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Cosmetic Toxicity
Leul Biruk
MD 014/15
Myungsung Medical College
19/01/2017
Outline
• Definition
• Introduction
• Chemicals of concern
• Commonly used products
• Summary & Conclusion
• References
Objective
• At the end of this session:
• You should be aware of the more important toxic chemicals contained in your
dail...
Definition
• Cosmetics:
 “any particle intended to be applied to the human
body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting
att...
Facts
• The word “cosmetic” comes from the same root as “cosmos”
meaning order or adornment.
• One of the earliest referen...
Cont’
• In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church generally considered the use of
cosmetics a sin......though some made exce...
Introduction
Low dose
exposure
Timing of
exposure
Mixtures &
Interactions
Regulations
Limitations
of our
presentation
Low dose exposure
Pb
EDC (endocrine disrupting chemicals)
Timing of exposure
• “Windows of susceptibility”
• Prenatal development
• Puberty
Mixtures & Interactions
• Exposure is continuous
• Mixtures are rarely tested for health
effects
Regulations
• US
• EU
• Ethiopia
• Drug Administration and Control
Proclamation No. 176/1999
Limitations of our presentation
• Little or no research done on most of the chemicals
• Researches either done on animals ...
Chemicals of concern
Chemicals of concern
• 1,4 Dioxane
• Parabens
• Fragnance
• Heavy metals
• Petrolatum and mineral oils
• Acrylates
• Talc
...
1,4 Dioxane
• Ethoxylation
• Sodium laurel sulfate Sodium laureth sulfate
• Other common ingredients: PEG cpds and chemica...
Health concerns
• Routes of exposure
• Dermal contact
• Distribution: rapid and uniform
• Acute : nausea, drowsiness, head...
Cont’
• Weakly genotoxic and reproductive effects; slightly toxic to the
developing fetus.
• Animal studies: increased inc...
Parabens
• Preservatives.
• Absorption: skin and GI
• FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions,
facial and shower cleanse...
Health concern
• Routes of exposure
• Dermal
• Metabolism and Excretion
• excreted in urine as the metabolite PHBA
• are n...
Cont’
• Parabens and pregnancy
• cross the placenta
• accumulate in the blood of the growing baby.
• 94% of newborns have ...
Endocrine Disruption
• Mechanism
mimic estrogen
block androgens
inhibit ENZ metab. Estrogen
• Breast CA (MCF-7 cells)
•...
Cont’
• Skin CA
• Methylparaben: UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell
proliferation
• Daily application
...
Fragrance
• A combo of chemicals that gives
each perfume or cologne its distinct
scent.(FDA)
• Ingredients: petroleum or n...
Cont’
• FOUND IN: sunscreen, shampoo, soap, body wash, deodorant, body
lotion, makeup, facial cream, skin toner, serums, e...
Heavy metals
• Lead, arsenic, mercury, aluminum
• Ingredients or Contaminants
• FOUND IN: Lip products, whitening toothpas...
HEALTH CONCERNS
• Lead:
• potential impurity in many color cosmetics,
including lipstick.
• Neurotoxin: learning, language...
Cont’
• Mercury:
• readily absorbed through skin.
• linked to nervous system toxicity
• may disrupt thyroid hormones.
• ha...
Cont’
• Aluminum-based compounds
• Found in: deodorants, antiperspirants, lipsticks, toothpastes
• Bone: compete with phos...
Petrolatum/Petroleum Jelly
• Derived from petroleum
• Moisturizing agent.
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
• FOUN...
Cont’
• Properties
• softens upon application and forms a water-repellant film
• creates an effective barrier against
• th...
HEALTH CONCERN
• Cancer.
• Primary concern with petrolatum is the potential contamination with PAHs
• Carcinogens
• HOW TO...
Common products used
SOAP
Soap
Toxic ingredients
• Triclosan
• Dioxane
• Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
• Diethanolamine
• Formaldehyde
• Parabens
Triclosan
• Anti-bacterial
• Leads to anti-biotic resistant/resilient bacteria
• Is endocrine disruptor (estrogen)
• Disru...
Diethanolamine
• Easily absorbed through the skin
• Combines with nitrate preservatives
Diethanoalmine + nitrates
Nitrosod...
Formaldehyde
• Made by oxidation of methanol
• Chemicals that release formaldehyde are found in soap.
• Eg: Diazolidnyl ur...
lipstick
LIPSTICKS
Toxic Ingredients
• Butylene glycol
• Lead
• Mineral oil
• Coal tar
Butylene(propylene) glycol
• Ingested: metabo. into b-hydroxybutyraldehyde which is then converted
into acetyl CoA-- ATP
•...
