NIGERIA AMONG THE WIND POWERED NATIONS A PAPER PRESENTATION BY ADENIJI, AYODEJI SAMUEL(MNSE,MIEEE,MAFRIWEA) Email: email@example.com, Tel:+2347030709556,+23470588149, VERGNET WIND ENERGY LIMITED, LAMBAR RIMI KATSINAAT THE NIGERIA ALTERNATIVE ENERGY EXPO 2012 (NAEE 2012)VENUE: Cultural Centre Kuto Abeokuta, Nigeria 29th October – 31st October 2012
IntroductionWind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the unevenheating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earthssurface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified bythe earths terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. This windflow, or motion energy, when "harvested" by modern wind turbines,can be used to generate electricity. Modern wind turbines fall into twobasic groups; the horizontal-axis variety, like the traditional farmwindmills used for pumping water, and the vertical-axis design, likethe eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named after its French inventor.Most large modern wind turbines are horizontal-axis turbines.Horizontal turbine components include: blade or rotor, which converts the energy in the wind to rotational shaft energy; a drive train, usually including a gearbox and a generator; a tower that supports the rotor and drive train; and other equipment, including controls, electrical cables, ground support equipment, and interconnection equipment. Wind turbines are often grouped together into a single wind power plant, also known as a wind farm, and generate bulk electrical power. Electricity from these turbines is fed into a utility grid and distributed to customers, just as with conventional power plants. A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.Society is currently facing two serious challenges – climate changeand the security of future energy supplies – and it is technology in theproven form of renewable energy that will play a vital role in meetingboth of these challenges head on.
But climate change is not the only driver for investment in renewables.Last year, RES published a survey of future global energy supplies,which concluded that the world faces a serious shortfall betweendemand and supply for oil and gas that could become evident soonafter 2010, with a 10 percent shortfall by 2020 and an 18 per centshortfall by 2030. Eventually this gap will be filled by a mix ofrenewables, clean coal and nuclear. However, wind power as a safe,carbon-neutral, economic and indigenous energy resource, is the bestchoice to fill the electricity generation gap left by gas in the short andmedium term.Nigeria Must not be left behind as Wind energy is one of the fastestgrowing technologies in energy generation industry nowadays. Theerratic and epileptic state of power in this country and the concernabout global warming should be a great concern for all and shoulddrive us into strong demand for wind generation. The main advantagesof electricity generation from wind are the absence of harmfulemissions, very clean and the almost infinite availability of the windthat is converted into electricity.Wind Energy Development Environmental ConcernsWind energy development environmental concerns include, noise,visual impacts, and avian and bat mortalityAlthough wind power plants have relatively little impact on theenvironment compared to fossil fuel power plants, concerns have beenraised over the noise produced by the rotor blades, visual impacts,and deaths of birds and bats that fly into the rotors (avian/batmortality).
NoiseLike all mechanical systems, wind turbines produce some noise whenthey operate. Most of the turbine noise is masked by the sound of thewind itself, and the turbines run only when the wind blows. In recentyears, engineers have made design changes to reduce the noise fromwind turbines. Early model turbines are generally noisier than mostnew and larger models. As wind turbines have become more efficient,more of the wind is converted into rotational torque and less intoacoustic noise. Additionally, proper siting and insulating materials canbe used to minimize noise impacts.Visual ImpactsBecause they must generally be sited in exposed places, wind turbinesare often highly visible; however, being visible is not necessarily thesame as beingintrusive. Aesthetic issues are by their nature highlysubjective. Proper sitingdecisions can help to avoid any aestheticimpacts to the landscape. One strategy being used to partially offsetvisual impacts is to site fewer turbines in any one location byusing multiple locations and by using todays larger and more efficientmodels of wind turbines.Avian/Bat MortalityBird and bat deaths are one of the most controversial biological issuesrelated to wind turbines. The deaths of birds and bats at wind farmsites have raised concerns by fish and wildlife agencies andconservation groups. On the other hand, several large wind facilitieshave operated for years with only minor impacts on these animals.To try to address this issue, the wind industry and governmentagencies have sponsored research into collisions, relevant bird andbat behavior, mitigation measures, and appropriate study designprotocols. In addition, project developers are required to collect datathrough monitoring efforts at existing and proposed wind energysites. Careful site selection is needed to minimize fatalities and in
