Mills & bank barns


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bbAt one time, mills to grind grain into flour were common along the Swatara Creek and its tributaries. Eventually, because water flow became restricted, the mill races were breached to provide water for the Union Canal.
Bank barns were created by German settlers to the region that runs through parts of Schuylkill, Berks, Lebanon and Dauphin Counties. We are losing these heritage structures to fires and development. Their mammoth log beams were often hand hewn from old growth forrests. A bank ramp in the back of the barn gave access to the second floor where equipment and feed were often stored. Feed dropped through a hole in the floor to the animals below. Of course the bank also leant credibility to the bank barn designation. Another typical feature of bank barns were their cistrons to capture and store rain water from the roof. How convenient to water the animals.
Pictures in this book were taken in Lebanon County, PA. These pictures are not all inclusive. Rather, they tell the story of these two historic types of structures.

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Mills & bank barns

  1. 1. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 1At one time, Lebanon County had 45 water powered gristmills. Practically all mills east of theSusquehanna River were stone, while the overwhelming majority of the mills west of the river were frame.Many of the Lebanon County mills were also of brick because of the vast amount of clay deposits(SPOOM). Introduction of a new process called the roller system put away thousands of small rural mills.The millstone had served its time and was retired with high honors and pleasant memories. (Quittapahilla) SWATARA WATERSHED MILLSLEBA OA clover-hulling mill for the purpose of securing clover seed was operated by Syner in the early part of the19th century. (History of Lebanon, p 279-280)A VILLE: There are several fine Flouring Mills, among them are those of Messrs. David Kreider,Joseph Kreider, Killinger,... (Atlas) Raiguel Mill – PA-038-017, South White Oak St. Annville PA. (a. k.a. Kreider Mill) Built in 1879 of a white self-cleaning limestone. Well-preserved structure but there is nomachinery. Now used as a warehouse. The miller’s cottage is across the street. (SPOOM) The KreiderMill picture was taken by Luther Harpel about 1907 at the 3-arch stone bridge over the Quittapahilla Creekon South White Oak Street on the South Annville Township line. To the right is the Raiguel family barn.Both the Kreider and Raiguel families settled in the area in the mid-eighteenth century. Abraham andElizabeth Raiguel built the mill in 1797. After 1840, it was owned by David Kreider and his descendants.No longer used, the mill still stands. Nearby is the 1793 Raiguel house. (SPOOM) Kreider’s mill wassouth of the Heilig house, on the Dauphin and Berks Turnpike (Route 422). Abraham Riegel (Raiguel)
  2. 2. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 2built this mill in 1793. The Riegel (Raiguel) estate sold it to David Kreider, Sr., in 1840, and he sold it toAndrew and David Kreider in 1856. In 1858 Andrew sold his share to David. (Quittapahilla)Bachman, John. Miller. Fontana PO. Dealer in Flour, Grain,... Res. and Mill near Fontana immediatelysouth of Horse-Shoe Turnpike. (Atlas) Bachman’s Mill – PA-038-008, Southeast of Bachman’s Runbehind an old mansion. No machinery remains. Along the dam stood an old one-room schoolhouse knownas the Dam (n) School. (SPOOM) Bachman’s Mill, south of Annville on the Quittapahilla, no longerexists. Built in 1831 by Abraham Raiguel, it was conveyed to Peter Bachman in 1834. The area is nowbeing developed as Quittie Creek Nature Park by Friends of Old Annville for the township. (A Post CardHistory) This mill was built in 1831 by Abraham and Mary Raiguel (Riegel), and conveyed to PeterBachman in 1834. Reconveyed to John K. Bachman in 1849, and deeded to John A. Bachman in 1903.(Quittapahilla) Brandt’s Mill at the west-end of Annville’s Queen Street is the only mill in the area still operating. Leroy Brandt is the third generation of his family operating the mill in the 21st century. In the previous century, it was called the Annville Flouring Mill. It recalls the importance of mills--grist and sawmills- to the economy of Lebanon County. Over the past 250 years, several dozen mills bordered the 26-mile long Quittapahilla. (A Post Card History)Herr’s Mill and Forge – PA-038-018, PA. unknown. Built in 1812 of stone and frame. Gun barrels wereforged here in the 1770’s. The forge site is oversized, but the much-enlarged mill now operates as amerchant flour-mill (SPOOM)
  3. 3. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3 Clear Spring Mill – PA-038-019. Non-operating. 2 miles downstream from Herr’s Mill, just off Route 422. Bethlehem Steel Co., operator of the limestone quarries, formerly used a stone building with two other mill buildings and a residence. Inquire at the quarry office and you will be taken to the old mill and forge. Reference OMN; “Old Mills in the News”. Summer 1984, pp18 (SPOOM) Photo by Dr. George Conner- 40 degrees 19.81’N and 76 degrees 32.66’WOld Forge Mill – PA-0380020. Half a mile above Syner. Frame building recently used as a boiler factory,with dam and foundation still visible. There is a cast iron bridge nearby. (SPOOM) Photo by Dr. GeorgeConner- 40 degrees 20.44’N and 76 degrees 34.73’W The darker building in the foreground is Quittapahilla Forge, north of Palmyra, near Syner. Gerard Etter built this iron forge, later known as New Market Forge, about 1750. James Old rented it in 1767 and it was here that Robert Coleman was hired as a clerk and wound up marrying his employer’s daughter. Robert Coleman went on to become the largest owner of iron properties in colonial America. The large mill in the center was known as Early’s Mill around 1900. From the collection of Ray S. Bowman. (History of Lebanon)
