1. SHAVING PREPARATIONS
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of
Pharm. Edu. and Research,
Definition and general properties of shaving
After shave products.
Definition, Characteristics, Preparation and
marketed products form each class.
These are cosmetic preparations used for shaving
Generally used by men sometimes by women.
Generally two types:
Preparations used before shaving
Preparations used after shaving
4. PROPERTIES OF SHAVING PREPARATIONS
Non- irritant to skin,
Retain moisture during the period it remains on the face,
Soften the beard so that hair cuts easily,
Provide sufficient lubricity so that razor glides along the face,
Stable over wide tempt. range,
Non- corrosive to the containers,
If used with brush, able to produce sufficient lather rapidly.
5. PREPARATIONS USED BEFORE SHAVING
Preparations used for shaving with Razor blade
Brushless shaving creams
Lather shaving cream
Preparations used for Electric shaving
6. SHAVING SOAPS
In all preparations conc. aq. soap soln
. is used as main
ingredient to produce foam or lather & acts on beard
Before application normal washing is done to remove
fat film over the beard.
Available in following forms:
7. Stearic acid : 48%
Coconut fatty acids : 15%
KOH : 20%
NaOH : 4%
Water q.s. : 100%
Generally KOH & NaOH is used in 5:1 ratio.
Super fatting agents like monodecyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl esters of di-glycerol
amine are used : to improve soap system
Talc (10 – 15%): used to increase persistence of lather & razor more smooth.
9. SHAVING CREAMS
Shaving cream is cream that is applied to the face or
wherever else hair grows to avoid razor burn from shaving.
Shaving cream is often bought in a can, but can also be
purchased in tubes.
Shaving cream in a can is commonly dispensed as a foam or a
Creams that are in tubes are commonly used with a shaving
brush to produce a rich lather.
A relatively new product is shaving gel, which is dispensed as a
gel then rubbed on the face to produce a lather.
10. SHAVING GEL & CREAMS
The main difference between these two types of
lubricant is that the gel- and foam-based creams are
usually alcohol based and often dry the skin
The tube based creams are based on glycerin soaps that
are alcohol free and tend to be much easier on the skin.
11. QUALITIES OF GOOD SHAVING CREAMS
Smooth & soft
Free from lumps
Produce rich lather
Good wetting properties
The lather produces should not dry on face so rapidly
Satisfactory consistency according to temperature
Non- corrosive to razor blade & easily rinsed from razor & face.
12. LATHER SHAVING CREAM
Lather is a mixture of soap in glycerin and water.
Produce rich lather,
Non-irritant to skin,
Smooth, soft & free from lumps,
Sufficient tacky to adhere both on face & brush,
Consistency: wide tempt. range
13. MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS
Stable during hot & cold weather,
Ease of transfer of cream to the face,
Ease of its spreading on face,
Wetting properties of foam, its texture, rheology & stability,
Gliding properties for ease of shaving,
Compatibility & acceptance of perfume,
Compatibility with container
Effect of cream on life of razor blade
Additives are added for their special effects
Perfumes or flavors
15. SOAPS USED IN SHAVING SOAPS
Main constituents of shaving soaps
Consist of potassium & sodium soap
Potassium soaps are preferred due to their
quicker effect &
Potassium soap of myristic acid + small qty. of lauric acid + lower fatty acid
Lauric acid: produce good & unstable soap
Lower fatty acid: higher fatty acid (having C atom 8 -10 produces irritating effect
so not used)
16. SUPERFATTING AGENT IN SHAVING SOAPS
Used to produce lather softer & creamier
Have emollient effect on skin
Used in 30% conc.
Free fatty acid,
Polyoxyethylene glycol &
Triethanolamine is avoided in shaving creams coz it may discolor
creams & produce odor.
17. HUMECTANTS & OTHER INGREDIENTS
To keep formulation in a proper physical state i.e. avoid drying of the
shaving creams or soaps
Glycerin, Sorbitol, PG
PG influences texture of the formulation
Cooling effect (menthol)
Perfumes or flavors
18. FORMULAE & GENERAL PROCEDURE
Stearic acid : 28%
Coconut oil : 12%
Palm oil : 5%
Potassium hydroxide : 6.5%
Sodium hydroxide : 1.3%
Glycerin : 10%
Water to make : 100%
Perfume : q.s.
Preservative : q.s.
Melt half qty. of stearic acid with coconut oil & palm oil, in water bath
Dissolve alkalies in water
Add melted stearic acid into mixture of alkalies by stirring until complete saponification
Add remaining portion of stearic acid & glycerin with stirring to form creamy paste
Heat remaining qty. of water to about 450
C add quickly into the cream with stirring
Add required qty. of perfume & preservatives.
Stir thoroughly to mix uniformly.
19. 30 – 50 % of soap,
Stearic acid alone do not produce sufficient foam, but along with
coconut fatty acids are used.
Generally stearic acid: coconut oil is 75:25.
Sodium hydroxide & potassium hydroxide are used in combination for
saponification of oils.
Ratio is 1:5 (NaOH used to increase stability) but NaOH not exceeds
15% as it forms thick & stingy product.
20. pH about 10
The quality of stearic acid suitable or not,
Higher conc. of oil irritating to sensitive skin,
Effect of tempt.
Increase: gel – like,
Decrease: hard & difficult to apply.