some cases additional research may be needed to address bird andbat impact issues.While structures such as smokestacks, lighthouses, tall buildings, andradio and television towers have also been associated with bird andbat kills, bird and bat mortality is a serious concern for the windindustry.Other ConcernsUnlike most other generation technologies, wind turbines do not usecombustion to generate electricity, and hence dont produce airemissions. The only potentially toxic or hazardous materials arerelatively small amounts of lubricating oils and hydraulic andinsulating fluids. Therefore, contamination of surface or ground wateror soils is highly unlikely. The primary health and safetyconsiderations are related to blade movement and the presence ofindustrial equipment in areas potentially accessible to the public. Anadditional concern associated with wind turbines is potentialinterference with radar and telecommunication facilities. And like allelectrical generating facilities, wind generators produce electric andmagnetic fields.Wind Powered Nations and their MotivationsThe most overused necessity is electricity. The high demand on powerusage has become a problem to some countries and Nigeria inParticular. Scarcity of water greatly affects the supply of electricitythat can result to power outage. Since almost everything are beingpowered by electricity, an absence of is a great loss of money to mostbusinesses and a big discomfort to most households. Non-renewable resources like natural gases, oil and petroleumbecame a hit. Many realized that the use of these resources isbeneficial as an alternative way in producing electricity. The onlydisadvantage is that, the source is limited which is not an assurancethat you can use it continuously. One good option that they havethought of using is the energy generated by the wind.
The number of countries using wind energy for electricity generationincreased in the first half of 2012 to 86. All wind turbines installedworldwide have crossed 254 Gigawatt and can generate 430 TWh perannum, equalling 2,5 % of the global electricityconsumption(WWEA,September 2012).Using wind as the main source of energy is a win-win situation. Itssource is unlimited, free and most of all, natural. With thesecharacteristics, many countries have decided to use wind turbines buthere are the countries that are fervent users of wind energy, thuscradles of wind turbines: 1. United States. US is considered as one of the most successful and advanced country today. Of course, they use higher voltages of energy and they were also ranked first in generating energy through wind turbines. Power coming from these economical wind turbines is well used in the United States. Other renewable resources such as petroleum and various gases coming from fossils fuels results some side effects that are hazardous to human health. This community considers wind turbine as safe and effective renewable energy that can provide efficient electricity. Wind turbines are widely scattered in the US after the power of wind turbines were discovered. Total Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 49,802MW 2. Germany. This country is a pro-green community. More than 10% of the household are greatly dependent on wind turbines for their own power supply. With the same status like US, Germany is also considered as one of the most affluent countries that have advanced technology. They prefer to use wind energy compared to the gas that was produced by fossil fuels. They wanted to maintain the healthy environment on earth by relying to these wind turbines that are eco-friendly. Their contribution as a concerned citizen protecting the earth is a good example in
influencing people to rely on nature. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 30,016MW The Wind Fortress: Burg 1 Wind Farm in Germany shows ruling powerSource:WindPowerMonthly.com 3. India. This is also considered as a developing country that has a huge number of inhabitants. The big population consumes a big amount of energy in each household. More than 5% of the population relies on the effectiveness of wind power to be their tool in creating renewable energy of their own to sustain electricity. The growth of the percentage varies each year. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 17,351MW Hail the Gods: A Wind Farm in India salutes at the gray dusk Source: Dynamatics.com
