Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals.
For instance, lead can affect brain development even at parts per million. Endocrine-disrupting Compounds Except in cases of accidental or occupational exposures, most exposures to chemicals occur at “very low doses.” Most chemical safety studies look at the toxic effects of higher doses of chemicals and then assume decreasing toxicity with lower doses. Yet substances that disrupt the body’s own hormones — known as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) — can exert important biological effects at low doses similar people’s real-life exposures. These effects are often qualitatively different from those found in traditional toxicology testing.
Exposures to even small amounts of some chemicals can increase vulnerability to later life adverse health effects and disease. Introduction When it comes to exposures to some chemicals, scientists increasingly discuss ideas such as “timing of exposure” or “windows of susceptibility” during development when the body is especially sensitive to exposures. Some of these key windows of susceptibility occur during prenatal development and puberty, when the body’s cells are dividing rapidly and when complex organs and functions such as brains, breasts and metabolism develop. For anyone who has been pregnant or known someone who was pregnant, this probably comes as no surprise. During pregnancy, women are cautioned to avoid smoking and alcohol, to limit consumption of foods that may contain neurotoxins such as tuna (which can contain mercury), and to get enough of key nutrients. The womb is the first environment, and it turns out that the health of this first environment can impact health for decades to follow. Many personal care products contain chemicals that disrupt hormones. For instance, parabens, common preservatives in cosmetics, and triclosan, a common active ingredient in antibacterial soaps and hand sanitizers, have been shown to disrupt hormones.
Many of the ingredients in personal care products are also found in cleaning products, housewares and even at work. These chemicals can end up in air, water or household dust. Most of these chemicals are in these products in relatively small amounts, but because they are so common, people are often exposed continuously throughout the day. For instance, people may be exposed to phthalates, which are found in both plastics and personal care products, during their morning shower from the shower curtain; when using shampoo, conditioner, lotions or soaps with fragrances; and from foods kept in phthalate-containing storage containers. These repeated, low-dose exposures occur from an array of chemicals every day.
Only a small number of these real-life combinations and doses of chemicals have been tested. This is perhaps not surprising: One estimate predicts that it would require 166 million experiments to test all combinations of three involving the 1,000 most common synthetic chemicals currently in use. (Koppe, 2006). While only a few of those studies have actually been conducted, several of them indicate that mixtures of chemicals can behave additively (for example, 2 + 3 = 5) or synergistically (for example, 2 + 3 = 9).
Most people assume cosmetics and personal care products are tested for safety before being stocked on store shelves. In truth, personal care products are one of the least regulated industries in the U.S. On April 20, 2015, Senators Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., and Susan Collins, R-Maine, introduced the Personal Care Products Safety Act of 2015. The bill seeks to reform a $71 billion industry that is currently regulated by approximately two pages of federal law that has only been updated once in the past 76 years. Strong provisions in the bill would advance the FDA’s ability to protect Americans’ health by improving current law in the following areas: – Directing the FDA to assess the safety of a minimum of five cosmetics chemicals a year; – Requiring companies to register their facilities, products and ingredients with the FDA; – Requiring companies to comply with good manufacturing practices; – Closing labeling loopholes by requiring full ingredient disclosure for professional salon products and web-based sales of cosmetic products; and – Giving the FDA mandatory recall authority to get unsafe products off the shelves. Ironically, the bill’s lack of mandatory fragrance ingredient disclosure will make it impossible for cosmetic manufacturers to fully substantiate the safety of all of the ingredients in their products – which directly conflicts with the provision of the Feinstein/Collins bill that requires them to do so. Because 40 percent of personal care products include fragrance, this means almost half of all products on the market today will not be fully assessed for safety. Consumers have an urgent right to full disclosure of all, and not just some, of the chemicals in their cosmetics and personal care products so they can make safer, more informed purchases.
Rule of cosmetics in Ethiopia Cosmetics is considered as a drug and it is defined as any preparation intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. this includes products such as skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, finger nail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, deodorant, medicated soaps and any ingredient intended for preparing these products;
Had hard time finding the MOA of most of the chemicals
Ethoxylation in which ethylene oxide is added to other chemicals to make them less harsh. 1,4-dioxane, a carcinogen linked to organ toxicity, may be found in as many as 22 percent of the more than 25,000 cosmetics products in the Skin Deep database you won’t find it on ingredient labels. That’s because 1,4-dioxane is a contaminant created when common ingredients react to form the compound when mixed together.
