Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
European Salon
 Enlightenment ideas exchanged inclubs, journals, newspapers and salons Salons presided over by elite womenwith focus on...
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
 Argued that men and women werecompletely different with educationrequired only for boys – “Emile: Or, OnEducation” (1762...
 Salons however gave womenopportunities for learning The approval of salon hostesses oftenrequired for men to gain acces...
Enlightenment Philosophers andGender Philosphers not keen to change thesituation of women Rousseau “Social Contract” – n...
Mary Wollstonecraft
 Early work “Thoughts on the Educationof Daughters” (1786) French Revolution attacked by EdmudBurke Wollstonecraft’s re...
 Emphasizes women’s rationality andargues for women’s education. Extended the Enlightenment philosophy ofreason to women...
Introduction Race is not a permanent fixture but an ideawith a history Enlightenment focus on natural law – onesystem of...
Carl Linnaeus
The Enlightenment and Race 1735 – early attempt at scientificclassification of human types Differentiation of Europeans,...
Classifying Race
 Context of discovery and explorationand greater knowledge of rest of theworld Europe as living in the “Age of Light” in...
Burning the Jews
 Previously little interaction with other racesuntil Enlightenment Allowed for scientific categorization ofraces Yet, a...
19thCentury Views on Race Monogenesis – all races had a commonorigin Polygenesis – different races originatedfrom differ...
 JC Prichard – monogenesis and racialdifferences due to “civilizing process”;justified imperial expansion based on“civili...
 Pre-Darwinian scientific racismparticularly evident in US and Francedespite democratic revolutions Biological unfitness...
“Scientific” Racial Classification
 Germans reject civic nationalism of theEnlightenment in favour of ethnicnationalism However even civic nationalism can ...
Lecture11 12
Lecture11 12
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lecture11 12

285 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

Lecture11 12

  1. 1. European Salon
  2. 2.  Enlightenment ideas exchanged inclubs, journals, newspapers and salons Salons presided over by elite womenwith focus on sociable conversation “Woman question” – the role andcapabilities of women Two views: lesser access to educationmeant women could not contribute asmen did; women had less intellectualcapacity
  3. 3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  4. 4.  Argued that men and women werecompletely different with educationrequired only for boys – “Emile: Or, OnEducation” (1762) Belief regarding the role of woman:“Woman is made specially to pleaseman…and to be subjugated.” Women’s focus should be the home. Nature had created permanentdistinctions between the sexes.
  5. 5.  Salons however gave womenopportunities for learning The approval of salon hostesses oftenrequired for men to gain access toprestigious societies e.g. AcademieFrancais (which did not allow women) Salons as part of the public sphere Women increasingly arguing for femalelearning
  6. 6. Enlightenment Philosophers andGender Philosphers not keen to change thesituation of women Rousseau “Social Contract” – naturegave man dominance over woman andchildren Hobbes – no justification in nature orscripture for male domination Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of theRights of Women” – women’s plight dueto the tyranny of men
  7. 7. Mary Wollstonecraft
  8. 8.  Early work “Thoughts on the Educationof Daughters” (1786) French Revolution attacked by EdmudBurke Wollstonecraft’s response “A Vindicationof the Rights of Man” defending theprinciples of the revolution “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”(1792) – a milestone for women’s rights.
  9. 9.  Emphasizes women’s rationality andargues for women’s education. Extended the Enlightenment philosophy ofreason to women. Women only passive as they were raisedas such – they were equal to men andcould have professions and careers. Proposed education of boys and girlstogether Women to empower themselves
  10. 10. Introduction Race is not a permanent fixture but an ideawith a history Enlightenment focus on natural law – onesystem of law that governed all humanbehaviour Idea of common humanity and thatdifferences were as a result ofexperience/environment However focus on science replacedreligion and led to a hierarchical ordering ofnature.
  11. 11. Carl Linnaeus
  12. 12. The Enlightenment and Race 1735 – early attempt at scientificclassification of human types Differentiation of Europeans, AmericanIndians, Asians and Africans. Comte de Buffon – classification of allraces and everything else into a“naturally” ordered hierarchy withEuropeans the top. Inferiority and superiority due toenvironment
  13. 13. Classifying Race
  14. 14.  Context of discovery and explorationand greater knowledge of rest of theworld Europe as living in the “Age of Light” incomparison the “Dark Continent” “Reason” and “civilisation” = “whitepeople and northern Europe”
  15. 15. Burning the Jews
  16. 16.  Previously little interaction with other racesuntil Enlightenment Allowed for scientific categorization ofraces Yet, at the same time, also believed inindividual rights and the notion that “allmen are created equal” Separation of church and state meant lesspersecution of Jews French Revolution abolished slavery
  17. 17. 19thCentury Views on Race Monogenesis – all races had a commonorigin Polygenesis – different races originatedfrom different species Ethnology – anthropology that dealt withthe “origin, distribution andcharacteristics of human racial groups”
  18. 18.  JC Prichard – monogenesis and racialdifferences due to “civilizing process”;justified imperial expansion based on“civilizing mission” French – polygenesis – other racesincapable of being raised to the level ofEuropeans – influenced pro-slaverygroups in the southern US
  19. 19.  Pre-Darwinian scientific racismparticularly evident in US and Francedespite democratic revolutions Biological unfitness could be used toexclude people from citizenship –women, children, the insane and otherracial groups
  20. 20. “Scientific” Racial Classification
  21. 21.  Germans reject civic nationalism of theEnlightenment in favour of ethnicnationalism However even civic nationalism can beexclusionary if one is defined as beingless than human However Enlightenment still allowed forracial inclusiveness e.g. SA post-1994

×