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Under the Guidance of: By:
Dr.M.S.Doddamani Dr.Lavanya.S.A
Prof & HOD 3rd Year PG Scholar
Dept of RS & BK Dept of RS & BK
TGAMC TGAMC
Bellary Bellary
INTRODUCTION
Pharmacodynamics is the study of drug effect. It starts with
describing what the drugs do, and goes on to explain how they do it.
Thus, it attempts to elucidate the complete effect sequence and the
dose-effect relationship. Modification of the action of one drug by
another drug is also the aspect of pharmacodynamics.
Drugs do not impart new functions to any system, organ or cell; they
only alter the pace of ongoing activity. However, this alone can have
profound medicinal as well as toxicological impact
The basic types of drug action can be broadly classed as:
Stimulation
Depression
Irritation
Replacement
Cytotoxic
action
Variation in response to the same dose of a drug between different
patients and even in the same patient on different occasions is a rule rather
than exception. One or more of the following categories of differences among
individuals are responsible for the variations in drug response.
 Individuals differ in pharmacokinetic handling of drugs: attain varying
plasma/target site concentration of the drug. This is more marked for
drugs disposed by metabolism than for drugs excreted unchanged.
 Variations in number or state of receptors, coupling proteins or other
components of response effectuation.
 Variations in neurogenic/hormonal tone or concentrations of specific
constituents.
FACTORS MODIFYING DRUG EFFECT
The factors modify drug action either:
• Quantitatively
• Qualitatively
1. Quantitatively:
The plasma concentration and / or the action of the drug is
increased or decreased. Most of the factors introduce this type of change and
can be dealt with by adjustment of drug dosage.
2. Qualitatively:
The type of response is altered, e.g. drug allergy or idiosyncrasy. This
is less common but often precludes further use of that drug in the affected
patient.
1. Body Size
2. Age
3. Sex
4. Species & Race
5. Genetics
6. Route of Administration
7. Environmental factors and
time of administration
8. Psychological Factor
9. Pathological states
10. Other Drugs
11. Cumulation
12. Tolerance
FACTORS
It influences the concentration of the drug attained at the site of action.
The average adult dose refers to individuals of medium built. For exceptionally
obese or lean individuals and for children dose may be calculated on body weight
(BW) basis:
Individual Dose = BW(kg) X avg adult dose/70
It has been argued that body surface area (BSA) provides a more
accurate basis for dose calculation, because total body water, Extracellular fluid
volume and metabolic activity are better paralleled by BSA.
Individual dose = BSA(m2) X avg adult dose/1.7
The BSA of an individual can be calculated from Dubois formula:
BSA(m2) = BW (kg) X Height (cm2) X 0.007184
0.725
The dose of a drug for children is often calculated from
the adult dose:
Young’s Formula:
Child dose = Age X adult dose / Age + 12
Dilling’s Formula:
Child dose = Age X adult dose /20
It can also be calculated (more accurately) on BW or BSA
basis, and for many drugs, manufacturers give dosage
recommendations on mg/kg basis.
Average figures for children are given below:
Age Ideal BW (Kg) BSA (m2) % of Adult
Dose
New Born 3.2 0.23 12.5
1 month 4.0 0.26 15
3 months 5.5 0.32 18
6 months 7.5 0.4 22
1 year 10 0.47 25
3 year 14 0.62 33
5 years 18 0.73 40
7 years 23 0.88 50
12 years 37 0.25 75
Elderly:
In the elderly, renal function progressively declines so that
GFR is ~75% at 50 years and ~50% at 75 years age compared to young
adults. Drug doses have to be reduced. There is also a reduction in
the hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing activity and liver blood
flow: oral bio-availability of drugs with high hepatic extraction is
generally increased, but the overall effects on drug metabolism are
not uniform. Due to lower renal as well as metabolic clearance, the
elderly are prone to develop cumulative toxicity while receiving
prolonged medication.