The chemical 1,4-dioxane tends to be present when a particular product has been through “ethoxylation”. Look for ingredients ending with -eth, -oxynol, -xynol and those containing the words laureate, myrrh, ceteareth or oleth. Other compounds include: PEG, polyethylene, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, or oxynol
1,4-Dioxane is readily adsorbed through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. rapid and uniform in the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, colon and skeletal muscle tissue. Has low absorption dermally. Assumed to be absorbed through passive diffusion. It has been detected in all tissues that have been evaluated, but has not been shown to appreciably accumulate in tissues, possibly due to its high water solubility. It has been suggested that P-450-mediated metabolism may result in the formation of diethylene glycol, since injection of diethylene glycol in rats also results in the formation of HEAA (Woo et al. 1977a) Cytochrome P-450 enzymes are clearly involved in its metabolism as seen in some studies. The mechanism of carcinogenicity of 1,4-dioxane has not been elucidated, but the results from several lines of investigation suggest that 1,4-dioxane has a non-genotoxic mode of action (Goldsworthy et al. 1991; Leung and Paustenbach 1990; Stott et al. 1981). All epidemiological.
1,4-Dioxane is weakly genotoxic and reproductive effects in humans are unknown; however, a developmental study on rats indicated that 1,4-dioxane may be slightly toxic to the developing fetus. (cross placenta) 1,4-dioxane as a Group 3 carcinogen — confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (WHO) (research on rats) Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans Group 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2B Possibly carcinogenic to humans Group 3 Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans Group 4 Probably not carcinogenic to humans
Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid In one biomonitoring study, adolescents and adult females had higher levels of methylparaben and propylparaben in their urine than did males of similar ages. (females use more products)
Recommended concentration limits for Up to 0.4%-0.8% in a single product Do not account for exposure to parabens from several products by a single individual. (even in food) They are thought to act by disrupting membrane transport processes  or by inhibiting synthesis of DNA and RNA  or of some key enzymes, such as ATPases and phosphotransferases, in some bacterial species.
Parabens are another example of a food preservative, although they’re not called parabens when used in food – they’re given E-numbers instead. The most commonly-used parabens in food are methylparaben (food additive E218) and ethylparaben (E214) with the European Food Safety Authority setting an Acceptable Daily Intake of 0-10mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for methyl- and ethylparaben.
Main exposure route: dermal USA Cosmetic Ingredient Expert Panel Only 1-3.7% of un-metabolized absorbed (skin metabolism) (UCIEP) Topical use of parabens does not produce a significant systemic exposure to the parent compounds , but to a metabolite, i.e. para-hydroxybenzoic acid or as conjugates of the parent compound with either glycine, glucuronide or sulphate
The US pilot study, which clarified this issue, was published in May 2015 and evaluated the levels of commonly used parabens in the blood of 50 pregnant women and upon delivery, in the blood of their babies (1). Parabens were found in 94% of women and their newborns. This makes sense, since it is estimated that parabens are included in approximately 22,000 products, so avoiding them is not exactly a piece of cake. However, the most impressive finding of this small study was the fact that in more than 50% of the cases, the babies had significantly higher amounts of the most popular paraben (methyl-paraben) in their blood than their mother did. The mean concentration of methyl-paraben in pregnant women was 20.41 ng/l, while newborn babies had a mean concentration of 36.54 ng/l. This is a significant difference and a whole lot of parabens for a newborn baby with immature kidneys and detoxification mechanisms.
