In thispresentation, we will discuss various aspects of video based learning. Either used on its own or blended with other forms of learning, video is a powerful medium to supplement classroom learning or enhance self-learning experience. However, if video is not produced and delivered properly, it may not have the desired impact on learning.
Today, videos have become a powerful social phenomenon. YouTube, mobile phones and handheld devices – we are no longer consumers of content, we can create it easily and share it with public.If pictures can speak a 1000 words, then, probably videos can speak 10,000 or a million words!Videos are available in different forms - animation, live and recorded video, simulation, screencast, slideshow, webinar, games, virtual learning environment, movie clippings and so on.
Some reasons for high penetration of video: ease of production, simple user friendly technology, shoot and share, smart phones and social media.What attracts us to videos:human presence, action, animation, moving images….It caters to different learning styles, engages us, presence of a person, the human element, live shooting, real life.There is scope for mixing different visual elementswatch, listen, view and interact at our own pace and time. It has better learnability than attending a classroom lecture.what content suits most? Different content types, different subjects in school and college curriculum, workforce training with softskills training, technical training, demonstrations.In a live video based presentation - presenter is important, how the presentation is done, passive or interactive? asking questions, keeping the audience engaged – these points should be considered.
Video suits best for content that needs viewing and explaining in a way that can’t be done easily from text; teaching about resources that are too expensive or dangerous for learner access; remote, rare occurrences, such as a volcanoesor earthquakes. The most impactful video presentations in many instances are those that can be interrupted to provide learner interaction. Let’s look at some examples.
This type of content can be used easily since it’s available on the web. It can be integrated into formal learning as well.
Video blogs are presentations that can be accessed and viewed at our convenience. This one, particularly, is helped in learning specific content (here concept of viral marketing). We can comment after watching the video and interact with the presenter or expert.
This is from the popular site – Khan Academy – several million students have benefited from these videos intended to teach subjects like maths, statistics and others in the school /college curriculum.
NPTEL videos have thousands of hours of content, mostly from different engineering subjects. These videos can be embedded in web based learning, they can be downloaded and viewed from DVDs. You may find that these videos run into hours and they are not structured into small chunks. An in most cases, it would be difficult to sustain interest for continuous long periods.
Most NPTEL videos have demonstrations , like the one shown here.
This is a recorded webinar that I watched for learning about social media. The advantage of recording is that we need not struggle to attend the webinar live, if it is hosted at odd hours.
Creating the content or using video content repositories – in both cases the five points are essential.These points establish certain parameterswhen we access videos in different ways:Video on mobile phones Video on handheld devices and other gadgetsTelevision and interactive video and TVVideo accessed from satelliteVideo accessed from DVDs and other storage devices There could be problems like achieving stereo audio quality, avoid pixelation while playing, use ofcolours, viewing window size, HD quality…Download time matters - internet connection, mobile internet, streaming serversWorking with video content repository:how to use video from different sources - supplement your content, complement it?
What can be read from book or what can be recorded as audio need not be presented as video:there should clarity why we are using videoKnowledge aboutcost of production and post production.Why are we using video? We need to be clear about it. This can be done by performing analysis at the pre-design stage of content development. This includes analyzing the learners, context and content. After analysis we will get detailed information pertaining to: who are the learners, are they comfortable viewing videos, from what device would they view it? What is the content are the developing? Can it not be offered through simple web pages or read in books? What is the budget? Are we building the content? Using the existing sources? Or buying from vendors? There are several other questions that get answered in this process, helping us in making the right decision.
Do we need a script or storyboard while developing video content? This depends on: are we creating a video? using available video? Modifying an existing one? Preparing a live video? For what type of content, what purpose of learning?For example in vocational training - for high school dropouts - not comfortable with reading text but like to listen and viewlet's say we are teaching them skills like carpentry, masonry, - easy to demonstrate "how to do something...“than read about it, learning can be made immersive with interactive exercises and games that help them apply the content in real life scenarios.The content needs to be reviewed thoroughly in video format and there should be options to build interactivity after publishing – like add comments, ask questions (in live videos), share insights or send an SMS to interact with presentation on live TV!
Creating video may be simple and easy - with high end mobile phones (camera integrated), digital video cameras, but there are several specifications that need to be followed in different stages of production.What is the camera, how is quality of lighting? Is it a studio? Where do we shoot the video? What tools are we using for editing?If it’s a live event, live virtual classroom: is the presenter aware of how he or she should make a presentation, where to pause, eye contact with audience, preparation and rehearsals, how to use the whiteboard while speaking and interacting and so on…What is the output? format for uploading on YouTube, file size, authenticity of contentlive video in synchronous learningreplay recorded video eg: DVD player for USB
The video experience depends on the quality of broadband and mobile data connection. Quality and consistency:HD Quality, no pixelation, goodstreaming even on low bandwidthFile format for YouTube - .mov or MP4 format, Resolution: 1280 x 720 for HD qualityFile format for LMS - SCORM packaged files that can be accessed from different LMS.File conversion: MP3 - compressed file Use of suitable Codecs for conversion (from wav, wmv, wma to MP3 or 3GP)For mobile phones: 3G and 4G - latest in mobile technologiesWe may also need different Apps for viewing video content on smart phones...
Evaluation is essential to assess the learning experience. We can use different feedback mechanisms to obtain feedback – perhaps use social media like Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter to receive comments, suggestions and questions. This will help us in improving the video, assessing the appropriateness of content, evaluate the design, and use these inputs for further enhancements. It is also important to know the ROI aspects – in monetary terms and in terms of experiential returns.
5 Essentials of Effective Video Based Learning
Madhuri Dubey, Ph.DAuthor : Effective E-Learning: Design, Development and Delivery
Agenda Introduction to video in blended learning Increasing penetration of videos Some examples 5 Essentials of effective video based learning Challenges in video based learning
Introduction If pictures can speak a 1000 words, then, probably videos can speak 10,000 or a million words! The ubiquitous video – shoot and share! Social dimension of video – for example, YouTube, Facebook Shift from content consumers to content creators
Video penetration Learning with the help of video Caters to different learning styles Synchronous and asynchronous learning Ease of access – web and mobile Suits different types of content
Examples Videos for supplementing classroom learning Videos for enhancing self-learning Live/synchronous videos in virtual learning environments
5 Essentials of Effective videobased learning Rationale for using video Plan, strategize, design Develop and deliver/publish Technical aspects Evaluation and follow-up
Rationale for using video Pre-design analysis Learner analysis Context analysis Content analysis
Plan, strategize, design Instructional design Content scoping and structuring Instructional strategy Script or storyboard Content review Building interactivity
Production and post production Pre-production (analysis and design) Production (tools and technical expertise) Post-production (editing and publishing)
Technical aspects Infrastructure, connectivity File formats (for YouTube, LMS) Embedding and integration File conversion and compression (for the web, mobile devices and handheld gadgets) Quality and consistency
Evaluation and follow-up Feedback mechanism Use of social media Improvements and enhancements Return on investment (ROI)
Challenges Production : technology and tools Deployment: compatibility , quality and format Evaluation and learner feedback