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Growth and maintenance in respiration

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Growth and maintenance in respiration

  3. 3. RESPIRATION Oxidation of organic substances to CO2 and water Can be divided into 3 groups :  Autotrophic respiration / plant respiration.  Heterotrophic respiration / soil respiration.  Photorespiration.
  4. 4. Diagram 1: Autotrophic respiration and Heterotrophic respiration
  6. 6. AUTOTROPHIC Capable of self-nourishment Requires only minerals for growth Uses carbonate or carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and simple inorganic nitrogen as a nitrogen sourceSources: GNU Websters 1913
  7. 7. HETEROTROPHIC Not self-sustaining Dependent upon others for food. Requires organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishmentSources: Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia and WordNet 3.0
  8. 8. PHOTORESPIRATION Oxidation of carbohydrates in plants with the release of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Happens on hot dry days when a plant is forced to close its stomata to prevent excess water loss.Sources: American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
  10. 10. AUTOTROPHIC RESPIRATION Respiration: Oxidation of organic substances to CO2 and water Defined as loss of photosynthetically fixed carbon lost by internal plant metabolism Byproduct are ATP and NADPH
  11. 11. AUTOTROPHIC RESPIRATION Common chemical equation of autotrophic respiration for glucose is: C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + energy The autotrophic respiration consists of: • Growth Respiration • Maintenance Respiration
  12. 12. AUTOTROPHIC RESPIRATION Diagram 2: Tree Growth and Maintenance Diagram
  14. 14. GROWTH RESPIRATION Growth - refers to the biosynthesis process within a growing organ and related phloem transport, excluding mineral uptake and nitrogen reduction Includes the carbon cost of synthesizing new tissue from glucose and minerals used for growth Rate for various tissue differs depends on the their compositions.
  15. 15. GROWTH RESPIRATION Repair of injured tissue increase maintenance respiration above basal rate.
  16. 16. Diagram 3: Respiration cycle of plant
  18. 18. MAINTENANCE RESPIRATION Refers to the CO2 released, or O2 consumed, during basal rate of metabolism of usable energy used for:  Resynthesis of compounds that undergo renewal  Maintenance of chemical gradients of ions and metabolites across cellular membranes  Operation of metabolic processes involved in physiological adjustment to a change in the plants environment
  19. 19. MAINTENANCE RESPIRATION Temperature is the most important environmental factor affecting maintenance respiration The metabolic costs of the repair of injury from stress (biotic/abiotic) also considered as part of maintenance respiration Essential for biological health and growth of plants, sustain living tissues.
  20. 20. MAINTENANCE RESPIRATION Key component of most physiologically based mathematical models of plant growth, includes:  models of crop growth and yield  models of ecosystem primary production and carbon balance
  21. 21. Diagram 4: Example of Autotrophic Respiration of plant
  22. 22. CONCLUSION
  23. 23. CONCLUSION In sense of learning growth and maintenance respiration in crop physiology, we can:  Learn mechanism used by plants to grow and maintain its growth  Learn and predict the life cycle of a specific plant  How to maintain a specific plant growth to increase its yield as well as its yield production longevity (important for economic crop producers)
  24. 24. REFERENCES
  25. 25. REFERENCESBOOKS: Julian Evans ,The Forests Handbook, An Overview of Forest Science (Google Books), pg. 195 – 196. J. J. Landsberg, S. T. Gower, Applications Of Physiological Ecology To Forest Management (Google Books), pg. 139 – 140. James I. L. Morison, Michael D. Morecroft, Plant Growth And Climate Change (Google Books), pg. 197 – 198. Richard H. Waring, S. W. Running, Forest Ecosystems: Analysis At Multiple Scales (Google Books), pg. 67 – 69. Christopher The, Introduction To Mathematical Modeling Of Crop Growth (Google Books), pg. 144
  26. 26. REFERENCES Theodore Thomas Kozlowski, Stephen G. Pallardy, Growth Control in Woody Plants (Google Books), pg. 96 – 97. Yin Xinyou, H. H. van Laar, Crop Systems Dynamics (Google Books), pg. 20. Hans Lambers, Francis Stuart Chapin (III.), Francis Stuart Chapin, Thijs Leendert Pons, Plant Physiological Ecology, Pg. 134 – 136.INTERNET: Peter Kolb, University of Montana, 5 October 2011, Tree Biology, Definitions of biological terms as well as its citation;
  27. 27. REFERENCESJOURNALS: Michael G. Ryan, Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, 30 August 1989, Growth and Maintenance Respiration In Stems Of Pinus controta and Picea engelmannii, Pg. 48 – 57 Markus Lötscher, Katja Klumpp and Hans Schnyder, Plant Science Department, Technische Universität München, Am Hochanger 1, D-85350 Freising- Weihenstephan, Germany, Growth And Maintenance Respiration For Individual Plants In Hierarchically Structured Canopies Of Medicago sativa And Helianthus annuus : The Contribution Of Current And Old Assimilates
  28. 28. THANK YOU