Other affected aspects of drug handling are:
• Slower absorption due to reduced gut motility as well as
blood flow to intestines.
• Lesser plasma protein binding due to lower plasma
albumin.
• Increased or decreased volume of distribution of lipophilic
and hydrophilic drugs respectively.
• Females have smaller body size and require doses that are on
the lower side of the range. Subjective effects of drugs may
differ in females because of their mental makeup.
• In women consideration should also be given to
menstruation, pregnancy and lactation.
• Drugs given during pregnancy can affect the foetus. There are
marked and physiological changes during pregnancy,
especially during 3rd trimester , which can alter drug
disposition.
SPECIES & RACE
• There are many examples of differences in responsiveness to drugs
among different species.
Ex – Rabbits are resistant to Atropine
Rats and mice are resistant to digitalis
• Among human beings some racial differences have been observed.
Ex – Blacks require higher & mongols require lower concentrations of
atropine & ephedrine to dilate their pupil.
Indians tolerate thiacetazone better than whites
Quiniodochlor related cases of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy
occurred in epidemic proportion in Japan, but there is no confirmed report of
its occurrence in India despite extensive use.
GENETICS
• The dose of a drug to produce the same effect may
vary by 4-6 fold among different individuals.
• All key determinants of drug response, viz
transporters, metabolizing enzymes, ion channels etc.
• A great deal of individual variability can be traced to
the genetic composition of the subject.
Pharmaco-genetics:
• The study of genetic basis for variability in drug response
is called Pharmaco-genetics.
• It deals with genetic influences on drug action as well as
on drug handling by the body.
• As the genomic technology has advanced and the human
genome project has been undertaken, gene libraries and
huge data bases have been created aiming at improving
precision in drug therapy.
Pharmaco-genomics:
• It is the use of genetic information to guide the choice of drug and dose on
an individual basis.
• It intends to identify individuals who are either more likely or less likely to
respond to a drug, as well as those who require altered dose of certain
drugs.
• Attempt is made to define the genetic basis of an individual’s profile of
drug response and to predict the best treatment option for him / her.
• So far, this has been applied largely to patients with known genetic
abnormalities, but the goal is personalized medicine on a wide scale.
ROUTE OF
ADMINISTRATION
• It governs the speed and intensity of drug response.
• Parenteral administration is often resorted to for more
rapid, more pronounced and more predictable drug
action.
• A drug may have entirely different uses through
different route.
Ex: Magnesium sulphate given orally causes purgation,
applied on sprained joints – decreases swelling, while IV, it
produces CNS depression and Hypotension.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS & TIME OF ADMINISTRATION
• Severe environmental factors affect drug responses. Exposure to
insecticides, carcinogens, tobacco smoke and consumption of
charcoal broiled meat are well known to induce drug metabolism.
• Type of diet and temporal relation between drug ingestion and
meals can alter drug absorption.
Ex: Food interferes with absorption of ampicillin, but a fatty meal
enhances absorption of griseofulvin and lumefantrine.
• Subjective effects of a drug may be markedly influenced by the
setup in which it is taken.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR
• Efficacy of a drug can be affected by patient’s beliefs,
attitudes and expectations.
• This is particularly applicable to centrally acting drugs.
Ex : A nervous and anxious patient requires more general
anaesthetic; alcohol generally impairs performance but if
punishment is introduce, it may actually improve
performance by relieving anxiety.
Placebo
• This is an inert substance which is given in the garb of a medicine.
• It works by psychodynamic rather than pharmaco-dynamic means
and often produces responses equivalent to the active drug.
• Some individuals are more suggestible and easily respond to a
placebo; and are called ‘ placebo reactors’.
Placebos are used in 2 situations:
1. As a control device in clinical trial of drugs.
2. To treat a patient who, in the opinion of the physician, does not
require an active drug.
