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Knowledge Management 2017

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Theory, frameworks, case studies

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Knowledge Management 2017

  1. 1. Knowledge Management 
 Theory, frameworks, case studies The great end of knowledge is not knowledge, but action. 
 - Thomas Henry Huxley John Bordeaux, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Knowledge Management Enhance Client Value and Solution Delivery through Harvesting, Sharing and Reuse - Enabled through Social Sharing, Work-Knowledge Architecture and Tooling Alignment 2 I will not give this talk.
  3. 3. Intelligence Analyst Sr. Programmer Analyst Chief Knowledge Officer Associate Partner, Social Knowledge Management 1982-1990 1990-1998 2000-2009 2010-2015 2009-2010 Director, Knowledge Innovation Sr. Management Scientist 1998-2000 Knowledge Manager 2015-pres Short order cook “Retirement”
  4. 4. I appreciate your attention and will try not to waste it.
  5. 5. Failing Without KM: 1. You repeat mistakes 2. Work gets duplicated - reinventing the wheel 3. Customer relations are strained 4. Good ideas don't get shared and transferred 5. You have to compete on price 6. You can't keep up with the market leader 7. You're dependent on key individuals 8. You're slow to launch new products 9. Don't know how to price services. (Source; Fortune - 23 June 1997) “The monetary impact on the organization of wasted time is anything but small - For instance, an organization employing 1,000 knowledge workers loses $5.7 million annually just in the time wasted by employees having to reformat information as they move among applications.”- IDC 2006
  6. 6. Failing with KM >70% of KM programs fail. A few reasons why: • The focus was on the technology rather than the business and its people. • There was too much hype–with consultants and technology vendors cashing in on the latest management fad. • Companies spent too much money (usually on ‘sexy’ technologies) with little or no return on their investments. • Most knowledge management literature was very conceptual and lacking in practical advice, which led to frustration at the inability to translate the theory into practice – “it all makes so much sense but why isn’t it working?” • Knowledge management was not tied into business processes and ways of working. • It was seen as another laborious overhead activity or yet another new initiative. • A lack of incentives – employees quite rightly asked the ‘what’s in it for me?’ question. • There wasn’t sufficient senior executive level buy-in. NHS Report on KM
  7. 7. The CEO Slide
  8. 8. First, define the terms Knowledge management (KM) is the practice of using an organization’s content, social networks, experience and collective intelligence to increase organizational effectiveness & productivity – and also to spark innovation and transformation. KM’s success includes adapting better to changing circumstance, not just doing today’s work better. "Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. 
 
 It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers.” 
 Thomas H. Davenport & Laurence Prusak, "Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know." Harvard Business School Press. Boston, MA: 1998
  9. 9. Volume t Data, Information, Knowledge Information Processing Technology Access Network Bandwidth Attention Davenport, T. H. and J. C. Beck (2001). The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Cambridge, MA, Harvard Business School Press. Our ability to pay attention does not keep up with increase in information
  10. 10. Information is data in context Understanding what information means Deciding what to do within constraintsKnowledge Options Action Data Sense Making Path Finding Analysis Execution Iteration Information Dave Snowden, http://cognitive-edge.com
  11. 11. KM is not focused on fixing individual knowledge (There is a sub-branch called PKM, however)* Knowledge is what we know, what we “comprehend, understand, and learn” (Wilson, 2002)
 Knowledge is “biologically determined” (Shutz, 1967)
 The knowledge structure in the receiver will never match the sender’s
 *Harold Jarche is your sherpa for PKM
  12. 12. 12 Organizational Culture A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. 
 Schein, Edgar H. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1992.
  13. 13. Every decision is a guess about the future
  14. 14. What happens when we predict in groups?
  15. 15. If knowledge is personal If decisions are predictions emerging from interactions If organization culture embeds shared assumptions that thwart creativity Then perhaps the product for KM is conversation as much as content.
  16. 16. Joachim Stroh Global shifts in markets, economies, and business Carr, N. (2009). The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Dicken, P. (2011). Global Shift: Mapping the Contours of the World Economy (6 ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. A fundamental shift is underway, changing how we work “Uber owns no cars, Airnbnb owns no properties, and Facebook owns no content.”