4. France. Their cities are known of their lighting method. They use other renewable resources such as hydro-power and nuclear energy as well as wind power in generating electricity. Cities in France are generating their own power by using wind turbines for about 1% or more. They discovered the advantage of using wind turbines since it is safe and free and is not hazardous to the environment. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 7,182MW Gracing the Arable Fields: Serene wind turbines in the lovely rolling countryside in France Source: Spuddey.Wordpress.com5. United Kingdom. Wind turbines are scattered on their shores that seem like fences that enfolds the whole area. United Kingdom is also one of the countries that are actively using wind turbines as their source of electrical power. Their annual usage of wind energy is about 1-2%. There are certain areas in UK that provides good location for a wind turbine to take advantage of the wind’s full capacity. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 6,840MW
The Wind Shepherds: A wind farm in Scotland, UK serves as cradle of herds Source: UK.Reuters.com6. Spain. A whopping 11% of this country’s society is inclined in making use of our natural resources. The benevolent act of preserving nature concerning the earth is an attitude admirable for Spain. This mindset opened their consciousness to be protective to the environment and this is reflected on how active they are in using the natural energy coming from the wind that is generated through wind turbines.Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 22,087MW Remembering Olympus: Meira Wind Farm in Galicia, Spain prevails in the thick mist Source: RechargeNews.com7. China. This country is perceived to be destructing the environment but China wanted to change this perception by engaging themselves in using renewable resources that is purely
natural like this wind energy. The vast amounts of energy that are taken out from electric companies are widely distributed to each household but cannot accommodate all families in an area because of the country’s big population. This circumstance motivated China to find an alternative source to supply them enough electrical energy. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 67,774MW representing by far the largest windfarm market adding well over 1,500MW in 2012. Call of Duty: Wind turbines in Da Bancheng Wind Farm in China gather for full forceSource: TheHindu.com 8. Italy. Another environment friendly country, Italy is an elegant place and are well-liked by most tourist because of its panoramic view and beautiful architectures. Even this fine country also believes in wind turbine in providing excellent energy but is still environment friendly. Wind turbines are used partly in homes and even businesses in the said country. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 7,280MW
Welcoming the Blues: A wind farm in Italy greeting the bright blue skies Source: EnergyInsight.infoDenmark. Since the first oil crises in 1973 the main objectives ofDanish energy policy have been:Security of energy supply,diversification in use of energy sources, environmental andclimate aspects of the use of energy, cost effectiveness of energysupplies. In order torealize these goals various policies are beingfollowed. One policy is to develop as wellas utilize new energytechnologies. Another objective is to focus on energy solutions. Thisalone proves that Denmark is also environment conscious like theabove mentioned countries. This country is proud of their clean andpeaceful living to where there’s no pollution that can damage theenvironment. Installed Capacity as at June 2012 is 5,511 Empire Next to Bermuda: A huge offshore wind farm in Denmark rules the seas Source: TreeHugger.com
10. Portugal. Although the country is just small, their contribution inmaintaining a healthy environment is big. Around 11% of the country’sresidents are using wind power. They also believe in the effectivenessof the natural energy from wind to provide them electricity. Windturbines are greatly used in this country. Behold the Heights: Wind turbines towering the mountain peaks of Portugal Source:CSRPlus.co.ukThese countries belonged to the top ten spots that actively use windenergy by wind turbines. As you can see, wind turbines are alreadyknown worldwide as an excellent source of electricity. Thesecountries have proven the efficiency of the device to provide analternative source of energy without spending much and withoutcompromising the environment and the welfare of the people.Currently there are ninety seven (97) countries that have an installedcapacity of wind power.The various countries are listed in Table 1 below:
Number of Capacity (MW)Country ISO code Continent wind farms in the database listedAlbania AL Europe 2 650Algeria DZ Africa 1 25Argentina AR South America 15 174Armenia AM Asia 2 93Australia AU Oceania 52 3,218Austria AT Europe 113 1,315Azerbaijan AZ Asia 3 6Bangladesh BD Asia 2 2Belarus BY Europe 3 4Belgium BE Europe 85 1,391Brazil BR South America 82 1,814Bulgaria BG Europe 44 803Canada CA North America 134 6,288Cape Verde CV Africa 4 25Chile CL South America 9 313China CN Asia 460 47,920Colombia CO South America 1 20Costa Rica CR North America 11 281
Croatia HR Europe 10 198Cuba CU North America 3 8Cyprus CY Asia 6 228Czech Republic CZ Europe 50 262Denmark DK Europe 1,435 4,826Dominican DO North America 2 94RepublicEcuador EC South America 3 24Egypt EG Africa 8 547Eritrea ER Africa 1 1Estonia EE Europe 30 435Ethiopia ET Africa 2 171Faroe Islands FO Europe 2 5Fiji FJ Oceania 1 11Finland FI Europe 73 232France FR Europe 676 7,789Gambia GM Africa 1 1Germany DE Europe 3,651 33,332Greece GR Europe 121 1,683Grenada GD North America 1 1Guyana GY South America 1 14
Honduras HN North America 1 102Hungary HU Europe 32 543India IN Asia 411 14,104Indonesia ID Oceania 1 1Iran IR Asia 8 146Ireland IE Europe 132 1,884Israel IL Asia 1 6Italy IT Europe 327 8,219Jamaica JM North America 4 51Japan JP Asia 207 2,005Jordan JO Asia 3 2Kenya KE Africa 2 38Latvia LV Europe 9 32Libya LY Africa 1 20Lithuania LT Europe 51 198Luxembourg LU Europe 13 45Macedonia MK Europe 1 1Mauritania MR Africa 2 35Mauritius MU Africa 1 2Mexico MX North America 20 1,583
Mongolia MN Asia 8 51Morocco MA Africa 15 1,352Mozambique MZ Africa 1 1Namibia NA Africa 1 1Netherlands NL Europe 179 2,770New-Zealand NZ Oceania 17 624Nicaragua NI North America 4 163Nigeria NG Africa 1 11Norway NO Europe 29 900Pakistan PK Asia 1 6Panama PA North America 4 406Peru PE South America 2 1Philippines PH Oceania 3 59Poland PL Europe 95 1,867Portugal PT Europe 252 4,493Puerto Rico PR North America 1 76Romania RO Europe 45 2,259Russia RU Asia 8 15Saint Kitts and KN North America 2 303NevisSlovakia SK Europe 3 6
South Africa ZA Africa 4 62 South Korea KR Asia 34 578 Spain ES Europe 902 22,808 Sri Lanka LK Asia 5 47 Sweden SE Europe 765 3,161 Switzerland CH Europe 34 46 Taiwan TW Asia 20 509 Tanzania TZ Africa 1 50 Tunisia TN Africa 3 243 Turkey TR Asia 62 2,823 Ukraine UA Europe 13 245 United-Kingdom GB Europe 348 10,540 Uruguay UY South America 7 166 USA US North America 959 57,615 Vanuatu VU Oceania 1 4 Venezuela VE South America 1 101 Vietnam VN Asia 5 92Table 1: Countries around the world and their Wind Power Installedcapacity
Africa Perspective and Initiatives on Wind PowerThere are sixteen countries in the continent of Africa know to have aninstalled capacity of wind power or an ongoing wind farm project inthe database. Table 2 reflects the status of Windpower installed inAfrica. African Countries Using Wind Power for Electricity Generation Wind FarmCountry Listed Capacity in MWAlgeria 1 25Capeverde 4 25Egypt 8 547Eritrea 1 1Gambia 2 1Kenya 2 38Libya 1 35mauritania 2 35Mauritius 1 2Morocco 15 1,352Mozambique 1 1Nambia 1 1Nigeria 1 11South africa 1 50Tanzania 1 50Tunisia 3 243Table 2: Status of Wind Power Installed in AfricaChallenges that Must be Addressed in Africa Wind Power InstallationsAlthough wind energy is a clean and renewable source of electricpower, many challenges must be addressed. Wind turbines arecomplex machines, with large flexible structures working underturbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions, and areconnected to a constantly varying electrical grid with changingvoltages, frequency, power flow, and the like. Wind turbines have toadapt to those variations, so their efficiency and reliability depend
