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  1. 1. Debate: China "one child" policyFrom Debatepedia(Redirected from Debate:China "one child" policy)Jump to: navigation, search[ ][ ][ ][ ][Edit]Is Chinas "one child" policy sensible?[Edit]Background and contextThe one-child policy is the population control policy (or planned birth policy) of thePeoples Republic of China (PRC).The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate the social andenvironmental problems of China. The policy is controversial both within and outsideChina because of the issues it raises; because of the manner in which the policy has beenimplemented; and because of concerns about negative economic and social consequences.The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on theincome of the family and other factors. However, there are still many citizens that continueto have more than one child, despite this policy. In February 2008 Chinese Governmentofficial Wu Jianmin said that the one-child policy would be reconsidered during theChinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference in March 2008, but at that time arepresentative of Chinas National Population and Family Planning Commission said thatthe policy would remain in place for at least another decade.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ]Demographics: Is Chinas "one child" policy demographically sound?[ ][Edit][ ][Edit]
  2. 2. Yes• The "one child" policy can bemodified to improvedemographics. Some provincesallow families where each parentwas an "only child" to have twochildren. In 2007, except Henanprovince, all other provinces in PRCadopted this new adaption[46].No• "One child" exacerbates Chinasaging population problem• "One child" will create ageneration of men without womento marry Heda Bayron. "Experts:Chinas One-Child Population PolicyProducing Socio-EconomicProblems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006- "By 2020, there will be about 40million Chinese men unable tomarry, because too few girls willhave been born. Sociologists say thatcould trigger aggressive behavioramong frustrated bachelors,including kidnapping and traffickingin women."[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Fairness/rights: Is the "one child" rule fair to Chinese citizens? Does itviolate rights?[ ][Edit]Yes• Extreme overpopulation warrantsthe extreme "one child" policy Itis fair to call Chinas "one child"policy "extreme". But, it is justifiedin the simple sense that China facesan extreme overpopulation crisis.Desperate times call for desperatemeasures. The Chinese government[ ][Edit]No• Chinese understand Chinassuccess depends on "one child",population control. Many Chinesepeople are able to have a secondchild and are willing to pay the fine.Yet, they choose not to do so on thephilosophical grounds that it isbetter for the country to not have a
  3. 3. cannot be blamed for taking theseaggressive, but necessary measures.• "One child" generally improvesliving standards of Chinese• Chinese can simply pay a fine tohave an extra child. In manyregions of China, families that reallywant a second child can have one,and simply have to pay a fine. But,in general, Chinese regionalauthorities do not go so far as toabsolutely ban having a secondchild. Therefore, the status quomerely discourages anddisincentivizes having a secondchild.• China outlaws physically forcingwomen to have abortions WhileChina previously forced somewomen to have abortions, it nolonger does so, and expresslyforbids the practice.• China plans on ending "onechild" policy in the future ZhaoBaige, vice minister of the NationalPopulation and Family PlanningCommission - "The one-child policywas the only choice we had, giventhe conditions when we initiated thepolicy. So as things develop, theremight be some changes to thepolicy, and relevant departments areconsidering this."[1]• China gives exemptions from "onechild" in special circumstances• Modern Chinese people actuallyprefer only one child Heda Bayron."Experts: Chinas One-ChildPopulation Policy Producing Socio-second child.• "One child" policy violates rightto reproduce and found family.The one-child policy has beencriticized by human rights advocacygroups and Western religiousadvocacy groups who consider itcontrary to the human rights ofreproduction. Many governments,including the United Stategovernment, argue that the policyviolates a right to "found a family",which is protected under theUniversal Declaration of HumanRights.• China often forces abortions onwomen, violating human rightsChinese officials often forceabortions on women against theirwill. This persists despite the factthat it has been banned by Chinascentral government.• Chinas forced sterilization iscruel, violates rights Heda Bayron."Experts: Chinas One-ChildPopulation Policy Producing Socio-Economic Problems". VOAnews. 7Mar. 2006 - Four days after Mrs.Yao gave birth in October, localofficials descended on the Yaohousehold in Chinas Fujianprovince and dragged her and herhusband to a hospital. There, thecouple was forced to undergosterilization.Mr. Yao, 31, is angry at the heavy-handed action."My wife just had a 4 1/2 kilogrambaby four days earlier. It is wrong toask her to do another operation," hesaid. "At least wait until six months