  17. 17. How we organize for work is changing Collective Intelligence: Capitalizing on the Crowd. (2011): IBM Institute for Business Value. Anklam, P. (2007). Net Work. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Joachim Stroh 70% of 6.4M jobs created between 1998 and 2004 required tacit interactions, rather than transformational or transactional interactions. 
 “The way people work has changed dramatically, but the way their companies are organized lags far behind.” Hindle, T. (2006, January 19). The New Organisation. The Economist. “Vertically oriented organizational structures, retrofitted with ad hoc and matrix overlays, nearly always make professional work more complex and inefficient.”Bryan, L. L., & Joyce, C. (2005). The 21st Century Organization. The McKinsey Quarterly
  18. 18. 18 The unique KM challenges for your shop, congratulations
  19. 19. Hiring soon? IBM CIO study
  20. 20. How you make decisions Intuition size up a situation quickly Mental stimulation imagine how a course of action may be carried out Metaphor draw on experience by suggesting parallels between the current situation and something else we have come across Storytelling consolidate our experiences to make them available in the future, either to ourselves or to others Gary Klein, “Sources of Power”
  21. 21. Kahneman recently said he was hopeful organizations could mitigate decision bias; individuals not as much. 21
  22. 22. Knowledge can only be volunteered, it cannot be conscripted We only know what we know when we need to know it In the context of real need, few people will withhold their knowledge Everything is fragmented Tolerated failure imprints learning better than success The way we know things is not the way we report we know things We always know more than we can say, and say more than we can write down D. Snowden Before attempting KM, understand core and humbling principles
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. A definition of organizational knowledge - ASHEN ASHEN Definition Examples Artifacts The processes, documents, filing cabinets, databases and other constructed ‘things’ ▪ Project documentation ▪ Meeting minutes ▪ Training materials ▪ Procedure manuals Skills Expertness, practised ability, facility in doing something, dexterity, tact. ▪ Technical certifications ▪ Engineering ▪ Architecture solutioning Heuristics Serving to discover; ~method, system of education under which a practitioner is trained to out things for himself ▪ Applied best practices ▪ Rules of thumb ▪ Stereo typing or ▪ Educated guesses Experience Actual observation of or practical acquaintance with facts or events; knowledge resulting from this ▪ Practical experience working across business units ▪ Experienced managing online transaction processing systems (OLTP) Natural Talent Talent innate and unique to an individual ▪ Special aptitudes, faculties or gifts Source: David Snowden, Chief Scientific Officer, Cognitive Edge, former Director of IBM’s Institute of Knowledge Management
  25. 25. Scope for KM begins with understanding the knowledge in question Far beyond content, information, data, documents…
  26. 26. Differentiate KM from IM Information Management Knowledge Management Goals emphasize delivery and accessibility of information Goals emphasize value-added for users Support existing operations Support operational improvement and innovation Delivers available content with little value added Add values to content by filtering, synthesizing, interpreting, pruning content Emphasis on one-way transfer of information Usually requires ongoing user contributions and feedback Heavy technology focus Balanced focus on technology and culture issues in creating impacts Assumes information capture can be automated Variance in inputs precludes automating capture process Long, D. D., Davenport, T., & Beers, M. (1997). What is a Knowledge Management Project?
  27. 27. Decision-makingEIM/ECM Taxonomy Metaphor Mental simulation Storytelling Intuition Motivation Sense of engagement Workplace design Sleeping patterns Time of day Analytics Folksonomy Shared 
 workspace User-experience design Narrative capture Document 
 collaboration Mass ideation Storage Language translation Cognitive
 computing Contextual 
 computing Machine-to-machine Machine-to-Person Person-to-Person People Internet of 
 Things KM strategy Business metrics KM organization KM program
 initiatives Master data
 management Meeting protocols Mobile 
 platforms KM
  28. 28. www.cognitive-edge.com Here live analysts Here are most human endeavors Here is served by content management Here be dragons - and radical innovation Obvious
  29. 29. Try KM for its own sake? Sure, what could go wrong?