The list of possible effects of parabens to babies is long. Selected research in animals suggests that prenatal exposure to parabens is linked to autistic-like behavioral symptoms in infants (4), impaired social behavior (5), decreased sperm number and motility later in life (6) and learning difficulties (7) among other problems. But this is not just about the babies; women can be harmed by parabens too. Scientific research suggests that parabens may be linked to breast cancer, which is a reasonable concern, given the fact that inside the body, parabens act like a weak type of estrogen.
they are around 170,000 times lower than estradiol Ethylparaben showed lower levels of estrogenic activity and methylparaben shows almost no estrogen activity. A study of prenatal isobutylparaben exposure in rats demonstrated increased uterus weight and uterine sensitivity to estrogen in the offspring “Long chain” parabens (butylparaben, isobutylparaben, and propylparaben) have the strongest estrogenic activity
Hormones or substances with hormone disrupting capability may interfere with pubertal development by actions at different levels – hypothalamic-pituitary axis, gonads, peripheral target organs such as the breast, hair follicles and genitals. Exogenous man made chemicals that mimic estrogen can alter the functions of the endocrine system and cause various health defects by interfering with synthesis, metabolism, binding or cellular responses of natural estrogens. Although the physiology of the reproductive system is complex, the action of environmental exogenous estrogens is hypothesized to occur by two possible mechanisms.
Xenoestrogens may temporarily or permanently alter the feedback loops in the brain, pituitary, gonads, and thyroid by mimicking the effects of estrogen and triggering their specific receptors or they may bind to hormone receptors and block the action of natural hormones. Thus it is plausible that environmental estrogens can accelerate sexual development if present in a sufficient concentration or with chronic exposure. The similarity in the structure of exogenous estrogens and the estrogens has changed the hormone balance within the body and resulted in various reproductive problems in females.
The overall mechanism of action is binding of the exogenous compounds that mimic estrogen to the estrogen binding receptors and cause the determined action in the target organs.
Daily application: increased concentrations of methylparaben; because it is not completely metabolized Methyl- and ethyl-parabens do not affect sperm production. In general, propyl- and butylparabens, specifically, appear disrupt male reproductive system and affect the reproductive organs
For many years it has been recognized that estrogens are important in the maintenance of human skin. They improve collagen content and quality, increase skin thickness and enhance vascularization, features highlighted by the changes that occur in the skin of postmenopausal women (45). Estrogens have been shown to increase mitotic activity in the epidermis of women.
Fragrance ingredients may be derived from petroleum or natural raw materials. Companies that manufacture perfume or cologne purchase fragrance mixtures from fragrance houses (companies that specialize in developing fragrances) to develop their own proprietary blends. In addition to “scent” chemicals that create the fragrance, perfumes and colognes also contain solvents, stabilizers, UV-absorbers, preservatives, and dyes. These additives are frequently, but not always, listed on product labels. Ironically, the bill’s lack of mandatory fragrance ingredient disclosure will make it impossible for cosmetic manufacturers to fully substantiate the safety of all of the ingredients in their products – which directly conflicts with the provision of the “Personal Care Products Safety Act of 2015” and EU laws. Because 40 percent of personal care products include fragrance, this means almost half of all products on the market today will not be fully assessed for safety. Consumers have an urgent right to full disclosure of all, and not just some, of the chemicals in their cosmetics and personal care products so they can make safer, more informed purchases.
Cancerous breast biopsies show higher accumulations of heavy metals than non-cancerous biopsies. Several metals act like estrogen in the presence of some breast cancer cells.
Pre-adolescents: delay in the onset of puberty in girls, and the development of testes in boys (mechanism unknown, epidemiological). crosses the placenta and may enter fetal brain Lead and Pregnancy: Once the lead is in the bloodstream, it passes through the placenta into the baby and into the baby's developing bones and other organs. If a pregnant woman has had past exposure to lead, her body may store the lead in her bones and teeth. If the pregnant woman's diet does not contain enough calcium, the body may substitute lead in the her bones for the calcium that the baby needs. Lead exposure can affect the unborn child's brain, causing developmental problems later in life. Fetuses exposed to lead before birth may be born early or underweight. Mechanisms of lead reproductive toxicity -multiple calcium and potassium channel isoforms in human testes and spermatozoa, may be involved in early events of acrosome reactions (72). In addition, some enzymes activities, such as alkaline phosphatase and sodium potassium ATPase, have been shown to be reduced in the reproductive organs of lead-exposed rats. -Another issue in lead’s reproductive toxicity might relate to the excessive generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) ROS inhibits the production of sulfhydryl antioxidants, inhibits enzyme reactions, damages nucleic acids and inhibits DNA repair, as well as initiating lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes. Lead induces oxidative stress and promotes the generation of hydrogen peroxide Mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. At a neuronal level, exposure to lead alters the release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic nerve endings. Spontaneous release is enhanced and evoked release is inhibited. The former may be due to activation of protein kinases in the nerve endings and the latter to blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. This disruption of neuronal activity may, in turn, alter the developmental processes of synapse formation and result in a less efficient brain with cognitive deficits.