  4. 4. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4Shuey’s Mill –PA-038-022. 1 mile north of Harper’s Tavern, PA. A frame building with 4 sets of rollers,a sifter with cleaner, bagger,… was once powered by a 14’ x 4’ steel overshot waterwheel. In operatingcondition. (SPOOM) Conrad’s Indian Creek Mill – PA038-024. (a. k. a Shuey’s Mill) Operational,powered by another location. Built c. 1742. The original waterwheel was replaced by a diesel engine inthe 1960’s. At the present time only the sale of feed is conducted. Contact James Conrad, RD2 Box 515,Annville PA 17003. (SPOOM) Photos and interview in this series by Jo Ellen Litz - 40 degrees 24.56’N and 76 degrees 34.88’ W.In an interview on 1/8/2000, Mr. Conrad said he bought the mill from his mother and father. His mother isstill living. Noting no grant money was available to help with the restoration, a recent paint job returningthe mill to its original grey color cost $4000. Mr. Conrad said the original wooden-wheel was undershot bythe millrace. In 1997, Mr. Conrad shut down theoperation even though the mill was still 100% functional with diesel power. He couldn’t feed his fivechildren on the $1 per hour profits. His biggest customer was Bender’s Hometown Bakery in Hamburg.Because Conrad’s grind was unique, all Bender’s recipes had to be modified.
  5. 5. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 5 On the property, a bridge from the old highway was built in 1923 and condemned in 1940. Also at the mill, potatoes were sized/sorted for distribution. Mr. Conrad is opening an antique shop in the old mill. (Litz)AVO : Wynn JF. Miller. Occupies Wolf’s Steam Grist Mill. Dealer in Flour, feed,... PO, Avon. (Atlas)BETHEL: “Grove Brothers” Homestead: Built during the War of 1812 with England. In 1815, both agristmill and a sawmill were constructed. In a roughly boarded room in the sawmill, Mr. JW Grove, one ofthe proprietors, was born in 1816. Nearby is an elegant and costly brick mansion erected by the GroveBrothers. (Atlas) PA-038-001, Located half a mile south of Fredericksburg on Center Street. Mill andmansion, c.1875 (SPOOM)Moyer, Joseph D., Owner of 100 acres of land, (more or less,) on which are two houses, two barns, ...Farmer and Miller. PO Mt. Zion, Lebanon Co. (Atlas)Albert’s Mill PA-038-002, Greble, PA Updated 10/89 Brick construction. Had an undershot waterwheeluntil it was replaced with a turbine. (SPOOM)Freeport Mill – west of Mt. Zion, east of Route 343, at golf course. Being torn down, brick structure,.(Ditzler)
  6. 6. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 6 A. A. Spannuth’s Mill – east of Hamlin, west of Frystown, operational grist mill. (Ditzler) On Crosskill Creek. A tributary to the Little Swatara Creek. Photo by Dr. George Conner.Casper Kohr’s Mill – After the terror of the French and Indian War had subsided, the area around BethelTownship again began to repopulate and flourish. On April 1, 1752, Casper Kohr purchased a tract of 248acres and 113 perches (a perch is a linear or square rod) from his father-in-law, Christian Ohrendorf. Theland extended eastward to the road leading from Fredericksburg to Lebanon. On April 16, 1753, Casperentered into an agreement with Matthias Groh, the adjoining landowner to the north, for the construction ofa millrace on this land. The mill stood on Elizabeth Run, a mile south of Fredericksburg. Kohr’s mill wasbuilt about 1762 and operated probably into the 1830’s and beyond, being passed down through severalgenerations of Kohrs. It was one of the first mills constructed in the Fredericksburg area, and it providedlumber, flour and ground meal to the emerging community. The mill was about 26 x 26 feet square andwas probably built of timbers atop a stone foundation. The millrace, extending from Matthias Groh’s land,was probably constructed of earth and stone. It must have been at least a half mile in length in order toprovide enough head to power the water-driven wheel. In the record of burials for the Moravian Church atBethel, Casper Kohr was listed as being a “Blacksmith, farmer, and miller” at his death in 1801. Today, the borders of the original tract of land can still be seen. The northern border of theproperty extends west from the village of Shirksville along the Shirksville Road. The eastern boundary liesalong the South Pine Grove Street (Route 343) and the southern boundary runs west along Greble Road.Along the Route 343 border there are a number of new houses, and at the northeast corner there is a newMethodist Church. Casper Kohr’s land, for the most part, is taken up by two farms. The land that oncecontained the mill is now a dairy farm owned by the Maulfair family. It lies at the bottom of a deeply cutvalley, where Elizabeth Run still flows swiftly on its way to the Little Swatara Creek. The foundation ofthe old mill was filled in several years ago by the Maulfairs, covering the last vestiges of the structure. Anold millstone cemented into the front walk of the Maulfair’s Farmhouse is now the only reminder of whatonce was the mill. …The portion of land containing the original mill was sold to Casper’s son, Michael, a weekbefore his twenty-first birthday. A Bethel Township tax list dated October 5, 1798 listed Michael Kohr asowning the following buildings: a bank-barn 50x25, smith shop 20x16, stable 28x15, and grist and sawmill 24x36 on 113 acres. (Ditzler)CAMPBELLTOW : Lineaweaver’s Mill, located east of the Rising Sun Hotel, Campbelltown, was underwater in 1912. Adam Lineaweaver owned the grist and flour-mill situated along Spring Creek, a tributaryto the Swatara. The mill closed by 1914 about the time that farmers began to purchase their own stationarygasoline engines and grinders to produce feed for the cattle and other animals on their own farms.