  30. 30. The true value of KM is realized when we connect to how decisions are made Network / server / cloud infrastructure Organizational goals System System System System Organizational processes Application integration Homo sapiens, homo narrens
  31. 31. Knowledge Benefits Intermediate Benefits Organizational Benefits External Benefits Fasteraccessto information Easierreplication ofinformation Knowwhoto contact Ready-to-use knowledge Accessto best/latestthinking Fasterproposal writing Betterdecision making Better understandingof availableexpertise Novelapproaches toproblems Overcoming departmental‘silos’ Facilitates mergers Findingright skill quicker Growing competencies Employee motivation Improvedquality Moreinnovative customersolutions Improvedcustomer relationships Competingon value-not price Higherquality products/services Bettersharingof best practices Measures Individual Value Network effects Organizational Value Business Value Measures Measures Skyme KM Framework, modified Articulating indirect value – a framework
  32. 32. KM Business Objectives (sample) •Reduce risk & compliance costs •Increase revenue •Increase consistency service delivery •Reduce employee time to performance •Reduce duplicated work •Accurately match resources with projects •Increase accuracy in regulation-sensitive areas •Shorten time to market for new product/service innovations •Increase innovations in process and delivery •Increase customer satisfaction •Faster time to value •Increase loyalty •Increase responsiveness •Increase perception of firm •Increase tailored solutions that speak to their business needs •Increase employee satisfaction •Increase ability to find resources •Increase skill development •Increase sense of connectedness •Increase mobile access to firm Customer Value Employee Value Shareholder Value
  33. 33. Organizational Learning Knowledge Creation Information Management KM Strategy and Program Information Systems Management Expertise and Experience Management Social Network Stimulation Records Management Suggested purview of a KM program Often lives elsewhere, coordination required with other chieftains
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. KM Vision statements map to corporate vision statements “We connect people to information and people – mobilizing the power of ‘One Global Network’” “The power of people sharing knowledge results in value to our clients” “Bring the company to bear for every client” “Knowledge without Borders” “Ask, Learn, Share, Win” “Apply mass ideation to develop new knowledge and innovation” AFKN Air Force Largest Community of Practice in the Department of Defense with 400K users
  36. 36. Academe Anantatmula, V.S. (2005). Knowledge Management Criteria. In M. Stankosky. (Ed.).Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management: The Latest in University Research (pp.171- 188).Amsterdam, Boston: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
  37. 37. ‹#› KM Strategy MITRE KM Strategy MITRE has inculcated learning and knowledge sharing into its corporate culture. In particular, [this paper] describes MITRE'S KM roots, strategy, KM objectives, a chronology of KM practice, KM processes, KM repositories, communities of practice, expertise management, collaboration, return on investment, and KM benchmarks and measurement.” – Mark Maybury “Bring the company to bear for every client” • MITRE Corporation – private, independent, not-for-profit organization, founded in 1958 to provide engineering and technical services to U.S. Air Force • Two-time winner: (North American) Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE) Award
  38. 38. Accenture Content and Community
  39. 39. Fluor Corporation Network centric strategy • Integrate and leverage 
 the collective intellectual 
 capital of our employees • Provide optimal solutions 
 to our clients • Enhance skill sets of 
 employees • Improve business performance
 • Key points: – Strong people networks are a cornerstone of strong communities of practice – Community leadership has a direct influence on the strength of the community – Critical mass is required before substantial work process improvements are possible – Communities improve business performance through global adoption of best practices, improved work processes, reduced overhead and timely expert solutions Knowledge OnLineSM “The power of people sharing knowledge results in value to our clients” John McQuary
  40. 40. ‹#› KM Strategy • Boeing – Largest, most diversified aerospace company. Founded in 1916 in Puget Sound, Washington • Two-time winner: (North American) Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE) Award Boeing KM Strategy (2008)Rationale for KM at Boeing: - Retains expertise of employees who leave the company - Shares expertise, best practices and lessons learned across the enterprise - Avoids reinvention and accelerates innovation “Knowledge without Borders”
  41. 41. ‹#› Expertise Management • Schlumberger • World’s largest oilfield services company, offers professional consulting to energy firms • Deployed Knowledge Hub for oilfield personnel in 1999 • Capture, share, and apply expertise worldwide • Take advantage of new measurements and techniques in real time • Consistently apply the best drilling solutions and practices • Reduce learning time • “Just-in-time, just enough, and just for me.” “Schlumberger is recognized in the 2013 Global [Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises] MAKE study for creating an environment for collaborative enterprise knowledge sharing (1st place). Schlumberger is an eight-time Global MAKE Winner.”