Neither mercury nor thimerosal is common as a direct ingredient or impurity, but the high toxicity of this metal means that the presence of mercury in any cosmetics is a concern. Thyroid disruption: it can bind to any molecule in the body which contains sulfur, along with other sites in the cell. This can prevent certain enzymes from doing their job. So mercury can potentially bind to the cells of the thyroid gland, which can result in a hypothyroid condition. Mercury interferes with many of the minerals necessary for thyroid hormone production, as well as the conversion of T4 to T3. Neurotoxicity Calcium homeostasis: Calcium ion (Ca2+) plays a critical role in CNS cell death. Ca2+ increase beyond physiological levels activates catabolic enzymes such as phospholipases, proteases, and endonucleases, causes mitochondrial dysfunction, and disturbes cytoskeletal organization. Several lines of evidence indicate that at low concentrations MeHg disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis, increasing its intracellular level in a number of experimental situations, Fetal Dev’t: may result in stunted neurological development, and problems with hearing or eyesight. Mercury exposure during pregnancy may also be linked to other cognitive or physical delays
Bone Toxicity: ), it is sometimes a competitive inhibitor of several essential elements with similar characteristics, such as magnesium (0.066 nm, 2+), calcium (0.099 nm, 2+), and iron (0.064 nm, 3+). Neurotoxicity: aluminum appears to influence calcium homeostasis and calcium-dependent processes in the brain via impairment of the phosphoinositide second messenger producing system (which modulates intracellular calcium concentrations); calcium-activated proteinases may be affected, which could alter the distribution and concentration of cytoskeletal proteins and other substates.
However, petrolatum is often not fully refined in the US, which means it can be contaminated with toxic chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). When properly refined, petrolatum has no known health concerns.
These qualities make petrolatum a popular ingredient in skincare products and cosmetics. PAHs are byproducts of organic material combustion, commonly stored in fats upon exposure due to its lipophilic properties. There is no way to confirm proper refinement unless a complete refining history is provided.
A study on Long Island, NY, found that those women with high levels of PAH-DNA adducts had a 50 percent greater risk of breast cancer. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts, an indicator of PAH exposure, is linked to cancer development. 
Has toxicity side additional to the cleaning function it has. To prevent the toxicity of soap, use certified organic soap
Even if formaldehyde isn’t found, chemicals that release formaldehyde are found in soap Weakens the immune system because it decreases counts of natural killer (NK), CD4, and CD8 cells
Most commonly used lipsticks in Ethiopia: MAC and Elizabeth
-when ingested by mammals, BG metabolizes into b-hydroxybutyraldehyde which is then converted through a process of intermediates into acetyl CoA, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, which supplies energy to the body in the form of ATP -Acute toxicity is minimal by the oral and inhalation routes, and repeated-dose administration of high doses to experimental animals -It will be metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase into lactic acid and pyruvic acid, leading to metabolic acidosis.
Ethylene glycol is very well known as automobile anti-freeze. It is toxic upon ingestion, causing direct toxicity to erythrocytes [red blood cells]. And less expensive and more freq. used. Reversible RBC effect PG metab. Into lactic acid and pyruvic acid EG metab. Into oxalic acid and forms oxalate crystals, kidney stones Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a naturally occurring chemical found in the brain and peripheral tissues of humans. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is also rapidly metabolized into succinate through the tricarboxylic acid cycle within the body. Given in high doses, a neuromodulator effect can be seen. However, in the small doses used as a solvent in pharmaceuticals and nutritionals, there are no known side effects. Treatment sodium bicarb.