Nocebo
It is the converse of placebo, and refers
to negative psychodynamic effect evoked by
the pessimistic attitude of the patient, or by
loss of faith in the medication and / or the
physician. Nocebo effect can oppose the
therapeutic effect of active medication.
Pathological states
Not only drugs modify disease processes, several diseases
can influence drug disposition and drug action.
• Gastrointestinal Disease:
Certain GI diseases can alter absorption of orally
administered drugs. The changes are complex and drug
absorption can increase or decrease.
Ex – NSAID’S can aggravate peptic ulcer disease.
Liver disease:
Liver disease can influence drug disposition in several ways:
• Bioavailability of drugs having high first pass metabolism is increased
due to loss of hepatocellular function and portocaval shunting.
• Serum albumin is reduced – protein binding of acidic drugs is
reduced and drug is present in free form.
• Prodrugs needing hepatic metabolism for activation are less
effective and should be avoided.
• The sensitivity of brain to depressant action of morphine and
barbiturates is markedly increased in cirrhotics – Normal doses can
produce coma.
Kidney Diseases:
• It markedly affects pharmaco-kinetics of many drugs as well as alters
the effects of some drugs.
• Clearance of drugs that are primarily excreted unchanged is reduced
parallel to decrease in creatinine clearance. Loading dose of such a
drug is not altered, but maintenance doses should be reduced or
dose interval prolonged proportionately.
• Plasma proteins, especially albumin, are often low or altered in
structure in patients with renal disease – binding of acidic drugs is
reduced, but that of basic drugs are not much affected
• The permeability of blood-brain barrier is increased in renal failure;
opiates, barbiturates etc. produce more CNS depression.
Certain drugs worsen the existing clinical condition in
renal failure.
• Tetracycline have an anti-anabolic effect and
accentuate uraemia.
• NSAID’s cause more fluid retention.
• Potentially nephrotoxic drugs, e.g amino-glycosides,
tetracyclines should be avoided.
Congestive Cardiac Failure:
It can alter the drug kinetics by:
• Decreasing drug absorption from GIT due to mucosal edema and splanchnic
vasoconstriction. A definite reduction in procainamide & hydrochlorothiazide
absorption has been documented.
• Modifying volume of distribution which can increase for some drugs due to
expansion of extracellular fluid volume or decrease for others as a result of
decreased tissue perfusion – loading doses of drugs like lidocaine should be
lowered.
• Retarding drug elimination as a result of decreased perfusion and congestion of
liver, reduced GFR and increased Tubular reabsorption; dosing rate of drugs may
need reduction, as for lidocaine, theophylline.
• The decompensated heart is more sensitive to digitalis.
Thyroid Diseases:
The hypothyroid patients are more sensitive to
digoxin, morphine and CNS depressants.
The hyperthyroid patients are relatively resistant
to inotropic action but more prone to arrhythmic action
of digoxin.
CUMULATION
Any drug will cumulate in the body if rate of
administration is more than the rate of elimination.
However, slowly eliminated drugs are particularly liable to
cause cumulative toxicity, e.g. prolonged use of chloroquine
cause retinal damage.
• Full loading dose of digoxin should not be given if
patient has received it within the past week.
• A course of emetine should not be repeated within 6
weeks.
TOLERANCE
It refers to the requirement of higher dose of a drug to
produce a given response. Loss of therapeutic efficacy, which is a
form of tolerance is often called ‘refractoriness’. Tolerance is a widely
occurring adaptive biological phenomenon.
Natural:
The species/individual is inherently less sensitive to the drug.
E.g. rabbits are tolerant to atropine; black races are tolerant to
mydriatics. Certain individuals in any population are hyporesponders
to certain drugs, e.g. to Beta adrenergic blockers or to alcohol.
Acquired:
This occurs by repeated use of a drug in an
individual who was initially responsive. Body is capable
of developing tolerance to most drugs, but the
phenomenon is very easily recognized in the case of
CNS depressants. An uninterrupted presence of the
drug in the body favours development of tolerance.