heavily on the control strategy applied. As wind energy penetration inthe grid increases, additional challenges are being revealed: responseto grid disturbances, active power control and frequency regulation,reactive power control and voltage regulation, restoration of gridservices after power outages, and wind prediction.The Government of South Africa has set up the South AfricanRenewables Initiative (SARi)to develop a financing arrangement thatwould enable a critical mass of renewables to be developed in SouthAfrica, through a combination of international loans and grants, aswell as domestic funding.East Africa Case StudyThe existing level of dedication has yet to be put into action. Thepotential for decentralsolutions with investments by the private sector still has to be fullyexploited.• Sector reform liberalization of the power sectoroUnbundlingoEstablishment of an independent, sufficiently financed and efficientregulatoroPossibility to sell power to the grid: standardized Power PurchaseAgreements(PPAs)• PSP in renewable energies sector policyoLong term perspective with binding quantitative objectivesoAdequate fixed PPA tariffs for renewable energiesoAvoidance of thermal power plants (especially diesel plants)• Finance and subsidiesoGovernment guaranteed schemes for private sector financingoPilot projects and schemes through national development banksoFacilitation of use of climate change funding i.e. CDM mechanisms,supportfrom national focal point, lobbying on international level for simplifiedprocedures
oExemption from import duties for all kinds of renewable energy andclimatefriendly technologiesoTax exemption for private sector investment in renewable energyprojectsoUse of budget funds for PPP projects• Use of rural electrification funds for private sector projectsoEstablishment of an explicit and clear policyoEstablishment of a strong implementation agencyoProvision of adequate fundingoEfficient and clear procedure for the distribution of funds (tenderingor call forproposals)• Encouragement of PSP in power sectoroPolicy for funding Private Sector Participation in infrastructureoPromotion of Public Private PartnershipoLegal framework for PPPoUse of development partner funds for PSPoModel PPA for electricity from gridoAdequate prices for production from renewable energy.Nigeria: Case StudyThe Nigeria Policy documents has identified the following as thebarriers to Renewable Electricity IndustryBarriers to the renewable electricity industrySpecific policy, regulatory, financing and investment, technological,public awareness, quality and standards, poor resource database andintermittency of resource availability confront the development of themarket for renewable electricity.a) Policy and regulatory barriersThe focus of national policy has consistently been on centralizedconventional sources of electric power. Several incentives wereestablished to promote investments in conventional power generation.Subsidizing grid power has so far penalized investments in alternative
energy solutions. This lack of a level playing field for all energysources and technologies has constituted a formidable barrier to thegrowth of alternative electricity services.Until lately, the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) was theonly entity legally permitted to produce and distribute electricity.Under the 2005 Act, independent power producers are permitted tooperate, however, the legal framework for successfully implementingPPA is still evolving. The perception of significant regulatory risks bypotential investors and financial institutions compound the challengesfaced by potential renewable electricity investors. Moreover,guaranteed access to the grid is an important element of aninvestment decision to embark on grid-connected power projects. Atpresent, a non-discriminatory open access to the national electricitygrid, for renewable power, is not assured.b) Financing and Investment barriersRenewable energy projects have high initial costs. This affects theoverall cost of energy produced per kWh. Investors will not befavorably disposed to wind, small hydro or power from cogenerationplants if they will not make profit by selling the electricity. Averageelectricity tariff in Nigeria is put at about N6:75 per KW-h(approximately 5 cents per kWh). Average cost of typical sources ofrenewable power for mini hydro is 5-10 cents; solar PV: 20-40 cents;biomass power: 5-12cents; wind power: 6-10 cents. Without adequatefinancial incentives market entry will be difficult.Renewable electricity projects are not common practice, thereforebankers perceive a higher degree of risk and are reluctant to lend –instead they give preference to large-scale conventional electricityinvestments. Interest rates are generally high and the appetite for longterm credits are low among financial institutions, especially for non-business-as-usual projects as small scale renewable power projects.Nigeria has no significant manufacturing capacity for components ofrenewable energy technologies. The existing capacity in solar PV andsmall hydro plants is limited. Significant supply chain constraintsinclude long project implementation periods, high import tariffs, bottle-necks in the customs clearing of goods and the issue of corruption.
