Psychology - Psychopathology


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Revision about Abnormality for Psychology Unit 1 for AS level

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Psychology - Psychopathology

  1. 1. Disease of the mind.Depart from what is normal.
  2. 2.  Deviation from social norms Failure to function adequately Deviation from ideal mental health Definitions of Abnormality
  3. 3. What is it? Going against accepted codes of behaviourExamples? OCDLimitations Context & Extremity: Situation there in Dominant Beliefs: Agree/Disagree Era-Dependant: Fashion/Trendy Cultures relativity Legal system assumes you are responsible for your own action Definitions of Abnormality
  4. 4. What is it? Not being able to follow normal pattern of behaviour Observer Discomfort- Discomfort or distress on others Unpredictability- Don’t act how they usually act Maladaptive- Badly adaptive behaviour Irrationality- Doing something out of the blueExample? Depression Agoraphobia: Don’t like tight spaces Schizophrenia(Split-Mind): The unit of ‘You’ is jumbled up.Limitations Context May not be linked to a disorder Cultural relativity Definitions of Abnormality
  5. 5. What is it? Not in touch with own identity & feelings Not resistant to stress Not focused on the future Not function as individual Not show empathy & understanding towards others.Example? Not caring for others painLimitations Western vs. Collectivists culture Few would match Jahod’s criteria Definitions of Abnormality
  6. 6. Situation Deviation Failure to Deviation Explanation from Social Function from Mental Norms Adequately HealthStranger who sits nextto you. YES YES Observer DiscomfortChild Abuser YES YES No empathyChild Genius YES Doesn’t accept normal behaviourBorn again Christian YES Dominate beliefsTalk to their pets YES YES Observer DiscomfortStressed workers, taketime of work YES YES Maladaptive. Doesn’t focus on futurePerson In a dead endjob YES Not reaching potentialPerson who believesthey are being watched YES Maladaptive. IrrationalSomeone who washestheir hands a lot YES YES YES Not common behaviour. Irrational. Maladaptive. Lack of reality Definitions of Abnormality
  7. 7.  The biological approach: Malfunction in the brain system. Treated same as the psychical condition. Changed either caused by the structure or function.Study: Watson et al (1998)- Isolating monkeysto their social groups. The psychodynamic approach: The forces that drives into it. The behavioural approach: what we learn The cognitive approach: human memory. What we think Four Models of Abnormality
  8. 8.  Strength: Use of brain scan which shows everything in the brain. Drug treatment targets it & it is very effective  Weakness: Needs more explanation & details from both sides. Drugs don’t work for eating disorders or phobias.Biological Approach
  9. 9.  Schizophrenia: Take Antipsychotics which reduces the activity of the brain neurotransmitters dopamine.  Depression: Therapies are highly effective although Prozac drug is used. Which increases the activity of the brain neurotransmitter serotonin.  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): small current which goes pass the brain. Works well with depression.Biological Approach
  10. 10.  Antipsychotic Drugs  Antidepressant Drugs  Anti-anxiety Drugs Strength:  Effectiveness  Ease of Use Limitations  Placebo Effects  Tackles symptoms rather than problem  Side effectsBiological Approach
  11. 11.  Genetic Inheritance: Passed from parents. Low Concordance (Phobias). High Concordance rates (Schizophrenia).  Biochemistry: shows levels of hormones & neurotransmitters in the brain. High levels of neurotransmitters serotonin- anxiety Low levels – depression  Neuroanatomy: Structure of brain. Schizophrenics have enlarged spaces, where theres a shortage of tissue.  Viral Infection: Exposure to viruses in the womb e.g. schizophrenia.Biological Approach
  12. 12. Sigmund Freud introduced this: Id – Desire/ cannot control Ego – Balancer Superego – Conscious If Id is dominate, you want pleasure. If superego is dominant they might obsessive. Ego is the mechanism For example: If you hide something, you try to put it in the unconscious part of the brain. Which causes Denial/ displacement. Psychodynamic Approach
  13. 13.  Oral Stage: Under or over fed. 0-18 months Anal stage: Controls pleasure of having a shit. (OCD) 18 months- 3 years Phallic Stage: The sexes discover other genders. 4-5 years Latency Period: Desire for themselves is gone & for others start. 5- puberty Genital Stage: puberty onwards If these are not met, then it remains unresolved. When you get stressed, you go back to doing it.The Oedipus Complex- Boys Developed more for boys As theres psychical contact with moth & has desire for mother. Father seems to be a threat so they stick to their Fathers morals.The Electra Complex- Girls When a girl depends on not having a penis, creating penis envy & wants affection of father, when closer to mother. Psychodynamic Approach