Cross –Tolerance:
It is the development of tolerance to
Pharmacologically related drugs, e.g. alcoholics are relatively
tolerant to barbiturates and general anaesthetics. Closer the
two drugs are, more complete is the tolerance between
them, e.g. There is partial cross tolerance between
morphine and barbiturates but complete cross tolerance
between morphine and pethidine.
Tolerance Mechanism:
• Pharmacokinetic - Effective concentration of the drug at
the site of action is decreased – due to enhancement od
elimination on chronic use – Barbiturates and
carbamazepine induce own metabolism.
• Pharmacodynamic Toleranace- Lesser drug action- cells
of target organs become less responsive.
Tachyphylaxis:
It refers to rapid development of tolerance when
doses of a drug repeated in quick succession result in
marked reduction in response.
Drug Resistance:
It refers to tolerance of micro-organisms to inhibitory
action of anti-microbials.
OTHER DRUGS
Drugs can modify the response to each other by
pharmacokinetic or pharmaco-dynamic interaction
between them. Many ways in which drugs can interact
are:
• Synergism
• Antagonism
Synergism:
When the action of one drug is facilitated or
increased by the other, they are said to be synergistic. In a
synergistic pair, both the drugs can have action in the same
direction or given alone one may be inactive but still
enhance the action of the other when given together.
Effects of drug A + Effects of drug B is < Effect of Drug A+B
Antagonism:
When one drug decreases or abolishes the action
of another, they are said to be antagonistic:
Effect of drugs A + B < Effect of Drug A + Effect of drug B
Usually in an antagonistic pair one drug is inactive
as such but decreases the effect of the other.
CONCLUSION:
• There is variation in the action of a drug from person to
person and also same person on different occasions.
• Individuals differ in pharmacokinetic handling of the drug.
Considering all the above explained factors, the action of
the drug varies.
• The physician has to consider all the factors before
administering the drug to a patient has alteration in any
one of these will lead to adverse drug reaction.

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Dr.Lavanya - Factors modifying drug effect

  • 1. Under the Guidance of: By: Dr.M.S.Doddamani Dr.Lavanya.S.A Prof & HOD 3rd Year PG Scholar Dept of RS & BK Dept of RS & BK TGAMC TGAMC Bellary Bellary
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Pharmacodynamics is the study of drug effect. It starts with describing what the drugs do, and goes on to explain how they do it. Thus, it attempts to elucidate the complete effect sequence and the dose-effect relationship. Modification of the action of one drug by another drug is also the aspect of pharmacodynamics. Drugs do not impart new functions to any system, organ or cell; they only alter the pace of ongoing activity. However, this alone can have profound medicinal as well as toxicological impact
  • 3. The basic types of drug action can be broadly classed as: Stimulation Depression Irritation Replacement Cytotoxic action
  • 4. Variation in response to the same dose of a drug between different patients and even in the same patient on different occasions is a rule rather than exception. One or more of the following categories of differences among individuals are responsible for the variations in drug response.  Individuals differ in pharmacokinetic handling of drugs: attain varying plasma/target site concentration of the drug. This is more marked for drugs disposed by metabolism than for drugs excreted unchanged.  Variations in number or state of receptors, coupling proteins or other components of response effectuation.  Variations in neurogenic/hormonal tone or concentrations of specific constituents. FACTORS MODIFYING DRUG EFFECT
  • 5. The factors modify drug action either: • Quantitatively • Qualitatively 1. Quantitatively: The plasma concentration and / or the action of the drug is increased or decreased. Most of the factors introduce this type of change and can be dealt with by adjustment of drug dosage. 2. Qualitatively: The type of response is altered, e.g. drug allergy or idiosyncrasy. This is less common but often precludes further use of that drug in the affected patient.