  4. 4. Economic Problems". VOAnews. 7Mar. 2006 - "Surveys among youngurban Chinese show many prefer tohave only one child, because of thecost of raising children and becauseof their busy new lifestyles.Younger Chinese appear to befollowing the pattern set in Japan,Singapore, and many other countriesaround the world, the wealthier theybecome, the fewer children theywant to have."when she recovered. What they havedone was very cruel."• Chinas "one child" policy violatesnatural law Ye Tingfang, aprofessor at the Chinese Academy ofSocial Sciences: "the one-child limitis too extreme. It violates nature’slaw and, in the long run, will lead tomother nature’s revenge."[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Population: Is the rule essential to controlling Chinas population size?[ ][Edit]Yes• Chinas "one child" policy is keyto stabilizing global populationgrowth Global population growth isconsidered by many to be a crisis.With 1.3 billion people, a fifth of theworlds population, China must be amajor part of the solution to theglobal population crisis. "One child"is a pillar of this global solution.• China would have far too manychildren if not for "one child".China estimates that it has three tofour hundred million fewer peopletoday with the one child policy thanit would have had otherwise.[ ][Edit]No• "One child" is only partlyresponsible for reducing Chinasfertility rates Hasketh, Lu, andXing observed: "the policy itself isprobably only partially responsiblefor the reduction in the total fertilityrate. The most dramatic decrease inthe rate actually occurred before thepolicy was imposed. Between 1970and 1979, the largely voluntary"late, long, few" policy, whichcalled for later childbearing, greaterspacing between children, and fewerchildren, had already resulted in ahalving of the total fertility rate,from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-childpolicy was introduced, there was a
  5. 5. • Ending Chinas "one-child" policywould cause a population spikeJoseph Chamie, former head of theUnited Nations population divisionand now head of the Center forMigration Studies - "Today thefertility level in China is around 1.7children per woman. if China wereto relax its one-child policy, then it’sreasonable to expect that fertilitywould rise. How much? Well, iffertility increased to replacementlevel of 2.1 (an increase of justunder a half a child), which is notunreasonable given desired familysize, the country’s annual number ofbirths would increase by nearly 30percent, or approximately fivemillion additional births. Bymidcentury, this would add up tonearly a quarter-billion moreChinese than currently projected bythe U.N. And given China’s impacton the environment, especiallygreenhouse gas emissions, thischange of policy clearly portends agreat deal."[2]• One-child forestalls problemsassociated with overpopulation.The reduction in fertility rate andthus population size reduced theseverity of problems that come withoverpopulation, like epidemics,slums, overwhelmed social services(health, education, law enforcement,and more), and strain on theecosystem from abuse of fertile landand production of high volumes ofwaste.• "One child" changed traditionthat more children is better Thesymbolism of "one child" is veryimportant in ending the conventionalmore gradual fall in the rate until1995, and it has more or lessstabilized at approximately 1.7 sincethen."• "One child" is excessive,alternatives for reducing fertilityrates exist.• India has achieved populationsustainability without "one child".As argued above, there are ways toachieve population-sizesustainability without implementinga "one child" policy. There arealternative means. India is a goodexample of this, having achievedbroadly similar declines in fertilitywithout state coercion or occasionalbrutality.• It doesnt appear to be working sofar. So far no major populationdecreases have occured under the"one child" policy. This policywould need to take place forhundreds of years to work, but thatwould not be fair. It has shownminor changes, but theoverpopulation problem in Chinastill hugely exists.