Cont’
• Ethylene glycol- is toxic upon ingestion, causing direct toxicity to
erythrocytes [red blood cells].
• In huge ora...
toothpaste
TOOTHPASTE
Toothpaste
• Mouth--- direct absorption to blood stream
• Colgate is the only tooth paste approved by FDA to fight plaque ...
Toxic Ingredients
• Triclosan (antimicrobial)
• linked to concerns over antibiotic resistance
• help prevent gingivitis
• ...
Cont’
• SLS(sodium laureth sulfate )
• Used to create foaming actions
• Bad mouth odor
• Bitter taste
• Swallow---upset st...
Cont’
• Aspartame
• aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
• synthetically modified to carry a methyl group, which provides
the ...
Cont’
• Fluoride
• The best cavity fighter in teeth-- remineralization
• Toxicity: neurological and endocrine dysfunction
...
Tattoos
HISTORY OF TATTOOS
Tattoo
• Tattoo inks include
• Pigment: by metallic salts: oxides, selenides, sulfides
• Organic dyes/plastics
• Carriers:...
Mechanism of the Tattoo
The tattoo needles puncture the skin 50-3000x per
minute.
The capillary action draws the skin into...
Cont’d
Cont’
• Tattoo inks may be made from titanium dioxide, lead, chromium,
nickel, iron oxides, ash and carbon black.
• Black ...
Tattoo & Immune System
• Some studies show that multiple tattoos have
stronger immunological response
• Obtained saliva sa...
Components of tattoo ink
• Carrier ingredients
• Can include formaldehyde, methanol, denatured alcohols
• Pigments: made f...
Cont’
• Some pigments have a metallic base
• Cobalt: BLUE
• Cadmium sulfite: YELLOW
• Mercury: RED CINNABAR
• Neon/vividly...
Cont’
• If the carriers contain alcohol, the permeability of the skin increases
• This increase in permeability enhances t...
HENNA TATTOO (ሂና)
HENNA TATTOO (ሂና)
• Henna
• powdered leaves of a tropical shrub used as reddish-
brown dye to color the hair and decorate ...
Prevention on adverse effects of tattoo
• Skin tests performed before hand
• Choose inks that are widespread known and saf...
Hair Dye
HAIR DYE
Damaging Ingredients
• Ammonia/Ammonium hydroxide
• Resorcinol: toxic to immune system, causes allergy
• PPD (para-phenyle...
Ammonia /Ammonium Hydroxide/
• Used to increase the shelf life of products
• Increases hair pH
• Opens the hair shaft so t...
Handling of Cosmetics
• Avoid Moisture and Heat
• Pack With Care
• Store your makeup in a clean, dry area, away from dust ...
Summary
Product Chemicals Concerns
Soap Triclosan, SLS, Formalin, Parabens,
Diethanolamine
Anibotic resistance, EDC, Carci...
Conclusion
• Dermal worse than oral…
• Why don’t we see this side effects in us?
Discussion
• Do you think the chemicals found in fragrances (Which are found in
most of our products) should be kept as tr...
Reference
• safecosmetics.org
• atsdr.cdc.gov
• skindeepdatabase.com
• www.davidsuzuki.org
• Danish epa- paraben.pdf
• htt...
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Cosmetics toxicity LB

A review of frequently used cosmetics product and their toxicity.

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Cosmetics toxicity LB

  1. 1. Cosmetic Toxicity Leul Biruk MD 014/15 Myungsung Medical College 19/01/2017
  2. 2. Outline • Definition • Introduction • Chemicals of concern • Commonly used products • Summary & Conclusion • References
  3. 3. Objective • At the end of this session: • You should be aware of the more important toxic chemicals contained in your daily cosmetic products • You will be able to recognize their toxic effects • You should be able to avoid or at least minimize the use of some of these specific toxic chemicals
  4. 4. Definition • Cosmetics:  “any particle intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." • Cosmetics toxicity:  “toxicity due to application of cosmetics to the human body.”
  5. 5. Facts • The word “cosmetic” comes from the same root as “cosmos” meaning order or adornment. • One of the earliest references to cosmetics is in the Old Testament 2 Kings 9:30 which tells of Jezebel putting on eye make-up. • The use of cosmetics was also documented in Ancient Egypt and may go back 6,000 years. • "A woman without paint is like food without salt.“ - Roman philosopher, Plautus
  6. 6. Cont’ • In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church generally considered the use of cosmetics a sin......though some made exceptions for those who had been made unattractive by illness. • In ancient Rome, lipstick was a mark of social rank and was seen as a sign of status for both men and women. • The average UK woman spends two years of her life applying make-up costing around £100,000.