  • 6. 1. Body Size 2. Age 3. Sex 4. Species & Race 5. Genetics 6. Route of Administration 7. Environmental factors and time of administration 8. Psychological Factor 9. Pathological states 10. Other Drugs 11. Cumulation 12. Tolerance FACTORS
  • 7. It influences the concentration of the drug attained at the site of action. The average adult dose refers to individuals of medium built. For exceptionally obese or lean individuals and for children dose may be calculated on body weight (BW) basis: Individual Dose = BW(kg) X avg adult dose/70 It has been argued that body surface area (BSA) provides a more accurate basis for dose calculation, because total body water, Extracellular fluid volume and metabolic activity are better paralleled by BSA. Individual dose = BSA(m2) X avg adult dose/1.7 The BSA of an individual can be calculated from Dubois formula: BSA(m2) = BW (kg) X Height (cm2) X 0.007184 0.725
  • 8. The dose of a drug for children is often calculated from the adult dose: Young’s Formula: Child dose = Age X adult dose / Age + 12 Dilling’s Formula: Child dose = Age X adult dose /20 It can also be calculated (more accurately) on BW or BSA basis, and for many drugs, manufacturers give dosage recommendations on mg/kg basis.
  • 9. Average figures for children are given below: Age Ideal BW (Kg) BSA (m2) % of Adult Dose New Born 3.2 0.23 12.5 1 month 4.0 0.26 15 3 months 5.5 0.32 18 6 months 7.5 0.4 22 1 year 10 0.47 25 3 year 14 0.62 33 5 years 18 0.73 40 7 years 23 0.88 50 12 years 37 0.25 75
  • 10. Elderly: In the elderly, renal function progressively declines so that GFR is ~75% at 50 years and ~50% at 75 years age compared to young adults. Drug doses have to be reduced. There is also a reduction in the hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing activity and liver blood flow: oral bio-availability of drugs with high hepatic extraction is generally increased, but the overall effects on drug metabolism are not uniform. Due to lower renal as well as metabolic clearance, the elderly are prone to develop cumulative toxicity while receiving prolonged medication.
  • 11. Other affected aspects of drug handling are: • Slower absorption due to reduced gut motility as well as blood flow to intestines. • Lesser plasma protein binding due to lower plasma albumin. • Increased or decreased volume of distribution of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs respectively.
  • 12. • Females have smaller body size and require doses that are on the lower side of the range. Subjective effects of drugs may differ in females because of their mental makeup. • In women consideration should also be given to menstruation, pregnancy and lactation. • Drugs given during pregnancy can affect the foetus. There are marked and physiological changes during pregnancy, especially during 3rd trimester , which can alter drug disposition.
  • 13. SPECIES & RACE • There are many examples of differences in responsiveness to drugs among different species. Ex – Rabbits are resistant to Atropine Rats and mice are resistant to digitalis • Among human beings some racial differences have been observed. Ex – Blacks require higher & mongols require lower concentrations of atropine & ephedrine to dilate their pupil. Indians tolerate thiacetazone better than whites Quiniodochlor related cases of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy occurred in epidemic proportion in Japan, but there is no confirmed report of its occurrence in India despite extensive use.
  • 14. GENETICS • The dose of a drug to produce the same effect may vary by 4-6 fold among different individuals. • All key determinants of drug response, viz transporters, metabolizing enzymes, ion channels etc. • A great deal of individual variability can be traced to the genetic composition of the subject.
  • 15. Pharmaco-genetics: • The study of genetic basis for variability in drug response is called Pharmaco-genetics. • It deals with genetic influences on drug action as well as on drug handling by the body. • As the genomic technology has advanced and the human genome project has been undertaken, gene libraries and huge data bases have been created aiming at improving precision in drug therapy.
  • 16. Pharmaco-genomics: • It is the use of genetic information to guide the choice of drug and dose on an individual basis. • It intends to identify individuals who are either more likely or less likely to respond to a drug, as well as those who require altered dose of certain drugs. • Attempt is made to define the genetic basis of an individual’s profile of drug response and to predict the best treatment option for him / her. • So far, this has been applied largely to patients with known genetic abnormalities, but the goal is personalized medicine on a wide scale.
