Dr. Nuha M. Malkawi
Thyroid gland The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the n...
Thyroid gland The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormone, which is secreted into the blood and then carried to every tis...
Thyroid gland Functions:  <ul><li>The thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid ho...
Thyroid gland Functions:  <ul><li>The thyroid gland  Regulate body  temperature and weight. affects body growth   </li></u...
Thyroid gland The thyroid gland is composed of a mass of hollow spheres or  follicles . Each follicale has a lining one ce...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion <ul><li>Dietary  iodine (I + )  is absorbed in the GI tract, then taken ...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion <ul><li>Iodide (I - )  taken up by the thyroid gland is oxidized by pero...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion First (Iodide oxidation):  Iodide (I - )  taken up by the thyroid gland ...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Second (Iodination) Iodide react with the tyrosine that is an integral p...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Second (Iodination) Tyrosine  binding with two atoms produces diiodotyro...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Third (Coupling) The molecules must be combined to create the hormones
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Fourth (Pinocytosis) The thyroid hormones are stored with the thyroglobu...
Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Finally (Secretion) The hormones are separated from the thyroglobulin an...
Biosynthesis and Secretion
 
Transport <ul><li>T3 & T4 leave the thyroid gland by  diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Both are transported in blood by  three ...
Their Functions <ul><li>Most probably to ensure a  constant supply  of thyroid hormone to the cells and tissues by prevent...
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation The thyroid gland concentrates iodine that the body absorbs from various foods t...
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation Increased levels of T3 and T4 prompt the hypothalamus to slow down the productio...
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation Decreasing levels , our hypothalamus to produce (TRH), which will signal the pit...
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Blood tests to measure TSH, T4 and T3 are readily available and widely used
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Antibody Tests  <ul><li>Two common antibodies that cause thyroid problems are...
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Antibody Tests  Thyroid antibody test is usually ordered for patients who hav...
Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Non-blood tests Radioactive iodine uptake RAIU) ) <ul><li>By measuring the amount of ...
Hypothyroidism
Is it Hyperthyroid Hypothyroid or Euthyroid Goiter
<ul><li>Wasting of Temporalis and shoulder muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema in limbs </li></ul>Hyperthroidism  Graves Dis...
<ul><li>Fat accumulation behind eyes </li></ul><ul><li>High TSH </li></ul><ul><li>Patient previously had a thyroidectomy <...
 
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Thyroid Gland

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Thyroid Gland

  1. 1. Dr. Nuha M. Malkawi
  2. 2. Thyroid gland The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck (The breathing airway, or trachea), and below the larynx, or voice box.   الحنجرة
  3. 3. Thyroid gland The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormone, which is secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. 
  4. 4. Thyroid gland Functions: <ul><li>The thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) . </li></ul><ul><li>The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland which produces a hormone called Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Its level goes up when the level of thyroid hormones comes down and vice versa. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thyroid gland Functions: <ul><li>The thyroid gland Regulate body temperature and weight. affects body growth </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormone regulate metabolism which is the body's ability to break down food and store it as energy and the ability to break down food into waste products with a release of energy in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormone is essential to help each cell in each tissue and organ to work right . For example, thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm, and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thyroid gland The thyroid gland is composed of a mass of hollow spheres or follicles . Each follicale has a lining one cell thick, and contains a jelly –like colloid ( Colloid is a glycoprotein ) lining
  7. 7. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion <ul><li>Dietary iodine (I + ) is absorbed in the GI tract, then taken up by the thyroid gland (or removed from the body by the kidneys). </li></ul><ul><li>The transport of iodide into follicular cells is dependent upon a sodium/iodine </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion <ul><li>Iodide (I - ) taken up by the thyroid gland is oxidized by peroxide in the lumen of the follicle: </li></ul>
  9. 9. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion First (Iodide oxidation): Iodide (I - ) taken up by the thyroid gland is oxidized by peroxide in the lumen of the follicle: <ul><li>Oxidized iodine can then be used in production of thyroid hormones . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Second (Iodination) Iodide react with the tyrosine that is an integral part of the giant thyroglobulin molecule which is produce by The follicle cells of the thyroid. 
  11. 11. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Second (Iodination) Tyrosine binding with two atoms produces diiodotyrosine (DIT).  Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction.
  12. 12. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Third (Coupling) The molecules must be combined to create the hormones
  13. 13. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Fourth (Pinocytosis) The thyroid hormones are stored with the thyroglobulin until they are needed.
  14. 14. Thyroid gland Steps Of Biosynthesis and Secretion Finally (Secretion) The hormones are separated from the thyroglobulin and secreted into the blood stream through proteolysis of Tg. Excess released iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) are deiodinated in situ and the resulting I- returns to be utilized in the intrathyroidal iodine cycle.
  15. 15. Biosynthesis and Secretion
  16. 17. Transport <ul><li>T3 & T4 leave the thyroid gland by diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Both are transported in blood by three transport proteins , Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR ) and Human Serum Albumin (HSA) </li></ul><ul><li>A majority (99 %) of T4 & T3 is bound to TBG </li></ul><ul><li>Both enter their target cells by diffusion </li></ul>Thyroid gland
  17. 18. Their Functions <ul><li>Most probably to ensure a constant supply of thyroid hormone to the cells and tissues by preventing urinary loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the organism against abrupt changes in thyroid hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation, protect against iodine deficiency and target the amount of thyroid hormone delivery by ensuring a site-specific, enzymatic alteration of thyroxine-binding globulin </li></ul>
  18. 19. Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation The thyroid gland concentrates iodine that the body absorbs from various foods to make thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland makes mostly T4. Very little T3 is made by the thyroid gland. The liver and other organs convert T4 into T3. Certain diseases and drugs can affect the conversion of T4 into T3.
  19. 20. Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation
  20. 21. Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation Increased levels of T3 and T4 prompt the hypothalamus to slow down the production of TRH, this resulting in a decreased activity of TSH until the T3 and T4 levels have decreased again.
  21. 22. Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation Decreasing levels , our hypothalamus to produce (TRH), which will signal the pituitary gland to produce TSH, which will stimulate the thyroid´s production of T3 and T4.
  22. 23. Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones regulation
  23. 24. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Blood tests to measure TSH, T4 and T3 are readily available and widely used
  24. 25. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests
  25. 26. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests
  26. 27. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Antibody Tests <ul><li>Two common antibodies that cause thyroid problems are directed against thyroid cell proteins: </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroglobulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring levels of thyroid antibodies may help diagnose the cause of the thyroid problems. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Antibody Tests Thyroid antibody test is usually ordered for patients who have a goiter, abnormal T3, T4 or TSH hormone levels, or other indications of thyroid disesase or thyroid disease risk.
  28. 29. Thyroid gland Thyroid Function Tests Non-blood tests Radioactive iodine uptake RAIU) ) <ul><li>By measuring the amount of radioactivity that is taken up by the thyroid gland (radioactive iodine uptake, RAIU), doctors may determine whether the gland is functioning normally. </li></ul><ul><li>A very high RAIU is seen in individuals whose thyroid gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism). </li></ul><ul><li>While a low RAIU is seen when the thyroid gland is under active (hypothyroidism). </li></ul>
  29. 30. Hypothyroidism
  30. 31. Is it Hyperthyroid Hypothyroid or Euthyroid Goiter
  31. 32. <ul><li>Wasting of Temporalis and shoulder muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema in limbs </li></ul>Hyperthroidism Graves Disease
  32. 33. <ul><li>Fat accumulation behind eyes </li></ul><ul><li>High TSH </li></ul><ul><li>Patient previously had a thyroidectomy </li></ul>Exothalamia

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