c) Technological BarrierAs noted in the 2005 National Renewable Energy Master Plan1supplies and servicing for renewable electricity projects are notreadily available in Nigeria. Therefore, potential IPPs may facesignificant logistical challenges in procuring equipment andmaintenance support for renewable electricity projects.Beyond the local availability of supplies, there are significant gaps inthe capacity for manufacture and maintenance of system componentssuch as small hydro and wind turbines. In most cases, the choice anddesign of turbines are site-specific. With no local turbinemanufacturers available in Nigeria, this adds to project complexity andcosts. The simple fact that the project will be dependent onmanufactures of the turbines for spares and major maintenancepresents a major technical challenge. To compound these barriers,these projects are often located in remote areas and therefore facesignificant challenges in attracting competent and qualified manpowerfor operations.d) Public awarenessThere is limited public awareness of the potentials of renewableelectricity in meeting some of the energy and development challengesfacing the country. The inadequacy of awareness creates a marketdistortion which results in higher risk perception for potentialrenewable electricity projects. The general perception is that theseforms of energy technologies are not mature and only suited for nichemarkets.e) Standards and quality controlA major constraint to the development of the renewable energy marketin Nigeria is the poorly established standard and quality control oflocally manufactured and imported technologies. Creating qualityassurance is a precondition for building consumer confidence and ingrowing the market for renewable energy. Two important dimensionsto issues of quality include the perception of potential users, poorlydeveloped regime for standards setting, testing and certification aswell as professionalism among operators.f) Inadequate resource assessmentThe growth of the renewable power industry will depend to a largeextent on the availability of a solid resource database. Reliable and
up-to-date sources of data will assist investors in making decisions onrenewable electricity.g) Intermittency of resource availabilityAn underlying barrier affecting all renewable electricity resources isthe intermittency of their availability. The challenge of energy storageand system management presents a major challenge and adds to thecomplexity and costs of renewable electricity.The Policy Guideline establishes a framework to addresses the abovebarriers. It creates measures that enable market expansion andprivate sector participation in renewable electricity business. Itfurther facilitates grid-connected and off-grid operations as well asincreased role for renewable electricity in rural electrification.Transmission Issues Associated with Power Evacuation• Major challenges faced are way leave issues.– Globally, transmission line projects have always beenresisted by the host communities.– While elsewhere, resistance is due to fear of electromagneticradiation and degradation of property value, in Nigeria resistance isfuelled by demand for payment of compensation for traversingancestral lands.• The weather has a significant influence on the pace of work. Duringtheperiods of heavy rainfall, not much work can be accomplished.• Again, since the transmission projects cut across forests the work isgenerally slowed down by the lack of access roads, this is made worseduring the rainy season.• Bad roads also affect the transportation and handling of heavyequipmentlike transformers. A case in point is an incident where two powertransformers fell and were damaged when being transported to thesite.
Wind Power Potentials in Nigeria 1. Data Source Reflecting the Wind Availability in NigeriaThe data employed for the study were monthly mean wind speedsobtained from the Nigerian meteorologicaldepartment, Oshodi, Lagosstate, Nigeria covering the period from 1987 to 2007. These wererecordedcontinuously using cup-generator anemometer at a height of10 m. Figs. 1 and 2 gives the 21 years’ monthly andyearly averagedistribution of the mean speeds, while Figs. 3 and 4 presents themonthly and annual range of meanmeasured wind speed profilesacross the period.Fig1: Plots of 21 years monthly Average Wind Speed
Fig 2: Plots of 21 years Annual Wind SpeedGlobal Steps taken that Encourages Wind Power Utilizationthat can be adopted in NigeriaSeveral countries have adopted special programs to subsidize andpromote wind energy. Among the most successful ones are the feed-in-tariff (FiT) programs and the production tax credit (PTC) programs.The FiT programs have been adopted by more than 60 countries andstates all over the world, including some of the top-producingcountries: Germany, Spain, Canada, and Denmark. They typicallyinclude:(1) guaranteed grid access for the wind farm, (2) long-term contracts to sell the electricity produced by the windturbines, and (3) purchase prices for distributed renewable generation that aresubstantially higher than the retail price of electricity (and willgradually be reduced toward grid parity).
Career OpportunitiesThe wind industry is experiencing record growth, and subsequently thedemand for trained labor is increasing at all levels, from high schoolgraduates to students with advanced degrees.A broad range of career opportunities already exists for individualswho wish to work within the wind industry, and the number ofpositions and career paths is increasing quickly. Many of theseopportunities are found within the manufacturing industry and willrequire trained managers, contractors, engineers, materialsspecialists, designers, operators of equipment and systems,assemblers, technicians, analysts, utility experts, legal professionals,sales/procurements specialists, and accountants.ConclusionIt can be summarized that renewable energies have become more andmore competitive, mainly due to the increase of oil prices but also as aresult of technological progress and economies of scale resulting fromgrowing markets.Renewable energies have thus become a key element of energy supplystrategies, aiming at diversified investment portfolios that representan optimum combination of least cost and riskmitigation aspects. Furthermore it was stated that the expanded useof renewable energies isa key element to limit further global warmingand climate change.Most national energy policies worldwide aim at ensuring an energyportfolio that supports a cleaner environment and stronger economyand that strengthens national security by providing a stable, diverse,domestic energy supply. Clean energy is a global and urgentimperative. Renewable generation, especially from wind and solar, andsmart grid concepts are critical technologies needed to address globalenergy warming and related issues. The key challenge is to reduce thecost of renewable energies to affordable levels. And Nigeria policymakers can actualize their mid term target of 40MW wind power by theend of Year 2020 as part of NV 20:2020 if extra implementationcommitment is placed on the wind power.