  14. 14.  Mental Disorders result form psychological rather than physical cause: Something else that goes in the brain. The thought & cannot physically see what it is, but knows there’s something in it. Unresolved conflicts cause mental disorders: Conscious & unconscious parts of the brain causes anxiety when they don’t work together Early experiences cause mental disorder: Experiences from childhood effect you, when reaching teenage hood( Freuds Psychosexual Development) Unconscious motivation cause mental disorders: Id- Control over desire e.g. Rapists. Ego-Balancer. Superego- Knows whats right & wrong. Not knowing the cause of change in behaviour. Psychodynamic Approach
  15. 15.  Strengths: Supported by Aimsworths in the Strange Situation & the childhood experiences & categories the child personality stage. Significance of repressed materials & unconscious processes widely accepted. Evidence: Freud used case studies of Adult with neurosis & linked the disorders back to the early experiences. Limitations: Abstract concepts- difficult to research & define. Sexism- theory is overbalanced. Lack of research evidence- Theory is difficult to prove when tested. Psychodynamic Approach
  16. 16.  Dream Analysis Free Association Projective TestsPsychodynamic Approach
  17. 17.  To uncover the conflicts repressed in the conscious mind Therapist analyse the obvious content of the dreams & interpreters the underlying meaning which is called ‘latent content’ Psychodynamic Approach
  18. 18.  Link memories & thought together extending back to childhood & to lower ego defences so repressed material can be assessed Therapists encourage clients to associate thoughts with anything that enters their mind, to encourage reflection & to identify key terms & ideas. Psychodynamic Approach
  19. 19.  Uncover projected feelings & beliefs linked to underlying anxieties Clients are asked what inkblots shapes mean to them, and therapist hope to find particular themes & anxiety Psychodynamic Approach
  20. 20.  Classical Conditioning: Where the phobia develops  Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement & Negative Reinforcement  Social Learning Theory: Observe other behaviourBehavioural Approach
  21. 21.  Example: Phobias- learn to get scared of something through experiences  Support: Watson & Ryder. Reflex- clash of cymbals. Associated with rabbit. Scared of Cymbals not rabbits. (Nurture)  Undermine: Preparedness(Seligman) Fear is evolved as spiders are dangerous, so danger is feared. Genetic Response. ( Nature). He believes that its from genetics as it is from Nature that its already biologically programed, which can be triggered.Behavioural Approach
  22. 22.  Example: Anxiety & Depression occurs when you want to behaviour in a way to get attention  Support: Explains certain disorders e.g. depression, from positive reinforcement & negative Reinforcements as you get rewired from early age & it carries on.  Undermine: Reductionist- ignores other aspects of psychology. Shows ways you can get mental illness from.Behavioural Approach
  23. 23.  Example: OCD, Eating disorders, child abuse, role models.  Support: Emphasis on learning environment. Who you are influenced by  Undermine: Kendall & Hammen (1995) don’t know if it’s the environment or from genetics. Nature & Nurture. Where Nature is the environment it is by eating e.g. role models they see & follow, where Nurture by the influence of the parents.Behavioural Approach
  24. 24.  Abnormality is caused by faulty thinking  Ellis A-B-C Model  The Individual is in controlCognitive Approach
  25. 25.  Distorts the beliefs on yourself.  Automatically have negative thoughts  Schemata: what you think of a certain thing.  Where you have an opinion of yourself and over exaggerate  Example: I always fall ( Not always true)  Leads to depression/AnxietyCognitive Approach
  26. 26.  A: Activating Event, where something happens  B: Beliefs about ‘A’, which goes through rational/irrational thoughts  C: Consequences, where desirable emotions/ undesirable emotions leads to the behaviourCognitive Approach
  27. 27.  You make decisions having the right thoughts & behaviours & could get out of abnormalityCognitive Approach
  28. 28. Strength  Clear evidence of faulty thinking & beliefs in depressions & anxiety disorders ( Clark 1986)  Therapies based on this model are very effective for depression & anxiety disorder Limitation  Blames the patient not the situational factors  Consequence (Depression) rather than cause(Faulty Thinking)  Faulty thinking leads to mental illnessCognitive Approach
  29. 29.  All or none thinking (Dichotomous Thinking): Classifies either 1of 2 success and failure  Arbitrary Inferences: Drawing negative conclusions without having the evidence to support them  Overgeneralisation: Incorrect conclusions are drawn from little evidence  Catastrophising: Where normal events are perceived as disasters  Selective Abstraction: Where person pays attention to certain features of an event & ignores other features that might lead to a different conclusion  Excessive Responsibility: Taking a lot of responsibility & blame things which happen.Cognitive Approach