Your mouth is actually one of the most absorbent places in your entire body. This is why some medications are administered sublingually, or under your tongue. While you're dutifully brushing and swishing, the ingredients in your toothpaste enter your mouth and gums, which are the gateway to every system in your body."2
1. Triclosan– colgate--- only toothpaste approved by the FDA to help fight plaque and gingivitis. But while triclosan has been shown to help prevent gingivitis, the benefit comes at a steep price. The chemical has been linked to concerns over antibiotic resistance and endocrine disruption.
Main problem is endocrine disruption--promote a wide variety of health problems, including breast, ovarian, prostate, and testicular cancer, preterm and low birth weight babies, precocious puberty in girls, and undescended testicles in boys. triclosan may interfere with a type of cell signaling in brain, heart, and other cells research found people who brushed their teeth with Colgate Total had more than five times as much triclosan in their urine as those who did not. In rats- shown greater TCs in placenta, reduce gravid uterine weight and occurrence of abortion. Decrease progesterone, esterdiol, testedtrone, hcg, prolactin -induce neurodegenerative effect in developing rat brain through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation
SLS- Many toothpastes contain surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS), or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). Can cause bad mouth odor- mouth dryness and PH become acidic( promote bacterial growth) Surfactants are chemicals responsible for the foaming action of the toothpaste, but they also interfere with the functioning of your taste buds by breaking up the phospholipids on your tongue. This enhances bitter tastes and is thought to be the reason why everything tastes so bad right after you've brushed your teeth. Not to mention, SLS has even been linked to skin irritation and painful canker sores, with research suggesting an SLS-free toothpaste should be used for people with recurring sores SLS- degenerative effect on cell membrane because of its protein denaturing properties this lead to inflammation -its residuals are maintained in heart, liver, lung and brain from just a skin contact
Aspartame and other artificial sweeteners are often added to commercial toothpastes. Aspartame is primarily made up of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. The phenylalanine has been synthetically modified to carry a methyl group, which provides the majority of the sweetness.
That phenylalanine methyl bond, called a methyl ester, is very weak, which allows the methyl group on the phenylalanine to easily break off and form methanol in fruits and vegetables, the methanol is firmly bonded to pectin, allowing it to be safely passed through your digestive tract
FLUORIDE- Swallowing fluoride, as is the case with fluoridated drinking water, is especially detrimental to your health, as the science clearly demonstrates that fluoride is a toxic chemical that accumulates in your tissues over time, wreaks havoc with enzymes, and produces a number of serious adverse health effects, including neurological and endocrine dysfunction.
Children are particularly at risk for adverse effects of overexposure. If you have a young child, therefore, it's recommended that you use a non-fluoride toothpaste, although I recommend the same for adults as well.
---you can mix together coconut oil, baking soda and a few drops of peppermint essential oil, adding enough baking soda to form a smooth consistency. Store in a glass jar. Coconut oil may help inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, an acid-producing bacterium that is a major cause of tooth decay, and peppermint oil extract has been shown to be superior to the mouthwash chemical chlorhexidine in inhibiting the formation of biofilm formations linked to dental cavities
The researchers found that Zana, a chewing stick used in Ethiopia, has a good antimicrobial efficacy with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from between 0,25 to 4mg/ml -– meaning that it would take a small amount of the concentration to kill bacteria and keep your breath fresh.
In recent years, several investigations demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress and modulate intracellular redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, as well as alter gene expression and cause apoptosis. Genes modulated by fluoride include those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications and signal transduction.
The macrophages go to the wound to try to close it up but they get stuck in the gel matrix of the dermis forever. New tattoo: both in the epidermis and dermis But through time, the epidermis is replaced by new cells in about 2-4 weeks. Overtime it fades when the immune system breaks down the particles but the ink is still there.
Benzo a pyrene: is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has stimulatory effect on prostaglandin synthesis. Exogenous prostaglandins are believed to cause epithelial proliferation by altering intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP. This is the only mechanism from studies providing an explanation to causing cancer.
immunoglobulin A, an antibody that lines portions of our gastrointestinal and respiratory systems "After the stress response, your body returns to an equilibrium. However, if you continue to stress your body over and over again, instead of returning to the same set point, it adjusts its internal set points and moves higher."