Can be reduced by using borax (0.5%),
Corrosion of metallic tubes by creams: reduced by using sodium silicate (1- 1.5%)
Subs. which reduces surface tension and produce a fine bubble lather: saponins,
sodium chlorate & lecithin.
21. BRUSHLESS SHAVING CREAMS
As the name indicates it does not require brush for
The creams are applied & spread with fingers.
When using brushless shaving cream, the face should be
prepared for use by washing it with soap & water & the
cream should be applied.
These are o/w emulsions
Generally same ings. can be used in brushless shaving creams.
Triethanolamine may be used
Lanolin used in higher proportion
Other additional ings. are:
Gum karaya, MC, PVP, Sodium CMC
Above ings. provide body to the creams & slip to the face.
Preservatives like esters of p- hydroxy benzoates are used to
prevent from microbial growth.
23. FORMULAE & GENERAL PROCEDURE:
Stearic acid : 10 -20 %
Mineral oil : 2 -12%
Alkali : 0.5 -2%
Lanolin : 0 - 5%
Gums / thickeners : 0 -0.5%
Water : 60 -75%
Preservative : q.s
Heat water & water soluble ings. at 60- 650
Add to the molten oil & fats heated to the same temperature with stirring
Stirring is continued till emulsification is complete
Cream is cooled about 450
Add perfume & blend it
Gently stir before filling in tube.
24. DIRECTION FOR USE
Twist off cap and remove foil seal.
Wash face with soap and water.
Soap face again.
Do not rinse.
Apply Brushless shaving cream immediately.
Smooth it upward into beard to get the full benefit of Brushless
shaving cream beard conditioning effect.
Shave, wetting razor frequently.
25. LABEL, CONTAINER & WARNING
For external use only
Keep away from children reach
Do not use if there is change in physical form or dried or opened before several
Do not use if seal is not intact
27. AEROSOL PREPARATIONS
These are o/w emulsions
Propellants are generally used in this
When the preparation is discharged to the atm.
the droplets of propellant vaporizes producing
vapor bubble surrounded by aq. surfactant
5-13% of propellants
87-95% of shaving cream base.
28. FORMULTION OF AEROSOL SHAVING
Saturated fatty acids:
main ingredient , 7 to 9%
Stearic acid no important caused stiffer foams
Triethanolamine, KOH or mixture of both
1- 3% of free fatty acids.
Emulsion stability: glyceryl monostearate,
Wetting property of foam: SLS,
Water dispensibility: polyethoxylated fatty alcohols,
Emolliency: ethoxylated lanolin.
Glycerin, PG, sorbitol, 3 to 10%
Passage of razor over the face easy
Lanolin, silicone fluid of IPM
1 to 2%
Fluorocarbons (7 to 10%),
Hydrocarbons (2.8 to 3.5%).
Perfumes: (0.15 to 0. 65%)
Cooling agent: menthol (0.05 to 0.2%),
Bacteriostatic agent (trichloro hydroxy diphenyl ether 0.05%)
30. AFTER SHAVE PREPARATIONS
Aftershave is a lotion, gel, or liquid used mainly by men after they
have finished shaving.
It may contain an antiseptic agent such as alcohol to prevent infection
from cuts as well as numb damaged skin, a perfume to enhance scent,
and a moisturizer to soften the skin.
An alcohol-based, fragrance-free astringent can be used as an
The alcohol in the aftershave closes pores in the skin and prevents
irritation due to razor burn.
32. ALCOHOL BASED AFTERSHAVE
The pores are left open and the skin gets roughed up by
dragging a sharp razor across the face.
Thus it is generally, the man will usually rinse off his face
and then apply cold water in an attempt to close down the
pores and then splash on some aftershave.
An alcohol based aftershave will definitely close down those
facial pores which is what causes the characteristic stinging.
33. LOTION BASED AFTERSHAVE
A lotion is smooth to put on. It usually doesn't provide the
strengthening effect that some men really enjoy but it helps to
comfort the skin immediately from the itches and burning
sensations as the basic result of shaving.
Some lotions even consist of a moisturizing effect to sooth the skin
that immediately helps reduce redness, razor burn, and other
aggravations associated with the impact of shaving.
Moreover the mild scent of an aftershave lotion does not die out
within a short period of time as it does in case of an alcohol based
after shave where the scent evaporates pretty quickly.
34. ANTISEPTIC AFTERSHAVE
An antiseptic is a substance that prevents the growth and
reproduction of various micro-organisms (such as bacteria,
fungi, protozoa, and viruses) on the external surfaces of the body.
Some are true germicides, capable of destroying the bacteria,
while others merely prevent or inhibit their growth.
The main purpose served by antiseptics is to reduce the
possibility of sepsis, infection, or putrefaction by germs.
35. AFTERSHAVE PRODUCTS
Antiseptics: Generally used alcohol but causes ingrown of hair so
other natural antiseptic like tea tree oil is used.
based on individual
Cheaper products contain more fragrance of low quality
Sometime may cause allergy
A nourishing moisturizer is best.
e.g. Vitamin E, aloe vera, chamomile, allantoin, panthenol
37. EVALUATION OF SHAVING CREAMS & SOAPS
Determination of free caustic alkali
Determination of total free acids
Determination of total fatty materials
Skin sensitization test
Stability of the cream
38. EVALUATION OF AFTER SHAVE LOTIONS
Determination of alcohol content