  7. 7. Introduction Low dose exposure Timing of exposure Mixtures & Interactions Regulations Limitations of our presentation
  8. 8. Low dose exposure Pb EDC (endocrine disrupting chemicals)
  9. 9. Timing of exposure • “Windows of susceptibility” • Prenatal development • Puberty
  10. 10. Mixtures & Interactions • Exposure is continuous • Mixtures are rarely tested for health effects
  11. 11. Regulations • US • EU • Ethiopia • Drug Administration and Control Proclamation No. 176/1999
  12. 12. Limitations of our presentation • Little or no research done on most of the chemicals • Researches either done on animals and are generally epidemiological • Limited # of ppl participated on the researches done.
  13. 13. Chemicals of concern
  14. 14. Chemicals of concern • 1,4 Dioxane • Parabens • Fragnance • Heavy metals • Petrolatum and mineral oils • Acrylates • Talc • Hydroquinone • Coal tar • Formaldehyde • Triclosan
  15. 15. 1,4 Dioxane • Ethoxylation • Sodium laurel sulfate Sodium laureth sulfate • Other common ingredients: PEG cpds and chemicals that include the clauses “xynol,” “ceteareth” and “oleth” (on labels) • FOUND IN: Products that create suds C4H8O2
  16. 16. Health concerns • Routes of exposure • Dermal contact • Distribution: rapid and uniform • Acute : nausea, drowsiness, headache, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat • Chronic : dermatitis, eczema, drying and cracking of skin and liver and kidney damage
  17. 17. Cont’ • Weakly genotoxic and reproductive effects; slightly toxic to the developing fetus. • Animal studies: increased incidences of nasal cavity, liver and gall bladder tumors after exposure to 1,4-dioxane. • Carcinogenic- group 3
  18. 18. Parabens • Preservatives. • Absorption: skin and GI • FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions, facial and shower cleansers and scrubs • Ingredients ending in “–paraben” • Methylparaben and propylparaben most common. • 0.4%(single) and 0.8%(multiple)
  19. 19. Health concern • Routes of exposure • Dermal • Metabolism and Excretion • excreted in urine as the metabolite PHBA • are not accumulated in the body, and serum concentrations of parabens quickly decline and remain low
  20. 20. Cont’ • Parabens and pregnancy • cross the placenta • accumulate in the blood of the growing baby. • 94% of newborns have parabens in their blood & more than half, have more than their mother • Prenatal exposure: learning difficulties & autistic-like behavior
  21. 21. Endocrine Disruption • Mechanism mimic estrogen block androgens inhibit ENZ metab. Estrogen • Breast CA (MCF-7 cells) • Isopropyl- and isobutyl parabens are the most potent • “Long chain” parabens have the strongest estrogenic activity
  22. 22. Cont’ • Skin CA • Methylparaben: UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell proliferation • Daily application • Paraben + other estrogenic chemicals Malignant melanoma • Developmental and reproductive toxicity • Propyl and butyl parabens: reduce sperm production and reduce testosterone • dose-dependent • Butylparaben mother (gestation and lactation) alters development of reproductive organs and sperm production
  23. 23. Fragrance • A combo of chemicals that gives each perfume or cologne its distinct scent.(FDA) • Ingredients: petroleum or natural raw materials. • The chemical components in fragrance itself are protected as trade secrets and described on the label only as “fragrance.” Some Common chemicals Acetaldehyde Formaldehyde Benzophenone Ethanolamines Benzylsalicylate Methanol 1-4 Dioxane Propylparaben Chloromethane Resorcinol Diethylpthalate Styrene Essential oil mixtures Synthetic musks
  24. 24. Cont’ • FOUND IN: sunscreen, shampoo, soap, body wash, deodorant, body lotion, makeup, facial cream, skin toner, serums, exfoliating scrubs and perfume. • WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Fragrance, perfume, parfum, essential oil blend, aroma.
  25. 25. Heavy metals • Lead, arsenic, mercury, aluminum • Ingredients or Contaminants • FOUND IN: Lip products, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner, nail color, foundations, sunscreens, eye shadows, blush, concealer, moisturizers, eye drops • WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Lead acetate, chromium, thimerosal, hydrogenated cotton seed oil, sodium hexametaphosphate
  26. 26. HEALTH CONCERNS • Lead: • potential impurity in many color cosmetics, including lipstick. • Neurotoxin: learning, language and behavioral problems • reduced fertility in both men and women • crosses placenta
  27. 27. Cont’ • Mercury: • readily absorbed through skin. • linked to nervous system toxicity • may disrupt thyroid hormones. • hazardous during fetal development
  28. 28. Cont’ • Aluminum-based compounds • Found in: deodorants, antiperspirants, lipsticks, toothpastes • Bone: compete with phosphorous (Osteomalacia) • Neurotoxicity
  29. 29. Petrolatum/Petroleum Jelly • Derived from petroleum • Moisturizing agent. • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) • FOUND IN: Lotions, Cosmetics • WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Petrolatum, Petroleum Jelly, Paraffin Oil, Mineral Oil and White Petrolatum (refined and safe for use).