  7. 7. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 7CLEO A: Long Mill – PA-038-016 south of Cleona PA. (a. k. a. Boyer Mill, Meyer Mill. PrivateResidence.)(SPOOM) Photo by Jo Ellen Litz 40 degrees 19.84’N and 76 degrees 28.65’WCOR WALL: The Cornwall Mill next to an iron bridge that carried Cornwall and Lebanon Railroad carsover the tracks of the Cornwall Railroad, circa 1940. October 14, 1964 was the date of the last trip of theCornwall Railroad, after which it was leased for a few years, then sold to the Reading Company. TheCornwall Mill, built 1798, was razed in 1960, having deteriorated through lack of use and maintenance. (APost Card History)EAST HA OVER: Hedrich DG, Dealer in Flour, Feed and Grain. Milling Business in gen’l. Mill andres, Lemberger Dist. PO East Hanover. (Atlas)Dutter’s Mill (Dotter), west of Marquette Lake, area 17, Indiantown Gap Military Reservation. A gristmillmentioned in the Blue Eyed Six Book about a famous murder. (Ditzler)Himmelberger, J. Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Flour, Feed, Grain...; Grist Mill &c. Mill and Res, inRank Dist. PO East Hanover (Atlas)
  8. 8. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 8Brigadier-General John Harrison, who represented Lebanon County in the State Senate and House ofRepresentatives, owned a fulling mill for woolen manufacture at East Hanover then. It is said to have beenthe first woolen factory in the county and to have been located near Lemberger’s Church on property nowowned by IL Bowman estate. A paper mill was also operated at East Hanover in 1805. (History ofLebanon, p 279-280)Mish Mill – PA-038006, (a. k. a. Snyder’s Mill) non-operating. On Old Mountsville-Ono Rd., about half amile west of Route 72. Best reached from Mountsville-Union Waterworks Road. Brick building. Firedestroyed the original mill in November 1857 prompting the organization of the Jonestown Fire Company.(SPOOM)HEIDELBERG: Phillippy, John S. Farmer and owner of 92 acres of land, well laid out, so that the Cattlecan pass from the barn to any field, by means of a lane. He is also the inventor of, and holds the Patentright for the farmers Grinding Mills. PO Reistville, Lebanon co. (Atlas)JO ESTOW : The old mill was such an important part of every household in the 17th & 18th centuries. Itstood along the Little Swatara Creek at the foot of Mill Street. The four-story brick mill was variouslyknown over the years as Walter’s Mill, Weidman’s, Cope’s, Meck’s, and Moore’s. Built by Franklin Walter in 1860, the mill stood about fifty feet from the site of Peter Sholly ‘s oldframe overshot mill that was destroyed by fire in 1860. In 1779 the land was owned by George Heilman and later purchased by Peter Sholly. This Millprobably predated the Revolutionary War. This brick mill was the first in the county to be equipped with turbine. It had three burrs, two forflour, one for grist, producing one barrel per hour. Each Tuesday and Friday the mill’s two-horse team delivered grist. A toll from each bushel wastaken for grinding. The flour was packed in wooden barrels, 196 pounds to a barrel, labeled and taken toLebanon for shipment. After the 1972 flood, it was torn down. Other local mills were Shuey’s Mill, north of Harpers, operated from 1907 to 1974; AASpannuth’s Mill near Frystown – 1760- 1982 spanning four generations; the George Miller Mill nearMillbach – 1784 operated 200 years; Weidman’s Mill at Lickdale – 1883 – 1920; Casper Kohr Mill onElizabeth Run near Shirksville 1762- 1830; and Mish’s Mill 1840 along the Swatara Creek near BunkerHill. (Isele)Miley Mill, one-half block north of Jonestown High School, south Lancaster Street, active until 1940’s. Awooden structured gristmill, it was converted to apartments. (Isele)Reich Mill – southwest section of the Borough near Water Street. A wooden structure owned by Dr. Reich.(Ditzler)LEBA O BOROUGH: Reinoehl & Meily’s Planing Mills and Lumber Trade: Ranking first among theindustries and manufacturing of Lebanon, is the well-known firm of Reinoehl & Meily. Engagedextensively in the lumber trade, they connected their lumber yard with a large and commodious planingmill. They are located on North 9th St., and along the southern banks of the Union Canal, for severalsquares, occupying 4 ½ squares.