ABS when heated or exposed to high temperature, it causes the release of HCN which results in allergic reactions. small amounts of cyanide compounds over long periods of time is reported to cause loss of appetite, headache, weakness, nausea, dizziness, and symptoms of irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. ABS is heat resistant plastic ABS is most popular ink because it gives vivid color to the tattoo
Bright toxic….why? Couldn’t find it
Alcohol enhances absorption of other chemicals by opening up the pores. Tattoo removal is most commonly performed using lasers that break down the ink particles in the tattoo. The broken-down ink is then fought off by the immune system,
PPD was named allergen of the year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. There was a woman who has suffered hair loss and permanent damage to her hair follicles as a result of using hair dye with PPD. http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/allergy-to-paraphenylenediamine/: PPD is an oxidative chemical, causes significant and lifelong sensitization. Direct application to skin increases potential by for contact sensitization to chemicals. Not detailed study done on mechanism.
Vegan ink contents: organic pigments , witch hazel, alcohol, distilled water. Their inks are tested for heavy metals and that any detected heavy metals are within what is considered safe levels. http://livingsafe.com.au/tattoo-ink-is-it-vegan-safe-and-cruelty-free/
PPD Creates darker shades Increases the sensitivity of the skin Causes allergic reaction: severe dermatitis Swells and irritates the eye Causes tearing of the eyes Long term exposure asthma, gastritis, renal failure, vertigo, tremors, convulsions, and coma in humans
Cosmetics toxicity LB
Myungsung Medical College
• Chemicals of concern
• Commonly used products
• Summary & Conclusion
• At the end of this session:
• You should be aware of the more important toxic chemicals contained in your
daily cosmetic products
• You will be able to recognize their toxic effects
• You should be able to avoid or at least minimize the use of some of these
specific toxic chemicals
“any particle intended to be applied to the human
body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting
attractiveness, or altering the appearance without
affecting the body's structure or functions."
• Cosmetics toxicity:
“toxicity due to application of cosmetics to the
• The word “cosmetic” comes from the same root as “cosmos”
meaning order or adornment.
• One of the earliest references to cosmetics is in the Old
Testament 2 Kings 9:30 which tells of Jezebel putting on eye
• The use of cosmetics was also documented in Ancient Egypt
and may go back 6,000 years.
• "A woman without paint is like food without salt.“
- Roman philosopher, Plautus
• In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church generally considered the use of
cosmetics a sin......though some made exceptions for those who had
been made unattractive by illness.
• In ancient Rome, lipstick was a mark of social rank and was seen as a
sign of status for both men and women.
• The average UK woman spends two years of her life applying
make-up costing around £100,000.
Timing of exposure
• “Windows of susceptibility”
• Prenatal development
Mixtures & Interactions
• Exposure is continuous
• Mixtures are rarely tested for health
• Drug Administration and Control
Proclamation No. 176/1999
Limitations of our presentation
• Little or no research done on most of the chemicals
• Researches either done on animals and are generally epidemiological
• Limited # of ppl participated on the researches done.
Chemicals of concern
• 1,4 Dioxane
• Heavy metals
• Petrolatum and mineral oils
• Coal tar
• Sodium laurel sulfate Sodium laureth sulfate
• Other common ingredients: PEG cpds and chemicals that include
the clauses “xynol,” “ceteareth” and “oleth” (on labels)
• FOUND IN: Products that create suds
• Routes of exposure
• Dermal contact
• Distribution: rapid and uniform
• Acute : nausea, drowsiness, headache, and irritation of the eyes, nose and
• Chronic : dermatitis, eczema, drying and cracking of skin and liver and
• Weakly genotoxic and reproductive effects; slightly toxic to the
• Animal studies: increased incidences of nasal cavity, liver and gall
bladder tumors after exposure to 1,4-dioxane.
• Carcinogenic- group 3
• Absorption: skin and GI
• FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions,
facial and shower cleansers and scrubs
• Ingredients ending in “–paraben”
• Methylparaben and propylparaben most
• 0.4%(single) and 0.8%(multiple)
• Routes of exposure
• Metabolism and Excretion
• excreted in urine as the metabolite PHBA
• are not accumulated in the body, and serum concentrations of parabens
quickly decline and remain low
• Parabens and pregnancy
• cross the placenta
• accumulate in the blood of the growing baby.
