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Lightning talk unikernels


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My DockerCon 2017 presentation slides on Unikernels

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Lightning talk unikernels

  1. 1. Lightning Talk: Unikernel Technologies Michael Bright Solution Architect
  2. 2. What are Unikernels?
  3. 3. Specialized applications built with all, but only, the OS components they need. A Unikernel is standalone able to run directly as a VM (or possibly on BM) Compile in optional “Library OS” components such as - Network stack - File-system - Device drivers What are Unikernels? Hardware Hypervisor OS Kernel User Processes Parallel Threads Language Runtime Application Binary Configuration Files Hardware Hypervisor Unikernel Runtime Application Code Configuration A Unikernel application containing only selected « Library OS » components A typical application Running above a general purpose OS
  4. 4. THE NEW STACK OCTOBER 24, 2016 Debunking Unikernel Criticisms Unikernels are unfit for production January 22, 2016 - by Bryan Cantrill Hacker News Discussion January 22, 2016 Contentious ! “VMs aren’t heavy, Oses are !”, Alfred Bratterud, #includeOS
  5. 5. Characteristics. • Fast to boot, very light on resources enabling on-demand services • Single-user, Single-address space, Single-process for performance and security • Small attack surface so potentially more secure Why use Unikernels ? Still very much a research area, but could be used in • Cloud micro-services: on-demand immutable services • NFV (Telco Cloud) • IoT • Networking Devices or appliances
  6. 6. 2 main families Unikernel Implementations
  7. 7. Clean-Slate 1. MirageOS (Ocaml) 2. HalVM (Haskell) 3. LING (Erlang) Unikernel Implementations? Legacy 1. IncludeOS (C/C++) 2. OSv (Java,Lua,Go) 3. Rumprun (Ruby,Go,Python…) 4. Graphene (C, linux binaries) 5. ClickOS (modular router) 6. Clive (Go) 7. HermitCore (“gcc”) 8. … and more still … Tools 1. Unik 2. Solo5 / ukvm
  8. 8. MirageOS v3 supports more backends inc. kvm & xhyve. • MirageOS Unikernels – “Library OS” and app - written entirely in Ocaml • Jitsu project allows on demand “just in time spawning of unikernels” • The mirage tool creates a build envt for the chosen backend (unix, xen, kvm, …) MirageOS Unikernels: Clean-slate Build/run as Linux binary mirage configure –t unix make depend make ./binary Build/run under kvm mirage configure –t ukvm make depend make ./ukvm-bin unikernel-binary [Xen incubator project] MirageOS v3 – Feb 2017
  9. 9. Let’s build/run a unikernel on: - Unix (Linux) - To run locally - Ukvm - To run under ukvm locally - To run in the cloud Demo: MirageOS Clean-slate Unikernel
  10. 10. [Cloudius Systems] Osv 0.24 – Oct 2015 • Execute single app on any hypervisor • Capstan tool builds for VirtualBox, KVM, Xen, VMWare • Supports many application languages • Java, C, Lua, Ruby, Go, Node.js, Scala, … • ZFS snapshots, REST api, cloud-init Manifesto • Run existing Linux apps, run them faster • Boot time ~ exec time (< 1 sec) • Leverage memory managed platforms (JVM, Go, Lua) • Stay open Osv:
  11. 11. Demo: OSv Let’s build/run a unikernel on: - Unix (Linux) - To run locally - VM - To run under VM locally - To run in the cloud
  12. 12. [HiOA. Oslo] IncludeOS v0.10 - Mar 2017 IncludeOS A minimal unikernel for running C++ services in the cloud. Currently supports – VirtualBox, KVM (whence GCE, OpenStack) • Single threaded by default • Written in C++ • Async i/o only for now • Potentially for baremetal also
  13. 13. Demo: IncludeOS Let’s build/run a unikernel on: - Unix (Linux) - To run locally - VM - To run under VM locally - To run in the cloud
  14. 14. [NetBSD] No releases, but very active Runs existing unmodified POSIX software as a unikernel. Many packages available (apache2, nginx, haproxy, redis, mysql, …) Supports bare hardware and hypervisors such as Xen and KVM. Based on rump kernels which provide many NetBSD OS components such as drivers, file systems, POSIX system calls, TCP/IP stack Extensive language support: • C/C++, Erlang, Go, Java, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Rust … Rumprun:
  15. 15. Demo: Rumprun Let’s build/run a unikernel on: - Unix (Linux) - To run locally - VM - To run under VM locally - To run in the cloud
  16. 16. [??] V0.2.14 – Aug 1, 2016 Unikernels for the cloud built on the V8 JavaScript engine. Bundled up with an application and deployed as a lightweight and immutable VM image. Uses event-driven and non-blocking I/O model inspired by Node.js. At the moment KVM is the only supported hypervisor. Runtime.js:
  17. 17. Demo: Runtime.js Let’s build/run a unikernel on: - Unix (Linux) - To run locally - VM - To run under VM locally - To run in the cloud
  18. 18. We can - build a Unikernel online - Rumprun, IncludeOS or OSv - Deploy online - Pull the image and run locally - virgo pull myapp - virgo run myapp Demo: DeferPanic Unikernel IaaS
  19. 19. Here’s my take • Still research projects but many early adopters • More test and production deployments • Better tooling through tools like Docker, Unik, OSv Capstan • Increased collaboration across projects • Increased Hypervisor support • Different Unikernel technologies for different uses • Clean-slate for lightest, most secure needs – very specialized • Hybrid architectures with Unikernels and Containers • Legacy Unikernels for higher performance from existing apps, e.g. HPC What’s next ?
  20. 20. Thank You! Questions? @docker #dockercon
  21. 21. Unikernels: General Resources URL Wikipedia My Scoop.IT LinkedIn Group YouTube Playlist
  22. 22. Unikernels: Project Resources Website GitHub MirageOS mirage/mirage HalVM galoisInc/HaLVM LING cloudozer/ling IncludeOS hioa-ca/IncludeOS Rumprun rumpkernel/rumprun Osv cloudius-systems/osv
  23. 23. Unikernels: Project Resources Website GitHub Runtime.js runtimejs/runtime Clive ClickOS kohler/click Unik emc-advanced-dev/unik Deferpanic IaaS deferpanic/virgo