  9. 9. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 9Adolphus Reinoehl and Chas. H. Meily, and Messrs. E. & J. McCreary, of Middletown, with half-interesteach, built an extensive saw mill at that place, capable of sawing 8,000 feet timber a day. This milloperated steadily along with their lumber and coal business here, up to July 1873, when it was destroyed byfire. Undaunted by misfortune, the owners erected a much larger mill by the first of the followingNovember. The new mill was capable of sawing from 25,000 to 30,000 feet of building timber a day. A60-horse power engine drove the machinery in this mill which regularly employed from 20 to 30 men.There are also two dry docks, a large basin for harboring logs, and other buildings belonging to the mill,which adjoined the Pennsylvania Railroad and canal, and the Swatara Creek. The entire property consistedof about fourteen (14) acres. The large stock of square lumber, required by the extensive trade of the firm,was purchased at and near Lock Haven, and floated down the Susquehanna to the mill. Purchasing fromfirst hands, enabled them to furnish lumber at the lowest market rates.In order to meet the demands of a steadily increasing business, they erected a large and extensive planingmill in the Borough of Lebanon, on North 8th street, adjoining the Union Canal. This mill contained all themodern improvements necessary for the manufacture of articles in their line. Its convenience for theworkmen, transportation facilities, and location, surrounded by ample grounds for their extensive lumberyard—occupying 4 ½ squares—revealed the foresight of the builders, and made it second to none in thecounty. A powerful fan conveyed all the sawdust and shavings from the machinery of every floor througha series of pipes to the shaving-house, where they were used for fuel.2. Their lumber seasoning process was a great improvement over the ordinary method. It consisted of an iron boiler, nineteen feet in length, and five feet in diameter, placed upon a stone foundation. The seasoner was secured at one end with strong rivets, and at the other end, with a large door swung upon hinges. The green lumber was placed upon crossed strips of boards, to allow circulation from all sides. When filled, it contained 1600 feet of lumber. When full, the door was closed and fastened securely with thirty eyebolts to the seasoner. Steam was then supplied from boilers, through small pipes attached to the side of the seasoner. When the steam was let on, a valve was opened beneath the boiler, from which the sap and condensation of steam escaped as the seasoning proceeded. On top of the boiler was a safety valve, with an indicator of a capacity of 140 pounds. This process performed its work on ordinary pine lumber in 30 minutes, but longer time was required for different or thicker quality lumber.Lumber seasoned by this process was not affected by dampness, and was superior to lumber seasoned byother processes.Their annual purchase of lumber was from 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 feet. (Atlas, p 7)Brightbill, John. Manufacturer of Separators, Horse-power Double and Single Corn Planters. HorseRakes. Grain Drills, Corn Plows, Corn Shellers, and all kinds Agricultural Implements and Mill work. Allkinds of Mowers and Reapers Repaired. John Brightbill, Machinist, 7th St., north of Cumberland St.Owner of 97 acres in Bethel twp. (Atlas)
  10. 10. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 10Photo by Dr. George Conner 40 degrees 20.89N & 76 degrees 25.57WBrandt’s Mill –PA-0380023. 803 Maple St., Lebanon PA. Now known as Brandt’s Mill and SaddleryShop. Once used water from the Union Canal. In 1848 it was converted to steam power. Reference OMN;“Old Mills in the News”, fall 1974, pp. 13. (SPOOM) Flour was milled until the late 1960s, but animalfeed is manufactured to this day. (Fred Brandt, owner) 7TH Street Strickler Mill, at first known as Wolf’s Clovermill. A flour and gristmill was put into operation in March 1867. Abraham Strickler continued operation until May, 1882, when he leased it to his sons Cyrus P. and WH Strickler. May 8, 1899 the mill burned, but was immediately reopened with a new building. (Quittapahilla)
  11. 11. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 11 Strickler Mill, North 9th St, formerly the Leitz mill, and bought by George Strickler in 1836. The first mill on the Quittapahilla to introduce steam power. (Quittapahilla) Lebanon Paper Mill, formerly the Myers and Showers Flour Mill on North 8th St, near the railroad (History of Lebanon)LO DO DERRY: This township, lying more towards the interior, was not as exposed as more northernareas of Lebanon County, to the incursions by Indians. Nevertheless, they penetrated into the moresparsely settled parts, committing several murders and abducting residents. June 19th, 1757, nineteenpersons were killed in a mill on the Quittapahilla Creek…. (Atlas)