  • 17. ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION • It governs the speed and intensity of drug response. • Parenteral administration is often resorted to for more rapid, more pronounced and more predictable drug action. • A drug may have entirely different uses through different route. Ex: Magnesium sulphate given orally causes purgation, applied on sprained joints – decreases swelling, while IV, it produces CNS depression and Hypotension.
  • 18. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS & TIME OF ADMINISTRATION • Severe environmental factors affect drug responses. Exposure to insecticides, carcinogens, tobacco smoke and consumption of charcoal broiled meat are well known to induce drug metabolism. • Type of diet and temporal relation between drug ingestion and meals can alter drug absorption. Ex: Food interferes with absorption of ampicillin, but a fatty meal enhances absorption of griseofulvin and lumefantrine. • Subjective effects of a drug may be markedly influenced by the setup in which it is taken.
  • 19. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR • Efficacy of a drug can be affected by patient’s beliefs, attitudes and expectations. • This is particularly applicable to centrally acting drugs. Ex : A nervous and anxious patient requires more general anaesthetic; alcohol generally impairs performance but if punishment is introduce, it may actually improve performance by relieving anxiety.
  • 20. Placebo • This is an inert substance which is given in the garb of a medicine. • It works by psychodynamic rather than pharmaco-dynamic means and often produces responses equivalent to the active drug. • Some individuals are more suggestible and easily respond to a placebo; and are called ‘ placebo reactors’. Placebos are used in 2 situations: 1. As a control device in clinical trial of drugs. 2. To treat a patient who, in the opinion of the physician, does not require an active drug.
  • 21. Nocebo It is the converse of placebo, and refers to negative psychodynamic effect evoked by the pessimistic attitude of the patient, or by loss of faith in the medication and / or the physician. Nocebo effect can oppose the therapeutic effect of active medication.
  • 22. Pathological states Not only drugs modify disease processes, several diseases can influence drug disposition and drug action. • Gastrointestinal Disease: Certain GI diseases can alter absorption of orally administered drugs. The changes are complex and drug absorption can increase or decrease. Ex – NSAID’S can aggravate peptic ulcer disease.
  • 23. Liver disease: Liver disease can influence drug disposition in several ways: • Bioavailability of drugs having high first pass metabolism is increased due to loss of hepatocellular function and portocaval shunting. • Serum albumin is reduced – protein binding of acidic drugs is reduced and drug is present in free form. • Prodrugs needing hepatic metabolism for activation are less effective and should be avoided. • The sensitivity of brain to depressant action of morphine and barbiturates is markedly increased in cirrhotics – Normal doses can produce coma.
  • 24. Kidney Diseases: • It markedly affects pharmaco-kinetics of many drugs as well as alters the effects of some drugs. • Clearance of drugs that are primarily excreted unchanged is reduced parallel to decrease in creatinine clearance. Loading dose of such a drug is not altered, but maintenance doses should be reduced or dose interval prolonged proportionately. • Plasma proteins, especially albumin, are often low or altered in structure in patients with renal disease – binding of acidic drugs is reduced, but that of basic drugs are not much affected • The permeability of blood-brain barrier is increased in renal failure; opiates, barbiturates etc. produce more CNS depression.
  • 25. Certain drugs worsen the existing clinical condition in renal failure. • Tetracycline have an anti-anabolic effect and accentuate uraemia. • NSAID’s cause more fluid retention. • Potentially nephrotoxic drugs, e.g amino-glycosides, tetracyclines should be avoided.