  42. 42. ‹#› Social Networks and Collaboration • Air Force Knowledge Now (AFKN) • Largest Community of Practice (CoP) resource in the Department of Defense - 8,000 active communities in 2009 • Began within USAF Materiel Command in 1999; by 2004 AFKN was designated the Air Force Center of Excellence for Knowledge Management. • A systematic process of capturing and transferring personal practices, experience, and expertise that can be used to enhance performance or improve related tasks or processes “People strengthen their relationships on a professional front as they gain a more precise awareness of others’ skills and expertise.’”
  43. 43. ‹#› Technology IBM – KM principles inform internal information technology focus
  44. 44. ‹#› MAKE Awards “Measure of the rate at which an organization is transforming its tacit and explicit corporate knowledge into new enterprise intellectual capital and increased shareholder value…or stakeholder value.”
 Graded on eight dimensions * Creating an enterprise knowledge-driven culture * Developing knowledge workers through senior management leadership * Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital * Creating an environment for collaborative enterprise knowledge sharing * Creating a learning organization * Delivering value based on stakeholder knowledge * Transforming enterprise knowledge into shareholder/ stakeholder value
  45. 45. ‹#› Explicit, Embedded, Tacit Knowledge Ed O’Neill, Upstream Americas, Royal Dutch Shell • Royal Dutch Shell • Portfolio approach to knowledge types: • Explicit: Formal information curated by senior engineers • Embedded: Practices Worth Replicating, Shell Wiki • Tacit: After Action Reviews, Retention of Critical Knowledge (RoCK), etc.)
  46. 46. 46 Shell Wiki Inception through today 2006 Wiki pilot project 2007 Pilot deemed a success Challenges 2011 42,000+ Wiki articles 2008 Wiki governance begins through a steering group ■ Based on Wikipedia ■ Used MediaWiki because it’s low cost ■ Easy way for trainers to present course content globally ■ Use statistics are favorable ■ Handbooks and Manuals wikified ■ Back office support begins ■ Lots of articles, varying quality ■ Training of Wiki authors 2010 Wiki support decentralized ■ Back office work no longer provided centrally – work done ad hoc ■ Training of wiki authors became the regional KM team’s responsibility 2012 45,800+ Wiki articles ■ Implemented “Get Wiki Help” Ed O’Neal, Shell Upstream Americas
  47. 47. 47 After Action Review – A process designed to identify, analyze, capture and share learning’s based on a comparison of how an activity was executed versus how it was planned – Some of the benefits... • Learn together to improve performance • Repeat value-added processes • Avoid costly mistakes • Save time • SCALABILITY Ed O’Neal, Shell Upstream Americas
  48. 48. KM Renaissance? 1. social media (collaborative) adoption 2. increased digital literacy / expectation 3. advances in contextual and cognitive computing 4. augmented humanity (reality is already augmented and filtered) 5. ubiquitous computing 6. fear Also iPhones
  49. 49. “To learn is to optimize the quality of one’s networks” 
 - Jay Cross
 Cross, J. (2010). Working Smarter: Informal Learning in the Cloud. Berkeley, CA: Internet Time Group. “Human knowing is fundamentally a social act” 
 - Etienne Wenger
 Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. “Our realty is shaped by our social interactions. These interactions provide context - socially scaffolding what you have learned with what another person has learned and so on.” 
 - Bingham & Conner
 Bingham, T., & Conner, M. (2010). The New Social Learning: A Guide to Transforming Organizations Through Social Media. San Francisco, CA: Berret- Koehler Publishers, Inc.

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