  12. 12. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 12MILL CREEK: The first mill, which still stands, was built at Millbach. Philip Kalbach built the second atJerrington’s Hill, about 1800. (Atlas)Illig, ER Farmer and Miller, Millbach. Lebanon Co, PA. Farm of 60 acres. Dwelling House built 1752.Mill in 1778. (Atlas)Bollinger, Cyrus, Miller and Dealer in Grain, Res and PO Sheridan (Atlas)Cherington TD, Mountain Spring Mills, 60 acres, Millcreek Twp. (Atlas)MOU T GRET A: Coleman Mill – PA-0380021 at Colebrook Furnace, 3 miles west of Mt. Gretna. Themill is the only survivor of the furnace complex, and is now owned by the PA Game Commission.(SPOOM) ORTH A D SOUTH LEBA O , A D COR WALL:John Casper Stoever, Lutheran minister, engaged in the milling business at Sunnyside (Dairy St., south of422 on the west end of Lebanon) between 1737 and 1740. (History of Lebanon) The Sunnyside homesteadremains. Photo by Jo Ellen Litz 40degrees 20.28’N and 76 degrees 27.49’W Heilman, Henry S., Prop. Of Sunnyside Mills, Steam and Water power, Lebanon PA. Dealer in Flour, Grain & Feed, and Sawyer of all kinds of Lumber. Also, owner of Sunnyside farm, consisting of 125 acres limestone land. Farm and Mills situated on the Berks and Dauphin Turnpike, now Route 422,
  13. 13. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 13about 1 1/2 miles west of Lebanon. (Atlas, p 77) Built around 1790 by John Stoever, son of Rev. JohnCasper Stoever. Sold to Samuel Light, then to John Light, Homer Snavely, and finally, Joseph G. Heilman.May 25, 1838 the southern wall fell down. It was rebuilt on September 29. April 10, 1845 the mill wasdestroyed by fire. When rebuilt, a sawmill was attached. (Quittapahilla) The Heilman Family: In 1793,Joseph Heilman built a papermill for his son Adam, and wife Eve. They carried on the manufacture ofpaper for many years. The quality of this mill’s product was as good as current knowledge permitted. Formany years the State Department in Harrisburg received all its official writing paper from this mill. (Atlas)Long, Henry L. Farmer, and Contractor in Lumber. On the Snitz Creek about 2 miles west of Lebanon,near the Berks and Dauphin Turnpike. Farm contains 60 acres limestone land with improvements. Also,owner of Portable Steam Saw Mill. Lumber of various kinds sawed at reasonable prices. (Atlas)Boyer, Isaac. Farmer and Miller. Res. And Mills on Quittapahilla Creek about 2 miles west of Lebanon onBerks and Dauphin Turnpike. Dealer in Flour, Grain, and Feed, and sawyer of various kinds of Lumber.(Atlas, p 77)Kapp, Elias. Farmer and one of the inventors of the Kapp & Zeller’s Wind Mills. Also, Master of IonaGrange, No 120. PO Iona. (Atlas)Zeller, DR. Farmer and Stock raiser. Also, Dealer in stock. One of the inventors and builders of thecelebrated Kapp & Zeller’s Wind Mill, PO Iona. (Atlas)Horst, Jonas WH. Farmer, residing near Horst’s Steam Grist Mill, South Lebanon Twp. PO Lebanon.(Atlas)Horst, Samuel S. Miller. Owner and Propr of Horst’s Steam and water-power Grist Mill, situated about 5miles south-east of the borough of Lebanon, and 4 miles west of Schaefferstown. The mill is one of thebest custom stands in this part of the State. Also, owner of over 19 acres of good farming land in SouthLebanon Twp. PO, Schaefferstown. (Atlas)Stover Mills - PA-038-003 Lebanon PA (a. k. a. Freeport Mills) Non-operating. Location 2.5 miles northof Lebanon on Pine Grove St., west side. Red brick building. A conventional type gristmill with sawmillattached. One-half story Oliver Evans patent flourmill, built c. 1840. The flourmill used the water throughan undershot wheel. Its tail race under the roadway passed the water on to the gristmill and sawmills. Thegristmill is still standing, but the flour mill was torn down several years ago. There was a covered bridgenearby. (SPOOM)Zinn’s Mill, along the Snitz Creek near Quentin. The mill was torn down in 1949. The stone house hasbeen remodeled and is now a Bed and Breakfast named Zinn’s Mill Homestead. (A Post Card History)SWATARA: It was well supplied with water power, mills,... The Big Swatara is the dividing line theentire length between Swatara and Union townships. The Little Swatara crosses the townships a little southof the Borough of Jonestown. In its course across the township, it propels two gristmills and a sawmill nowowned by JF Foswocht, Esq. The second mill, just within the borough limits of Jonestown, is owned by FWalter, Esq. (Atlas) Sarge Mill – PA-038-04, Half a mile northeast of Bunker Hill PA in the Jonestown area. (SPOOM) From the post card collection of Francis Ditzler.