  30. 30. Cont’ • Properties • softens upon application and forms a water-repellant film • creates an effective barrier against • the evaporation of the skin’s natural moisture and • foreign particles or microorganisms that may cause infection. • odorless and colorless, and has an inherently long shelf life.
  31. 31. HEALTH CONCERN • Cancer. • Primary concern with petrolatum is the potential contamination with PAHs • Carcinogens • HOW TO AVOID: Avoid products with petrolatum, unless clearly indicated that petrolatum is fully refined as White petrolatum
  32. 32. Common products used
  33. 33. SOAP
  34. 34. Soap
  35. 35. Toxic ingredients • Triclosan • Dioxane • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate • Diethanolamine • Formaldehyde • Parabens
  36. 36. Triclosan • Anti-bacterial • Leads to anti-biotic resistant/resilient bacteria • Is endocrine disruptor (estrogen) • Disrupts hormone metabolism • Displaces hormone from hormone receptor • Disrupts steroidogenic enzyme activity
  37. 37. Diethanolamine • Easily absorbed through the skin • Combines with nitrate preservatives Diethanoalmine + nitrates Nitrosodiethanolamine • Is carcinogenic: kidney and liver cancer • In pregnant women: inhibits baby from absorbing choline which is vital for brain development
  38. 38. Formaldehyde • Made by oxidation of methanol • Chemicals that release formaldehyde are found in soap. • Eg: Diazolidnyl urea: releases formaldehyde • Weakens the immune system • Results in respiratory disorders, frequent headaches, chronic fatigue, irregular heart beat, allergic reactions (epidemiologic study).
  39. 39. lipstick LIPSTICKS
  40. 40. Toxic Ingredients • Butylene glycol • Lead • Mineral oil • Coal tar
  41. 41. Butylene(propylene) glycol • Ingested: metabo. into b-hydroxybutyraldehyde which is then converted into acetyl CoA-- ATP • Does not produce adverse effects in humans until the amount ingested becomes a significant contributor to the individual’s caloric requirement • Toxic when concentration is greater than 0.5%
  42. 42. Cont’ • Ethylene glycol- is toxic upon ingestion, causing direct toxicity to erythrocytes [red blood cells]. • In huge oral doses, propylene glycol can cause liver and kidney toxicity • Propylene glycol is both a skin irritant and a sensitizer
  43. 43. toothpaste TOOTHPASTE
  44. 44. Toothpaste • Mouth--- direct absorption to blood stream • Colgate is the only tooth paste approved by FDA to fight plaque and gingivitis • In kids most of the paste is swallowed • Most commonly used toothpastes in Ethiopia:
  45. 45. Toxic Ingredients • Triclosan (antimicrobial) • linked to concerns over antibiotic resistance • help prevent gingivitis • endocrine disruption • Found in high concentration in placenta
  46. 46. Cont’ • SLS(sodium laureth sulfate ) • Used to create foaming actions • Bad mouth odor • Bitter taste • Swallow---upset stomach and possible diarrhea • Skin irritation and painful canker sores • SLS-free toothpaste should be used for people with recurring sores
  47. 47. Cont’ • Aspartame • aspartic acid and phenylalanine. • synthetically modified to carry a methyl group, which provides the majority of the sweetness. • Methyl will form methanol---- methanol toxicity
  48. 48. Cont’ • Fluoride • The best cavity fighter in teeth-- remineralization • Toxicity: neurological and endocrine dysfunction • Children: non-fluoride toothpaste • Teeth- mottled brown enamel • HOME MADE TOOTHPASTE • Charcoal • ‘Mefakiya’: antimicrobial efficacy http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2006/08/25/researchers_foun d_that_a_chewing_stick_u
  49. 49. Tattoos
  50. 50. HISTORY OF TATTOOS
  51. 51. Tattoo • Tattoo inks include • Pigment: by metallic salts: oxides, selenides, sulfides • Organic dyes/plastics • Carriers: mixed with the ink to provide even application of the ink.