  6. 6. belief that more children is better.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Gender: Does Chinas "one child" improve gender equality?[ ][Edit]Yes• One-child policy improves healthservices for women. It is reportedthat the focus of China onpopulation control helps provide abetter health service for women anda reduction in the risks of death andinjury associated with pregnancy. Atfamily planning offices, womenreceive free contraception and pre-natal classes. Help is provided forpregnant women to closely monitortheir health. In various places inChina, the government rolled out a‘Care for Girls’ programme, whichaims at eliminating culturaldiscrimination against girls in ruraland underdeveloped areas throughsubsidies and education.[3]• "One child" liberates femaleproductivity, improves genderequality Women have traditionallybeen the primary caregivers forchildren; however, with fewerchildren, they have more time toinvest in their careers, increasingboth their personal earnings and thenational GDP. However, critics ofthe policy have asserted that such again may eventually be cancelled[ ][Edit]No• "One child" policy fosterspreference for sons; causesdemographic shift. China, likemany other Asian countries, has along tradition of son preference.Many argue that the one-child policyinduces many families to useselective abortion, abandon femaleinfants, and even kill female infantsunder the influence of the sonpreference. Some families even killor starve the female infant and thentry again for a male child. Thecommonly accepted explanation forson preference is that sons in ruralfamilies may be thought to be morehelpful in farm work. Both rural andurban populations have economicand traditional incentives, includingwidespread remnants ofConfucianism, to prefer sons overdaughters. Sons are preferred as theyprovide the primary financialsupport for the parents in theirretirement, and a sons parentstypically are better cared for than hiswifes. In addition, Chinesetraditionally view that daughters, ontheir marriage, become primarily
  7. 7. out by the increased burden ofcaring for two elderly parentssinglehandedly.part of the grooms family.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Children: Is the one-child policy good for children?[ ][Edit]Yes• "One child" policies improveChina for young generations. "Onechild" policies improve China bymaking its population size moresustainable and by, subsequently,improving the living standards ofChinese citizens now and in thefuture. This is certainly good foryoung Chinese.• It prevents sibling rivalry. A lot ofchildren have sibling rivalry withtheir brothers or sisters. A lot ofchildren also hate their siblings orare bullied by them. This policyprevents that.• Parents with one child will caremore for that child. If parents haveone child, they will look after themand care for them more than if therewere three or four children. Thechild would in most cases be lovedmore and get more personalattention.[ ][Edit]No• Chinas "one child" policy createstoo many only childs "Report says100 million Chinese have nosiblings". Associated Press. July 7th,2008• Chinas "one child" policy fostersspoiled children. Some parents mayover-indulge their only-child. Themedia referred to the indulgedchildren in one-child families as"little emperors". Since the 1990s,some people worry this will result ina higher tendency toward poor socialcommunication and cooperationskills among the new generation, asthey have no siblings at home.However, no social studies haveinvestigated the ratio of these over-indulged children and to what extentthey are indulged. With the firstgeneration of one-child policychildren (those born in the 1980s)reaching adulthood, such worries arereduced.
  8. 8. • Chinas "one child" policy causesthe abandonment of childrenDamien McElroy and Olga Craig."Victims of Chinas one-child policyfind hope". Telegraph. 19 June 2001- "FIVE young girls, found starvingand close to death amid the rubbishtips of Beijing, have been given anew life thanks to the love andcompassion of a poor couple in theChinese capital.The girls were abandoned as babies -victims of Chinas one-child policycoupled with a traditional preferencefor sons. Each had been dumped todie by parents who either wantedtheir only child to be a boy or didnot want the burden of a disfiguredor disabled infant."• Chinas "one child" policy causes"gendercide" According to TheEconomist [4], at least 100 milliongirls have disappeared in China.They were either "aborted, killed, orneglected to death"- and the numberis rising. "...[C]ouples want twochildren—or, as in China, areallowed only one—they willsacrifice unborn daughters to theirpursuit of a son. That is why sexratios are most distorted in themodern, open parts of China andIndia."[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Support networks: Does the "one child" policy foster family supportnetworks?[ ] [ ]