  14. 14. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 14Walter’s Mill
  15. 15. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 15Walter’s Mill – PA-038-005, Bunker Hill, PA. Also Moore (a. k. a. Meck’s Mill) is non-operating. Eastof the bridge on the Jonestown-Bunker Hill Rd. Brick building. A turbine was once used to generateelectricity. (SPOOM) East side of Little Swatara, south of Jonestown, southeast of Moore’s Mill, formerlyowned by Harry Dissinger. The brick gristmill built by Franklin Walter in 1860 was known as Cope’sMill. Previously it was known as Weidman’s, and in the 1920’s, as Meck’s, when owned by John Meck.The mill no longer stands, but the house to its left does. Area residents remember this as Moore’s chickenfarm. An earlier frame overshot gristmill near this site had been destroyed by fire in 1860. (Ditzler)
  16. 16. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 16Built around 1919, an iron bridge replaced a covered wooden bridge over the Little Swatara Creek. East ofthe creek, prior to 1900, stood both a grist and a sawmill. One-half mile southeast of Walter’s Mill, in1875, was a gristmill and sawmill owned by J. F. Fasnocht. In the early 1900’s the mill was known asLaVance’s Factory or “The Boney” where old horses were turned into glue. (Atlas)U IO : Walter & Capp. Jonestown Mills. Dealers in Grain, Flour and Feed. Warehouse in Union Twp.At the Railroad Mill in Jonestown Borough, Lebanon, Pa, Jonestown (Atlas) From the collection of Francis Ditzler. Union Forge Mill – PA-038-07, Lickdale PA at the crossroads with Route 72. Stone building, part of the Union Forge complex. (SPOOM) Original wooden structure was in place by 1798 when Robert Coleman purchased the Forge proper from Peter Grubb. The stone gristmill was built by John Lick in 1883. (Ditzler)Yost Grist Mill, built in 1883, was purchased in 1905 by C. W. Yost of Steelton, Dauphin County. Mr.Yost milled flour there until 1920 when he lost his life. The sleeve of his topcoat caught in the wheels.Today, the ruins of this limestone mill can be seen along Pa Route 72 at the Lickdale Road intersection.(Ditzler) John Albert’s Grist & SawMill (Atlas), along West Side of Swatara Creek, south of old Route 22. This wooden structure was a boathouse in the days of the Union Canal (1826-1862). The mill was known as Gerhart & Kline’s Lumberyard from 1902-1915. (From the postcard collection of Francis Ditzler.)Elias H Gerhart, along West Side of Swatara Creek, north of old Route 22. A wooden structure, gristmill,1916 to 1998. (Ditzler)
  17. 17. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 17 Photo by Jo Ellen Litz. Herr Mill, south side of old Route 22, next to railroad. Currently in operation. A wooden structure built in 1954 by John & Hilda Herr. The previous building was also a mill and in 1875 was used as a warehouse. (Ditzler)DAUPHI COU TYMIDDLETOWFreys Gristmill, Middletown. Built around 1760 by John Fisher, later sold to George Frey. Themill was four stories high, had three sets of millstones, and for a time was one of the largest gristmills inAmerica. The millrace ran directly under the building to the hidden undershot water wheel. Grain washoisted to the fourth floor, and passed by gravity downward, undergoing various processing steps on eachfloor. When it reached the first floor, it was ready for shipment. The building still stands (now used forapartments) on the West Bank of the Swatara on Mill Street just below the Rupp Street bridge. In 1893Solomon Baer leased the mill and moved into the mill apartment. He ran the mill until 1913; then the millwas leased to Solomon C. Brinser , who manufactured the famous Brinser Corn meal, sold all over thenation and in Europe. Brinser’s method of making corn meal, especially popular with the PennsylvaniaDutch, was supposedly learned from the Indians. Submitted by Larry Anderson [] & GeorgiaBurkett article supplied by Ed ChubbDERRY TOW SHIP:Much Township history can be found in the diaries of Conrad A. Curry and his son, John B. The Curryfamily represents four generations or 100 years in the milling business in Derry Township. Paul Curry,great grandson of Conrad A., writes the following account of local mill history, as well as other oldbusinesses.In the “History and Topography of Dauphin in 1848” there is included a synopsis of the census of 1830 and1840, which lists five flouring mills, one grist mill, three sawmills, and two tanneries along with fivedistilleries in Derry Township. (History of Derry)The atlas of 1875 for Derry Township lists Spring Creek Mill belonging to David Berst in Swatara Station.The atlas map indicates three mills on the Swatara Creek and five mills on Spring Creek, and also twotanneries. (History of Derry)
  18. 18. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 18SPRI G CREEK MILLS:The first mill on Spring Creek was on the land of C. Hershey on the present Felty’s Mill Road. In the diaryof John B. Curry dated September 20, 1907, it states they made cider at Felty’s. Another entry in his diary(July 24, 1908) reads. “Felty’s Mill Dam tore out; washed the pike away at Imbodens; tore out our milldam and the bridge. In fact, all the bridges except the one at Benjamin Flowers. The Spring Creek washigher than ever before.” This bridge was located where the present Airport Road [name changed in1980s to Hersheypark Drive] crosses Spring Creek. (History of Derry)The next dam downstream was at Imboden’s on East Chocolate Ave., at Spring Creek. Little is knownabout this mill. However, Mrs. Paul Stern of Manheim, whose father was the artist, supplied a picture ofthe mill. (History of Derry) The D. K. Landis Mill was located at the bottom of Bowling Alley Hill, which is now Park Ave. Later it was sold to M. Gingrich, H. Miller, H. Gingrich and J. Brecht. In 1903 it was sold to M. S. Hershey and no record of its operation can be found after that date. (History of Derry) According to Reverend Curry, Stauffer was also an owner of this mill located near UnionDeposit--Summit Station. Reverend Irvin K. Curry further claimed John B. Curry, his father and son ofConrad, once rented it from D. K. Landis. Owners were: 1836 John Gingrich, 1855 George Landis, and1876 Henry Gingrich. In 1889, Stauffer added rollers for better grinding. John B. Curry bought themachinery from George Stauffer in 1906 for a mill in Swatara Station. Because a dam built atHummelstown raised the level of the creek, there wasn’t enough drop in the water for milling. When Stauffer went out of business, logs from the mill breast were used over Hotel Hershey’s arbor. (Schmere) Picture taken October 21, 1902. Standing in front of the mill are Ammon, Amos, Irvin and Conrad Curry.