  • 26. Congestive Cardiac Failure: It can alter the drug kinetics by: • Decreasing drug absorption from GIT due to mucosal edema and splanchnic vasoconstriction. A definite reduction in procainamide & hydrochlorothiazide absorption has been documented. • Modifying volume of distribution which can increase for some drugs due to expansion of extracellular fluid volume or decrease for others as a result of decreased tissue perfusion – loading doses of drugs like lidocaine should be lowered. • Retarding drug elimination as a result of decreased perfusion and congestion of liver, reduced GFR and increased Tubular reabsorption; dosing rate of drugs may need reduction, as for lidocaine, theophylline. • The decompensated heart is more sensitive to digitalis.
  • 27. Thyroid Diseases: The hypothyroid patients are more sensitive to digoxin, morphine and CNS depressants. The hyperthyroid patients are relatively resistant to inotropic action but more prone to arrhythmic action of digoxin.
  • 28. CUMULATION Any drug will cumulate in the body if rate of administration is more than the rate of elimination. However, slowly eliminated drugs are particularly liable to cause cumulative toxicity, e.g. prolonged use of chloroquine cause retinal damage. • Full loading dose of digoxin should not be given if patient has received it within the past week. • A course of emetine should not be repeated within 6 weeks.
  • 29. TOLERANCE It refers to the requirement of higher dose of a drug to produce a given response. Loss of therapeutic efficacy, which is a form of tolerance is often called ‘refractoriness’. Tolerance is a widely occurring adaptive biological phenomenon. Natural: The species/individual is inherently less sensitive to the drug. E.g. rabbits are tolerant to atropine; black races are tolerant to mydriatics. Certain individuals in any population are hyporesponders to certain drugs, e.g. to Beta adrenergic blockers or to alcohol.
  • 30. Acquired: This occurs by repeated use of a drug in an individual who was initially responsive. Body is capable of developing tolerance to most drugs, but the phenomenon is very easily recognized in the case of CNS depressants. An uninterrupted presence of the drug in the body favours development of tolerance.
  • 31. Cross –Tolerance: It is the development of tolerance to Pharmacologically related drugs, e.g. alcoholics are relatively tolerant to barbiturates and general anaesthetics. Closer the two drugs are, more complete is the tolerance between them, e.g. There is partial cross tolerance between morphine and barbiturates but complete cross tolerance between morphine and pethidine.
  • 32. Tolerance Mechanism: • Pharmacokinetic - Effective concentration of the drug at the site of action is decreased – due to enhancement od elimination on chronic use – Barbiturates and carbamazepine induce own metabolism. • Pharmacodynamic Toleranace- Lesser drug action- cells of target organs become less responsive.
  • 33. Tachyphylaxis: It refers to rapid development of tolerance when doses of a drug repeated in quick succession result in marked reduction in response. Drug Resistance: It refers to tolerance of micro-organisms to inhibitory action of anti-microbials.
  • 34. OTHER DRUGS Drugs can modify the response to each other by pharmacokinetic or pharmaco-dynamic interaction between them. Many ways in which drugs can interact are: • Synergism • Antagonism
  • 35. Synergism: When the action of one drug is facilitated or increased by the other, they are said to be synergistic. In a synergistic pair, both the drugs can have action in the same direction or given alone one may be inactive but still enhance the action of the other when given together. Effects of drug A + Effects of drug B is < Effect of Drug A+B
  • 36. Antagonism: When one drug decreases or abolishes the action of another, they are said to be antagonistic: Effect of drugs A + B < Effect of Drug A + Effect of drug B Usually in an antagonistic pair one drug is inactive as such but decreases the effect of the other.
  • 37. CONCLUSION: • There is variation in the action of a drug from person to person and also same person on different occasions. • Individuals differ in pharmacokinetic handling of the drug. Considering all the above explained factors, the action of the drug varies. • The physician has to consider all the factors before administering the drug to a patient has alteration in any one of these will lead to adverse drug reaction.

Editor's Notes

  1. Punishment – which induces anxiety
  2. Resistance ex- Staphylococci to pencillin.