqua Metrology Systems, Ltd., (AMS) was founded in 2007 under the belief that real-time water quality analysis is essential to environmental protection. The company’s mission is to develop and commercialize online, real-time analytical solutions for regulated contaminants in drinking water, process water and wastewater. AMS is a leader in online analytical instrumentation for the determination of water contaminants, specifically disinfection by-products (THMs) and trace metals (Arsenic, Chromium-6, Selenium), across municipal and industrial markets. The ability to mitigate the environmental impact of these contaminants is made possible through the use of our online water quality analyzers. Page 19
  20. 20. March 2018 WEX Global 12-14th March 2018 Lisbon, Portugal Hosted by WEX Global Latest Developments in Water Sensors 7th March 2018 Cambridge, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group 9th Global Water Leakage Summit 13th -14th March 2018 London, UK Hosted by London Business Conferences WWT Smart Water Networks 20th March 2018 Birmingham, UK Hosted by WWT April 2018 Sensors for Water & Wastewater Maintenance 18th April 2018 Manchester, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group Smart Water Systems 25th-26th April 2018 London, UK Hosted by SMi Group May 2018 Condition Based Monitoring TBC May 2018 TBC Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group SWAN 2018 21st-22nd May 2018 Barcelona, Spain Hosted by Smart Water Networks Forum November 2018 Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring 21st-22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by International Labmate Page 20 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events Conferences Coming Soon Latest Developments in Water Sensors Where: Clare College, Cambridge When: 7th March 2018 Physical and chemical sensors are at the heart of virtually all measurement systems. Amongst the most popular for water monitoring applications are temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour and pH. During the past decades, they have become smaller, more rugged and stable, leading to better reliable systems. Also during this time, significant advances have been made in the measurement of species such as trace metals, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and E. coli, using electrochemical and optical techniques. This workshop will highlight developments and improvements to sensors and sensing technologies, with emphasis on, but not exclusively, these latter, chemical, materials. WEX Global 2018 Where: Lisbon, Portugal When: 12th -14th March 2018 WEX GLOBAL is an action oriented summit which places business meetings at its heart. A programme of pre-selected mutually agreed one to one meetings are combined with an outstanding conference of internationally renowned expert speakers and numerous other networking opportunities such as themed lunches, a gala dinner and other receptions. It is a unique opportunity to form strong international business partnerships at a single exclusive location. Every delegate receives a personalised agenda which means that at WEX, you will shorten your sales cycle with a top down selling approach that initiates relationships directly with senior decision makers. 9th Global Water Leakage Summit Where: London, UK When: 13th -14th March 2018 Regarded as the world’s premier water leakage summit, The Global Leakage Summit features the most innovative and successful examples of delivering and maintaining reduced leakage levels across the world. Returning for its 9th year, the 2018 speaker line-up will include water network practitioners from Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, Jordan, Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Singapore and Malaysia, while the UK water industry is represented by: Affinity Water, Anglian Water, Bristol Water, Dwr Cymru Welsh Water, Northumbrian Water, SES Water, Severn Trent Water, South East Water, South West Water, Thames Water and Yorkshire Water.
  21. 21. Circular Economy Strategies for Water & Energy 13–14 MARCH 2018 | LISBON, PORTUGAL Kick off next spring with a visit to beautiful and lively Lisbon to attend the eleventh WEX Global Summit: Circular Economy Strategies for Water & Energy. The World Economic Forum’s 2016 global risk report emphasised ‘the potential for climate change to exacerbate water crises.’ WEX Global 2018 will shine a light into the future, and bring together world-leading experts and practitioners to make sense of a fast-changing environment, where continuous innovation and knowledge- sharing become essential. Forward-looking institutions, companies and stakeholders are invited to join this trailblazing summit, to determine how to grow and strategise the circular economy. WHAT IS WEX GLOBAL? WEX, the water and energy exchange, occupies a unique place in the water conference calendar. Business meetings and conversation lie at the heart of WEX, along with the principle of ‘exchange’: the exchange of ideas and philosophies, of business cards, of solutions, and of methodologies, to form strong networks on which to build. Get in touch to discuss the different options available for attendance! SPEAKERS 2018 With more than 30x countries represented to date and counting, WEX hosts speakers from both commercial and technical backgrounds, working across the public and private sectors. Meet directors or equivalent from companies including the following live at WEX:- MEDIA PARTNERS • Acciona • Aguas de Portugal • Algerian Energy Company • Aegea Saneamento e Participacoes SA • APG-Neuros • Aquasave • Asian Water • Azersu JSC • Bishkek Vodokanal • Budapest Waterworks • City of Cincinnati • Cole Engineering • Czech Water (VAKHB) • EBRD • EPAL Grupo Aguas de Portugal • eWater Consult • FCC Aqualia, Future Water Association • GEA Westfalia • Ghana Water Company • GKW Consult • Government of Jamaica • Headworks • Hydrolia • IBRD • Intqual-Pro • Islamic Development Bank • Isle Utilities • KFW • Krevox • King Saud University • L’Oreal • Metropolitana Milanese • Ministry Of Finance – Egypt • Ministry of the Environment – Poland • Nairobi Water & Sewerage Company • National Water Commission (Jamaica) • NWWEC – Iran • ONEE • Prishtina RWC • PUC Belgrade Waterworks • Royal Haskoning DHV • SC Apa Canal SA Sibiu • SEDIF • SEWA • Sonede • South East Water • Southern Water • Suez • Caribbean Development Bank • United Utilities • Utico • WRC • Yorkshire Water …and more being added every day! +44 (0)5603 683104 info@wex-global.com www.wex-global.com “WEX is a tremendous event because you get such high quality people with intensive interaction, and you have time to have in depth conversations with everyone.” Frank Rogalla, Director of Innovation & Technology, Aqualia PLATNIUM GOLD SILVER Page 21

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