  19. 19. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 19 On the left side of this picture is the old Swatara Post Office, then a feed mill warehouse, which was mentioned in the 1875 Atlas, and a flour mill on the right, which was constructed by John B. Curry in 1907. The mills were destroyed by fire on May 30, 1914. The Gingrich and Landis Mill on Park Avenue purchased by M. S. Hershey in 1903. Picture taken about 1920. According to Isaac Landis, this was the remains of a linseed oil mill that stood on land owned by Michael Hoover, great grandfather of Isaac Landis and John Hoover. It was located on Spring Creek close to the old Michael Hoover homestead.
  20. 20. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 20SWATARA CREEK MILLS:The first mill on the Swatara Creek was found on Laudermilch Road at the Lyonsville Bridge in thenorthwest corner of the crossroad [A Route 743 bridge is in the same general vicinity. Theold bridge is gone.] It indicates that this mill was located on land owned by H. Landis. The building at thatlocation was dismantled not many years ago. (History of Derry)The second mill downstream was located at the north end of Railroad St. in Hummelstown where thepresent dam is located. A stone building still remains, which could have been the mill building. The mapindicates it was on land of the C. Landis Estate. (History of Derry)The next mill was situated in the western extreme of Derry Township on Fiddler’s Elbow Road, and waslisted as the Union Canal Mill Company. At this place there was also a sawmill. (History of Derry)The next mill downstream was found at the steel bridge that carried Mill Street across Spring Creek in whatwas Swatara Station. In John B. Curry’s diary (March 29, 1882) he states that he started working in themill for $200 a year. He purchased this in 1884 and in 1903 he sold the mill property to M. S. Hershey.John B. Curry continued to operate this mill until the dam and the bridge were washed away on July 24,1908. This was the last mill in operation on Spring Creek. (History of Derry)The Kettering Mill was located on Airport Road [Hersheypark Drive] at Spring Creek. When ConradCurry ran it, his ledger indicated that he rented this mill from John Gingrich. It was sold to Jacob Ketteringin 1882, and he sold it to M. S. Hershey in 1903. (History of Derry)The J. H. Balsbaugh & Co. Mill mentioned in the 1875 atlas was found at 810 West Chocolate Ave. Atthat time it was only a warehouse and apparently no milling was done there. From time to time AbramBalsbaugh, J. H. Balsbaugh, Henry Horst, A. Strickler and Isaac Erb had part interest in this mill. In 1897John B. Curry, who was operating the Spring Creek mills at the time, obtained the Balsbaugh Mill. In 1907a flourmill was added to the warehouse. (History of Derry)Upon John B. Curry’s death in February 1913, the property was transferred to his sons, Irvin, John, andAmos. On May 30, 1914 the buildings were completely destroyed by fire. The present structure waserected after the fire. The last owner, Paul O. Curry (Irvin’s son), closed it on August 1, 1975, thus ending100 years of milling in Derry Township. (History of Derry)
  21. 21. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 21There is a billhead with a Derry Church address from a Moyer & Brightbill dated 1891, which wouldindicate there was another local mill. There are also reports of a mill in Derry, which was operated byHershey. (History of Derry) Indeed, on hand-written index cards Janet Maynerd and Leola Weist pulledfrom files at Derry Township Historical Society, Professor William Schmere writes about an apparentinterview with Reverend Curry: Peiper (Peiffer) had a mills south of the Turnpike and East of the presentfactory near S. C. Wenger’s barn. A private road across his dam-breast was abandoned and a public roadlaid out around Wenger’s barn, 1886. In 1898, a fire of unknown origin destroyed the same mill, owned bybrothers-in-law Moyer and Brightbill. Loss of the five-story mill was estimated at $30,000. According tolegend, a daughter woke the mother when the mill was burning. Mom said, “Let it burn.” Because of theuncertainty of the water supply, this was the first mill to incorporate steam in the production of “SnowFlake” flour. Stones or “burrs” were used for grinding. Schmere also quotes an article in the HummelstownSun dated May 6, 1992: “Messieurs Moyer & Brightbill are marketing large quantities of their excellentflour, for the “Snow Flake brand demand is simply immense, and the mill is kept busy supplying theconstantly growing demand.”In the early days of milling in the Township, whole-wheat flour was the cheapest and most popular. As thepioneers traveled westward, the demand for white flour, which would keep longer, increased. In 1880 thefirst roller mill in the United States was built in Minnesota. It rolled out white flour in great quantity and atlow cost. The big roller mills of the mid-West and the improved transportation systems doomed the smalllocal mills. For this reason M. S. Hershey “saved the day” for local millers by buying their land at a timewhen records indicate that their prosperity was declining. (History of Derry)The SPOOM roster shows only five mills in Dauphin County (SC PA), none in the Swatara Watershed. However, they are: Lykons Valley Roller Mill in Millersburg, Rt. 147 (ADC Map #36 A6). Once a flourmill, now a feedmill. Millersburg Milling Co., looks like the same location. Built in the 1850s. First mill burned in 1898 and was rebuilt in 1905. Still operating. A two-story mill. Standard Milling Co., in Highspire (ADC Map 48 C4) on Rte 230. Operating Mill. Shiffers Mill, in Hershey (ADC Map 48 E3), on Schoolhouse Road. Built in 1799, ceased operations in 1920s. Had an overshot water wheel that was removed in the 1940s. All machinery has been removed. SPOOM member Robert F. Carbaugh owns the mill. The most recent telephone number is (717)367-7102. Aberdeen Mills, two miles northeast of Elizabethown, near Hershey. Built in 1774, now used as a woodworking shop.Esther Middlewood, Editor, Old Mill News
