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PDC+++ Module 2 Class 4 Structures

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What design structures do we have available to us and how do we use them?

There are several design structures available to use. They consist of a sequence of steps that help the designer keep to a systematic approach.
Beyond these there are design frameworks that help us place our designs in a wider context.

The most comprehensive framework is our world-view, which greatly influences which designs we do, why & how. In this class we will study the different kinds of structures we have at our disposal.

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PDC+++ Module 2 Class 4 Structures

  1. 1. Class 2.4 of PDC+++ What design structures do we have available to us and how do we use them? There are several design structures available to use. They consist of a sequence of steps that help the designer keep to a systematic approach. Beyond these there are design frameworks that help us place our designs in a wider context. The most comprehensive framework is our world-view, which greatly influences which designs we do, why & how. In this class we will study the different kinds of structures we have at our disposal.
  2. 2. Class2.4 PDC+++ What design structures do we have and how do we use them? Design Structures Chaos and Order Design Frameworks Innovation
  3. 3. Class2.4 PDC+++ What design structures do we have and how do we use them? Design Structures Chaos and Order Design Frameworks Innovation
  4. 4. More about Systems Structures 1) they have these components Dana Meadows in class 2.1 Elements InterConnexions Purpose
  5. 5. Systems & SubSystems your circulatory system heart arteries veins capillaries etc. 2) & complex systems in turn are made up of sub-systems More about Systems Structures 1) they have these components Dana Meadows in class 2.1 Elements InterConnexions Purpose
  6. 6. Don't worry if some parts of the course still don't make sense, or you don't know where to fit them ... if it's all a bit like this ... We can't learn systems in a linear way Relax & TRUST in your mind - which IS a system! ... it's normal :)
  7. 7. Hierarchy Holarchy 3) & sub-systems organize themselves into nested hierarchies (holarchies) 2) complex systems in turn are made up of sub-systems More about Systems Structures Holons organ organism ecosystem
  8. 8. More about Systems Structures Elements Forest Ecosystem sun
  9. 10. A Language of Symbols to map Systems, by H. Odum sun tree deer parts of a forest
  10. 11. sun tree deer consumer producer source symbols that represent parts of a forest energy source Producer Consumer Energy Flow Symbols A Language of Symbols to map Systems, by H. Odum sun tree deer parts of a forest
  11. 12. a Systems Language of Symbols, by H.Odum Interaction : a process that combines different types of flow of energy & materials Store : a place where energy is stored. Eg. resources like forest biomass, soil, organic matter, water well, sand, nutrients, etc. Interaction Store Symbols for Interaction & Store
  12. 13. Interaction Store Source Producer Consumer Energy Flow a Systems Language of Symbols, by H.Odum Interaction : a process that combines different types of flow of energy & materials Store : a place where energy is stored. Eg. resources like forest biomass, soil, organic matter, water well, sand, nutrients, etc. Interaction Store Symbols for Interaction & Store
  13. 14. Interaction Store Source Producer Consumer Energy Flow a Systems Language of Symbols, by H.Odum Interaction : a process that combines different types of flow of energy & materials Store : a place where energy is stored. Eg. resources like forest biomass, soil, organic matter, water well, sand, nutrients, etc. Interaction Store Symbols for Interaction & Store 2) complex systems are made out of sub-systems Internal parts of a producer & consumer Consumer Producer feedback
  14. 15. 1) have these components Summary ... of Systems Structures Elements interConnections Purpose
  15. 16. Summary ... of Systems Structures 2) complex systems made up of sub-systems 3) sub-systems organized in nested hierarchies (holarchies) Elements interConnections Purpose 1) have these components
  16. 17. Elements interConnections Purpose 1) have these components Summary ... of Systems Structures 2) complex systems made up of sub-systems 3) sub-systems organized in nested hierarchies (holarchies) 4) we have a symbols language to maps of systems & the reason this is so cool is ....
  17. 18. 1) have these components Summary ... of Systems Structures 2) complex systems made up of sub-systems 3) sub-systems organized in nested hierarchies (holarchies) 4) we have a symbols language to maps of systems Elements interConnections Purpose
  18. 19. Howard Odum & Dana Meadows Father & Mother of Integral Permaculture always remember .... that we are NOT designing landscapes but SYSTEMS >> & systems that self-regulate , & that we want to self-regulate in a permacultural DIRECTION it is not necessary that you know how to manage those symbols but yes do ... Summary ... of designing with Systems
  19. 20. Class2.4 PDC+++ What design structures do we have and how do we use them? Design Structures Chaos and Order Design Frameworks Innovation
  20. 21. DestructoCulture DestructoCulture PermaCulture caord Howard Odum - If a system receives more resources than it can use productively, the system falls into disorder & chaos Bill Mollinson – forced functions (CONTROL) cause stress. Disorder consumes energy to no useful end good design - elements working together in beneficial ways V PRODUCES A YIELD bad design - forced conditions of 'order', cleanliness, neatness .. in energy terms DISORDERED V CONSUMES PRODUCING MORE CONSUMPTION bad design .. in energy terms DISORDERED V CONSUMES WITHOUT PRODUCING ANYTHING MUCH “ Patterns persist, confuse us & make us forget"