• 94% of newborns have parabens in their blood & more than half, have more
than their mother
• Prenatal exposure: learning difficulties & autistic-like behavior
inhibit ENZ metab. Estrogen
• Breast CA (MCF-7 cells)
• Isopropyl- and isobutyl parabens are the most potent
• “Long chain” parabens have the strongest estrogenic activity
• Skin CA
• Methylparaben: UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell
• Daily application
• Paraben + other estrogenic chemicals Malignant melanoma
• Developmental and reproductive toxicity
• Propyl and butyl parabens: reduce sperm production and reduce testosterone
• Butylparaben mother (gestation and lactation)
alters development of reproductive organs and sperm production
• A combo of chemicals that gives
each perfume or cologne its distinct
• Ingredients: petroleum or natural
• The chemical components in
fragrance itself are protected as
trade secrets and described on the
label only as “fragrance.”
Some Common chemicals
1-4 Dioxane Propylparaben
Essential oil mixtures Synthetic musks
• FOUND IN: sunscreen, shampoo, soap, body wash, deodorant, body
lotion, makeup, facial cream, skin toner, serums, exfoliating scrubs
• WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Fragrance, perfume, parfum,
essential oil blend, aroma.
• Lead, arsenic, mercury, aluminum
• Ingredients or Contaminants
• FOUND IN: Lip products, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner, nail color, foundations,
sunscreens, eye shadows, blush, concealer, moisturizers, eye drops
• WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Lead acetate, chromium, thimerosal,
hydrogenated cotton seed oil, sodium hexametaphosphate
• potential impurity in many color cosmetics,
• Neurotoxin: learning, language and
• reduced fertility in both men and women
• crosses placenta
• readily absorbed through skin.
• linked to nervous system toxicity
• may disrupt thyroid hormones.
• hazardous during fetal development
• Aluminum-based compounds
• Found in: deodorants, antiperspirants, lipsticks, toothpastes
• Bone: compete with phosphorous (Osteomalacia)
• Derived from petroleum
• Moisturizing agent.
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
• FOUND IN: Lotions, Cosmetics
• WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Petrolatum, Petroleum Jelly, Paraffin
Oil, Mineral Oil and White Petrolatum (refined and safe for use).
• softens upon application and forms a water-repellant film
• creates an effective barrier against
• the evaporation of the skin’s natural moisture and
• foreign particles or microorganisms that may cause infection.
• odorless and colorless, and has an inherently long shelf life.
• Primary concern with petrolatum is the potential contamination with PAHs
• HOW TO AVOID: Avoid products with petrolatum, unless clearly
indicated that petrolatum is fully refined as White petrolatum
• Leads to anti-biotic resistant/resilient bacteria
• Is endocrine disruptor (estrogen)
• Disrupts hormone metabolism
• Displaces hormone from hormone receptor
• Disrupts steroidogenic enzyme activity
• Easily absorbed through the skin
• Combines with nitrate preservatives
Diethanoalmine + nitrates
• Is carcinogenic: kidney and liver cancer
• In pregnant women: inhibits baby from absorbing choline which is
vital for brain development
• Made by oxidation of methanol
• Chemicals that release formaldehyde are found in soap.
• Eg: Diazolidnyl urea: releases formaldehyde
• Weakens the immune system
• Results in respiratory disorders, frequent headaches, chronic fatigue,
irregular heart beat, allergic reactions (epidemiologic study).
• Butylene glycol
• Mineral oil
• Coal tar
• Ingested: metabo. into b-hydroxybutyraldehyde which is then converted
into acetyl CoA-- ATP
• Does not produce adverse effects in humans until the amount ingested
becomes a significant contributor to the individual’s caloric requirement
• Toxic when concentration is greater than 0.5%
• Ethylene glycol- is toxic upon ingestion, causing direct toxicity to
erythrocytes [red blood cells].