  52. 52. Mechanism of the Tattoo The tattoo needles puncture the skin 50-3000x per minute. The capillary action draws the skin into the blood. Becomes permanent when the immune system tries to save the body from all the wounds.
  53. 53. Cont’d
  54. 54. Cont’ • Tattoo inks may be made from titanium dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, iron oxides, ash and carbon black. • Black tattoos have Benzo-a-pyrene • Caused skin cancer in animals • Tattoo inks have the tendency to travel to the lymphatic system • can affect the immune system • Excreted by the liver
  55. 55. Tattoo & Immune System • Some studies show that multiple tattoos have stronger immunological response • Obtained saliva samples from 29 volunteers -- nine of whom were getting their first tattoos. • Results • Increased level of Immunoglobulin A and cortisol • Temporary increase of immune system Study at university of Alabama
  56. 56. Components of tattoo ink • Carrier ingredients • Can include formaldehyde, methanol, denatured alcohols • Pigments: made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) • The ABS is grounded to fine particles when used in tattoo inks • ABS can create allergic reactions
  57. 57. Cont’ • Some pigments have a metallic base • Cobalt: BLUE • Cadmium sulfite: YELLOW • Mercury: RED CINNABAR • Neon/vividly colored pigments are more toxic than the others
  58. 58. Cont’ • If the carriers contain alcohol, the permeability of the skin increases • This increase in permeability enhances the transportation of pigment and chemicals to the blood stream. • Alcohol also enhances the activity of cancer causing substances • Tattoo removal • Removal by replacement • Laser removal Ethiopian traditional tattoo Charcoal
  59. 59. HENNA TATTOO (ሂና)
  60. 60. HENNA TATTOO (ሂና) • Henna • powdered leaves of a tropical shrub used as reddish- brown dye to color the hair and decorate the body. • Has paraphenylenediamine (PPD) • Cause delayed allergic reactions, hypopigmentation, scarring, skin necrosis. • Long term effect • Inability to tolerate sulfa drugs
  61. 61. Prevention on adverse effects of tattoo • Skin tests performed before hand • Choose inks that are widespread known and safe • Use carriers that have glycerine, purified water • Use VEGAN INKS • minimal risk to the human skin • Saves us from toxicity of the metals used in tattoo • Not widely manufactured
  62. 62. Hair Dye HAIR DYE
  63. 63. Damaging Ingredients • Ammonia/Ammonium hydroxide • Resorcinol: toxic to immune system, causes allergy • PPD (para-phenylenediamine) • Ethanol Alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) • Helps to absorb the dye by the hair and follicles • Causes dry hair • Parabens
  64. 64. Ammonia /Ammonium Hydroxide/ • Used to increase the shelf life of products • Increases hair pH • Opens the hair shaft so their color can penetrate the cuticle • Makes the hair dull and lose its strength • Give hair dyes their pungent smell • Increases hair porosity, weakens hair • causes frizz and split ends leads to color fading
  65. 65. Handling of Cosmetics • Avoid Moisture and Heat • Pack With Care • Store your makeup in a clean, dry area, away from dust and other contaminants • Avoid storing in sun exposed places • Keep out of reach of children
  66. 66. Summary Product Chemicals Concerns Soap Triclosan, SLS, Formalin, Parabens, Diethanolamine Anibotic resistance, EDC, Carcinogenic Glycerine Animal fat EDC Eye makeup Retinyl acetate, LEAD, Formaldehyde, Fragnance, PG Skin Cancer, Dermatitis, glandular atrophy Hair dye Ammonia, PPD, Alcohol, paraben Hair dryness, Allergy Henna PPD Skin necrosis, Allergy, Sulfa-drug resistance Nail polish Acrylates Cancer, Reproductive toxicity, Irritation Botox Botullinum toxin partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, trouble swallowing; arrhythmia, heart attack, respiratory arrest Toothpaste Triclosan, SLS, Aspratame Methanol tox., Bitter taste, Bad mouth odor Lotion Aluminium, Alcohol, Glycerine, Paraben Neurotoxicity, infection, EDC Lipstick LEAD, Mineral oil, Paraben, Buthylene glycol Liver and kidney damage, skin irritant
  67. 67. Conclusion • Dermal worse than oral… • Why don’t we see this side effects in us?
  68. 68. Discussion • Do you think the chemicals found in fragrances (Which are found in most of our products) should be kept as trade secrets? What are the implications of having them be trade secrets?
  69. 69. Reference • safecosmetics.org • atsdr.cdc.gov • skindeepdatabase.com • www.davidsuzuki.org • Danish epa- paraben.pdf • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184583 • Naturallysavvy.com

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