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A comprehensive revision for Cambridge AS Geography, chapter 4 Population, subchapter 4.4 The Management of Natural Increase

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  2. 2. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS Population policy is when a government has a stated aim on an aspect of its population and it undertakes measures to achieve that aim. Pro-natalist policy is a population policy that aims to encourage more births through the use of incentives. Anti-natalist policy is a population policy designed to limit fertility through the use of both incentives and deterrents. Family planning programme is a programme to regulate the number and spacing of children in a family through the practice of contraception or other methods of birth control. Sterilisation is preventing pregnancy by cutting or blocking the tubes from a woman’s ovaries or cutting the tubes that carry sperm in a man.
  3. 3. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a foetus or embryo, resulting in or caused by its death. Centrally planned economy is an economic system in which the state or workers’ councils manage all aspects of the economy. Civil liberties are the rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state. Civil liberties set limits on a government so that its members cannot abuse their power and interfere unduly with the lives of private citizens.
  4. 4. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS Selective abortion is abortion performed because of the gender of the foetus or when a genetic test is performed that detects an undesirable trait. Social norms are the rules for how people should act in a given group or society. These rules are often different for men and women. Any behaviour that is outside these norms is considered abnormal. Natural increase is the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a country or region.
  5. 5. Population policy encompasses all of the measures explicitly or implicitly taken by a government aimed at influencing population size, growth, distribution or composition. Population policies may be pro-natalist or anti-natalist in character. In 1952 India became the first developing country to introduce a policy designed to reduce fertility. TOPICSUMMARY
  6. 6. TOPICSUMMARY An increasing number of countries now see their fertility as too low. China has been operating the world’s strictest policy to control natural increase since 1979. Population policies in China can be traced back to the late 1940s. The direction of population policy changed a number of times before the one-child policy was introduced. Chinese demographers say that the one-child policy has been successful in preventing at least 300 million births, and has played a significant role in the country’s economic growth. Ethnic minorities were exempt from parts of the policy, which applied mainly to the Han ethnic majority that makes up more than 90 per cent of the total population.
  7. 7. TOPICSUMMARY The one-child policy has been most effective in urban areas where the traditional bias of couples wanting a son has been significantly eroded. The policy has had a considerable impact on the sex ratio, which at birth in China is currently 119 boys to 100 girls. Demographic ageing has been another major consequence of population control as the median age of the population steadily rises.
  8. 8. TOPICSUMMARY Another consequence of the one-child rule has been the creation of a generation of so-called ‘little emperors’. An increasing number of affluent parents are either prepared to pay the fines for having a second child outright or travel to Hong Kong where no permit for a second child is needed. Some organisations, including the UN Fund for Population Activities, have praised China’s policy on birth control. Many others see it as a fundamental violation of civil liberties.
  9. 9. ADDITIONALWORK 1. Have any attempts been made to manage natural increase in the country in which you live? If so, describe these measures and assess their success. 2. Check the internet to see the latest discussions on natural increase in China.
  10. 10. SUGGESTEDWEBSITES – China Daily