• In huge oral doses, propylene glycol can cause liver and kidney
• Propylene glycol is both a skin irritant and a sensitizer
• Mouth--- direct absorption to blood stream
• Colgate is the only tooth paste approved by FDA to fight plaque and
• In kids most of the paste is swallowed
• Most commonly used toothpastes in Ethiopia:
• Triclosan (antimicrobial)
• linked to concerns over antibiotic resistance
• help prevent gingivitis
• endocrine disruption
• Found in high concentration in placenta
• SLS(sodium laureth sulfate )
• Used to create foaming actions
• Bad mouth odor
• Bitter taste
• Swallow---upset stomach and possible diarrhea
• Skin irritation and painful canker sores
• SLS-free toothpaste should be used for people
with recurring sores
• aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
• synthetically modified to carry a methyl group, which provides
the majority of the sweetness.
• Methyl will form methanol---- methanol toxicity
• The best cavity fighter in teeth-- remineralization
• Toxicity: neurological and endocrine dysfunction
• Children: non-fluoride toothpaste
• Teeth- mottled brown enamel
• HOME MADE TOOTHPASTE
• ‘Mefakiya’: antimicrobial efficacy
• Tattoo inks include
• Pigment: by metallic salts: oxides, selenides, sulfides
• Organic dyes/plastics
• Carriers: mixed with the ink to provide even application of the ink.
Mechanism of the Tattoo
The tattoo needles puncture the skin 50-3000x per
The capillary action draws the skin into the
Becomes permanent when the immune system
tries to save the body from all the wounds.
• Tattoo inks may be made from titanium dioxide, lead, chromium,
nickel, iron oxides, ash and carbon black.
• Black tattoos have Benzo-a-pyrene
• Caused skin cancer in animals
• Tattoo inks have the tendency to travel to the lymphatic system
• can affect the immune system
• Excreted by the liver
Tattoo & Immune System
• Some studies show that multiple tattoos have
stronger immunological response
• Obtained saliva samples from 29 volunteers -- nine
of whom were getting their first tattoos.
• Increased level of Immunoglobulin A and cortisol
• Temporary increase of immune system
Study at university of Alabama
Components of tattoo ink
• Carrier ingredients
• Can include formaldehyde, methanol, denatured alcohols
• Pigments: made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
• The ABS is grounded to fine particles when used in tattoo inks
• ABS can create allergic reactions
• Some pigments have a metallic base
• Cobalt: BLUE
• Cadmium sulfite: YELLOW
• Mercury: RED CINNABAR
• Neon/vividly colored pigments are more toxic than the others
• If the carriers contain alcohol, the permeability of the skin increases
• This increase in permeability enhances the transportation of pigment and
chemicals to the blood stream.
• Alcohol also enhances the activity of cancer causing substances
• Tattoo removal
• Removal by replacement
• Laser removal
Ethiopian traditional tattoo
HENNA TATTOO (ሂና)
• powdered leaves of a tropical shrub used as reddish-
brown dye to color the hair and decorate the body.
• Has paraphenylenediamine (PPD)
• Cause delayed allergic reactions, hypopigmentation,
scarring, skin necrosis.
• Long term effect
• Inability to tolerate sulfa drugs
Prevention on adverse effects of tattoo
• Skin tests performed before hand
• Choose inks that are widespread known and safe
• Use carriers that have glycerine, purified water
• Use VEGAN INKS
• minimal risk to the human skin
• Saves us from toxicity of the metals used in tattoo
• Not widely manufactured
• Ammonia/Ammonium hydroxide
• Resorcinol: toxic to immune system, causes allergy
• PPD (para-phenylenediamine)
• Ethanol Alcohol (isopropyl alcohol)
• Helps to absorb the dye by the hair and follicles
• Causes dry hair
Ammonia /Ammonium Hydroxide/
• Used to increase the shelf life of products
• Increases hair pH
• Opens the hair shaft so their color can penetrate the cuticle
• Makes the hair dull and lose its strength
• Give hair dyes their pungent smell
• Increases hair porosity, weakens hair
• causes frizz and split ends leads to color fading
Handling of Cosmetics
• Avoid Moisture and Heat
• Pack With Care
• Store your makeup in a clean, dry area, away from dust and other
• Avoid storing in sun exposed places
• Keep out of reach of children