  21. 26. DestructoCulture DestructoCulture PermaCulture caord Bill Mollison – principle of Stress and Harmony: Stress = prevention of natural function or forced function. Harmony = allowing of chosen & natural functions & the supply of essential needs Ej. Cow in a place where its natural functions supply benefits to other parts of the system V PRODUCES A YIELD Ej. Cow has to give milk, breed, forage for food, tilling, moving a mill, far from their natural environment .. etc. V THE COW IS CONSUMED, ends up producing more consumption Ej. Cow as a pet or consumer ’ V CONSUME WITHOUT PRODUCTION Harmony = good design
  22. 27. Contemporary Agriculture in the West Transition & Conservation Design Permaculture
  23. 28. A. Contemporary Agriculture – Year 1 Sustainability can be measured 1. Income of total produced 2. Real cost of Production 3. Use of Petrol 4. Energy produced on site 5. Loss of Soils 6. Water storage efficiency 7. Pollution produced 8. Biodiversity of production 9. Life in the soil 10. Woodland biomass / Wildlife 11. Loss through pests 12. Employment 13. Quality of food 14. Health of People & Environment 15. Quality of life Permaculture A Designers Manual Bill Mollison p. 4 & 5
  24. 29. B. Transitional & Conservation Farming – Year 4 Sustainability can be measured 1. Income of total produced 2. Real cost of Production 3. Use of Petrol 4. Energy produced on site 5. Loss of Soils 6. Water storage efficiency 7. Pollution produced 8. Biodiversity of production 9. Life in the soil 10. Woodland biomass / Wildlife 11. Loss through pests 12. Employment 13. Quality of food 14. Health of People & Environment 15. Quality of life Permaculture A Designers Manual Bill Mollison p. 4 & 5
  25. 30. C. PermaCulture – Year 8 Sustainability can be seen 1. Income of total produced 2. Real cost of Production 3. Use of Petrol 4. Energy produced on site 5. Loss of Soils 6. Water storage efficiency 7. Pollution produced 8. Biodiversity of production 9. Life in the soil 10. Woodland biomass / Wildlife 11. Loss through pests 12. Employment 13. Quality of food 14. Health of People & Environment 15. Quality of life Permaculture A Designers Manual Bill Mollison p. 4 & 5
  26. 31. Sustainability can be measured 1. Income of total produced 2. Real cost of Production 3. Use of Petrol 4. Energy produced on site 5. Loss of Soils 6. Water storage efficiency 7. Pollution produced 8. Biodiversity of production 9. Life in the soil 10. Woodland biomass / Wildlife 11. Loss through pests 12. Employment 13. Quality of food 14. Health of People & Environment 15. Quality of life Permaculture A Designers Manual Bill Mollison p. 4 & 5
  27. 32. Class2.4 PDC+++ What design structures do we have and how do we use them? Design Structures Chaos and Order Design Frameworks Innovation
  28. 33. Design Frameworks <ul><li>or general procedures </li></ul><ul><li>(structures) </li></ul>Design Frameworks are sequences: help the designer to take A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH
  29. 34. Need to take into account ALL types of components COMPONENTS COMPONENTES Site Energy Social Abstract DESIGN is the beneficial assembly of all these components
  30. 35. SADIM (from landscape arquitecture) (from landscape arquitecture) (from landscape arquitecture) (from landscape arquitecture) (from landscape arquitecture) <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Asses (or Analyze) </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>I mplement </li></ul><ul><li>M aintain (or Manage) </li></ul>Design frameworks
  31. 36. OBREDIMET (from industrial engineering) <ul><li>O bserve, </li></ul><ul><li>B oundaries </li></ul><ul><li>R esources </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate (or Examine) </li></ul><ul><li>Design (choose strategies) </li></ul><ul><li>I mplement (strategies) </li></ul><ul><li>M aintain </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul><ul><li>T weak </li></ul>Design Frameworks
  32. 37. REAP (from Permaculture) <ul><li>Rec ollect site information </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate the information </li></ul><ul><li>A pply permaculture principles and produce a design </li></ul><ul><li>P lan a schedule of implementation, maintenance, evaluation and tweaking </li></ul>Design Frameworks
  33. 38. C E A P S A I D M E D I C ollect E valuate A pply P lan O bserve B oundaries R esources E valuate D esign I mplement M aintain E valuate T weak S urvey A sses D esign I mplement M aintain O B R M E T Observe Think/ Reflect Act Design
  34. 39. Class2.4 PDC+++ What design structures do we have and how do we use them? Design Structures Chaos and Order Design Frameworks Innovation
  35. 40. Marshmallow
  36. 48. ¿Who did worst? Business Students
  37. 49. Who did better?
  38. 51. Iterative Design Action - Learning Prototype Re-design Observe Think/ Reflect Act Design
  39. 58. + knowledge of building principles + diversity Skills + facilitation = bigger success With the appropriate connections
  40. 59. Class 2.4 of PDC+++ What design structures do we have available to us and how do we use them? There are several design structures available to use. They consist of a sequence of steps that help the designer keep to a systematic approach. Beyond these there are design frameworks that help us place our designs in a wider context. The most comprehensive framework is our world-view, which greatly influences which designs we do, why & how. In this class we will study the different kinds of structures we have at our disposal.

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