Scenes from the 10MW Windfarm in KatsinaScene 1: Turbine Inspection
Scene 2: Wind Turbine(Nacelle) Installation on the Tubular tower
Scene 5: various Scenes displaying the Environmental Comfortabilityof a Wind Farm
Scene 6: HV Transformers at the Shelter base of each turbine
Scene 6: Wind Generated Power SubstationScene 7: Work on the Transmission Lines from the Substation inProgress
Power System Network Grid Code requirements are always related to the PCC Wind Turbine 0.69 /33 kV 33 kVGenerator Converter WTG Trafo Busbar 132/400 kV 400/16 kV 33 kV Wind Turbine Busbar 0.69 /33 kV 33 kV 33/132 kV 132 kV 132 kVGenerator Converter WTG Trafo Busbar Park Trafo Busbar PCC Power Station Wind Turbine 0.69 /33 kV 33 kVGenerator Converter WTG Trafo Busbar 132/50 kV 50/10 kV 10/0.4 kV HPPP Consumer
References:1. Wind Power Planning and Public Engagement:Challenges andOpportunities.www.windpower.org2. DrMhairiAitken∗ISSTI Briefing Note (Number 8) May 2010www.issti.ed.ac.uk3. AWEA (American Wind Energy Association). Wind Energy Basics[Online], 2007. Available at http://www.awea.org/newsroom/pdf/Wind_Energy_Basics.pdf.4. T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, and E. Bossanyi. Wind EnergyHandbook. London: Wiley, 2001.5. Eduardo F. Camacho, Tariq Samad, Mario Garcia-Sanz, and IanHiskens. Control for Renewables and Smart Grids6. poul Erick MorthorstRiso DTU Technical UniversityDenmark.WindEnergy.The Facts Part 3:”The Economics of WindPowe”r.
7. Final Report. Invest in Renewable Energies in East Africa. EastAfrica Renewable Energy Council. Dr. Fromme InternationalConsulting(DFIC).8. Engr. Otis Anyeaji(New Initiatives on Electric Power TransmissionAnd distribution in Nigeria. 6th Annual German African EnergyForumn,Hamburg Germany9. Ajayi O.O.;Fagbenle R.O.;Katende J. “Wind Profile Characteristicsand Econometrics analysis of wind Power Generation of a site inSokoto state Nigeria: Energy science and technology.Vol.1, No. 2,2011PP. 54-66.ISSN 1923- 8479.www.cscanada.org10. Prof. Dr. IngJurgenSchmid Master Plan fo Renewable Energy BasedGeneration in the Gambia. March 2010.11. Agbetuyi A. Felix, Akinbulire T.O, Abdulkareem A,AwosopeC.O.A;Wind Energy Potential in Nigeria. InternationalElectrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. 3 (2012) No. 1, pp. 595-601ISSN 2078-2365 59512. Dr Ian Mays, CEO, Renewable Energy Systems Group. Ecology andtechnology – how can modern technologies protect the environment?Published in The Independent, 22 February 2007:13. The World wind Energy Association(WWEA),2012 Half Yearreport.www.wwindea.org14. Prof. A.S. Sambo,”Renewable Energy Policy and Plans inNigeria.Power Kick 2011,Nicon Luxury Hotel Abuja.15. Abridged Version,Nigeria Vision 20:202016. Federal Ministry of Power and Steel,Federal Republic of Nigeria.Renewable Energy Policy Guidelines.December 200617. U.S. Department of Energy;Energy Efficiency and RenewableEnergy”Wind Energy Programs forSchools”www.windpoweringamerica.org18. Wind Power in the Nordic Region; Conditions for Expansion.October 201119. PrebenMaegaard;Danish Renewable Energy Policy20. America Wind Energy Association(AWEA);The Reality of U.S.energy Incentives21. http://windturbinesllc.blogspot.com/2011/02/10-cradles-of-wind-turbines-resourceful.html
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