  9. 9. [Edit]Yes• The children will still havefamilies. Children born with nobrothers or sisters will still have afamily. They will have a mum anddad, grandparents and possiblyaunts, uncles and cousins.[Edit]No• The "one child" policyundermines family supportnetworks. As the one-child policybegins to near its next generation,one adult child is left with having toprovide support for his or her twoparents and four grandparents. Thisleaves the older generation withmore of a dependency on retirementfunds or charity in order to havesupport. If personal savings,pensions, or state welfare shouldfail, then the most senior citizenswould be left entirely dependentupon their very small family orneighbors for support. If a child cantcare for their parents andgrandparents, or if that child cantsurvive, the oldest generation couldfind itself destitute.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Ending the policy: Would removing the laws undo all good done by the"One Child" Policy?[ ][Edit]Yes• Removing these laws would see alot more babies born at aroundthe same time. If the laws wereremoved today, in about nine[ ][Edit]No
  10. 10. months time a flood of babies wouldbe born in China. People wouldundo any good made by the lawsand use their right to start having asmany babies as possible.• When people have back theirrights, they will use them. Whenthe laws are removed, the people ofChina will start having lots of babies- thats bound to happen and willundo the help made to Chinasoverpopulation problems.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Economics: Is the one child policy economically beneficial?[ ][Edit]Yes• "One child" increases GDP percapita, living standards Chinasimply cannot sustain a populationof 2 billion and provide the standardof living that it desires.• Chinas "one child" policy helpseradicate poverty• Chinas "one child" policyincreases individual savings. Theindividual savings rate has increasedsince the introduction of the OneChild Policy. This has been partiallyattributed to the policy in tworespects. First, the average Chinesehousehold expends fewer resources,both in terms of time and money, on[ ][Edit]No• Fees for second child areeconomically damaging. A U.S.official named Dewey testified thatparents who bear a second child arerequired to pay a "socialcompensation fee", which rangesfrom half of the local average annualincome to ten times that.• Chinas one-child policy increasescrime "One-Child Policy, ChinaCrime Rise Linked by Study". NewYork Sun. 19 Nov. 2007 -"Communist Chinas one-childpolicy is to blame for as much as38% of the recent rapid rise in crimein that country, a new research
  11. 11. children, which gives many Chinesemore money with which to invest.Second, since young Chinese can nolonger rely on children to care forthem in their old age, there is animpetus to save money for thefuture.[27]• "One child" policy maintains asteady employment rate. Withoverpopulation, it is common that apopulation will see risingunemployment finds.An associate professor of economicsat Columbia University, LenaEdlund, has found that a 1%increase in the ratio of males tofemales equates to an increase inviolent and property crime of asmuch as 6%, "suggesting that malesex ratios may account for 28% to38% of the rise in crime." Ms.Edlund, who studied crime rates inChina between 1988 and 2004,discussed her findings at aconference earlier this month at NewYork University."[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Environment: Is the "one child" policy good for the environment?[ ][Edit]Yes• "One child" policy helps fightagainst global warming "ChinaSays One-Child Policy HelpsProtect Climate". Reuters. 30August 2007In solving the pollution and theenvironment, China advocates thispolicy in helping reduce their carbondioxide output. The governmentsuggested that every human bodyexhale too much carbon dioxide, andcited statistics that reducing thecountries population would greatly[ ][Edit]No
  12. 12. reduce carbon dioxide emissionsfrom human respiration.• Chinas "one child" policy slowsthe depletion of natural resources.[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Discrimination: Does Chinas "one child" policy avoid racism?[ ][Edit]Yes• This policy is not exactly racist.The "one child" possibly is notracist, it is simply trying to controlChinas extreme population.[ ][Edit]No• Chinas "one child" policy isinherently racist Paul Jalsevac."The inherent racism of populationcontrol."• Chinas "one child" policy causessocioeconomic discrimination[Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Chinese opinion: Where does the Chinese population stand on this issue?[ ][Edit]Yes[ ][Edit]No• Protests have been widespread inChina against "one child" DraganStankovic and John Chan. "Protestsin China over the one child policy".
  13. 13. [Edit][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]Pro/con resources[ ][Edit]Yes• "China Says One-Child PolicyHelps Protect Climate". Reuters. 30August 2007• "Family Planning in China".Information Office of the StateCouncil Of the Peoples Republic ofChina. 1995[ ][Edit]No• Brandon Keim. "China: The WrongWay to Do Population Control".Wired. July 24, 2007• "Report says 100 million Chinesehave no siblings". Associated Press.7 July 2008• Damien McElroy and Olga Craig."Victims of Chinas one-child policyfind hope". Telegraph. 19 June 2001• Claudia Joseph. "Babies for sale:The scandal of Chinas brutal singlechild policy". 6 Oct. 2007• Heda Bayron. "Experts: ChinasOne-Child Population PolicyProducing Socio-EconomicProblems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006• "Can China Afford to Continue ItsOne-Child Policy?". East WestCenter. Mar. 2005• "Family Planning in China".Information Office of the StateCouncil Of the Peoples Republic ofChina. 28 Dec. 2004• "China: Human rights violations andcoercion in one-child policyenforcement". HEARING BEFORETHE COMMITTEE ONINTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVESONE HUNDRED EIGHTHCONGRESS SECOND SESSION.
  14. 14. DECEMBER 14, 2004[E