  22. 22. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 22SCHUYLKILL COU TYPI E GROVE MILLS:Mill Street Mill, wood structure, water powered, building converted to apartments. (Ditzler)Felty Mill, east of Red Arrow gas station. Active. (Ditzler)Berger Mill, built about to 1862 after the rebuilding of Berger Dam as part of the Union Canal. (Ditzler)The first gristmill on the Little Swatara was built by Casper Bretzius near the village of Rock—the mill, a one-story log house,produced grain for Washington’s troops at Valley Forge. 1830, Daniel Rondebach built a forge which manufactured hardware andfarm tools. Located on the Lower Swatara, it derived its power from a large overshot waterwheel. (Black Rock)Michael Bretzius, one of the militia captains, was the son of Casper Bretzius, who built the first gristmill onthe Little Swatara near Rock. (Pine Grove p59)Almost from the beginning of the township, sawmills were erected at convenient points along the Swataraand its tributaries, where logs of white pine and hemlock were sawed into boards twelve and sixteen feet inlength.... Before the American Revolution, there were at least eight sawmills in the region now comprisingPine Grove, Wayne, and Washington Townships. The tax return for Berks County for the year 1779, showsthe Pine Grove Township had nine sawmills, one tannery and two gristmills.About 1769 Baltzer Smith established a gristmill and sawmill on Swope’s Creek about a mile southeast ofthe borough. It was located on the old Nutting or Brookside farm that is now in the possession of the Millerfamily. The mill was one of the largest in this section and was patronized by settlers within a radius ofthirty miles.The foundation of the old mill remained intact until a few years ago, and traces of it still remain. During theAmerican Revolution a powder mill was erected near the gristmill. It operated for several years andmanufactured power for militia supplies. (Pine Grove p64)
  23. 23. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 23Adam Smith abandoned the powder mill in 1786, and converted the building into a cooper and coffin shop.The mill was a great congregating place and the scene of many pranks.Valentine Heberling was interested in a sawmill, located near the railroad arch of the Schuylkill andSusquehanna branch of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad on what is now known as the Glohr farm. Aweir was erected east of the bridge of the Little Swatara at Marstown and a canal conducted the water to themill. The mill-race emptied into the Swatara near the present railway arch. Heberling was also the first milloperator to run a shingle mill.The Heberling Mill passed out of the hands of the Heberling family upon the death of Valentine. It wasoperated as a sawmill for a period of years by Jonathan Zimmerman, who conducted the business with theassistance of his son, William. When they abandoned the mill, it remained idle for several years; The oldmill and water privilege later purchased by Christian Ley who remodeled the structure, converted it into acarding mill, and utilized water-power to operate it.The business of carding wool and flax was carried on at the mill for many years. At the end of the building,there was a sorting shed for the wool where it was scoured before going onto the card. After the wool wascarded, it was returned to the farmers for spinning and weaving.Previous to the Revolution, members of the Zerbe family constructed a sawmill on the Roedersville Roadand operated it for more than seventy years. Soon after the opening of the Union Canal, a boat yard wasconnected to it. Orders were given to the mill owners for a boat. When it was finished it was placed on ahay wagon and carted to Pine Grove where it was placed in the canal basin. The Zerbe Mill was locatedon the upper branch of the Swatara. A dam was erected east of the mill site and the water was conveyed tothe power wheel through a short canal.The mill acquired distinction in another way. It was the congregating place for the farmers and woodsmenof that section. Here men folk would gather for wrestling matches and turkey shooting contests....Two prominent mills operated in the early days of the township were owned by John Lengle and JohnShucker. At one time Lengle operated a mill at Outwood in the western part of the township. (Pine Grovep65) A grist and sawmill was owned and operated by Frederick Schaeffer on Swatara Creek nearSuedburg. This was probably one of the largest in the township. Schaeffer had extensive timber holdings onSwope’s Mountain and carried on a considerable trade in dressed lumber with the Tulpehockenregion.The first gristmill on the Little Swatara was built by Casper Bretzius near Rock. The building was a one-story log structure. It was erected before the American Revolution and was widely patronized. During theRevolution it was used to grind grain for the use of the Continental Army, while it was encamped at ValleyForge. The mill stood near the covered bridge on the road leading from Pine Grove to Rock.After the death of Casper Bretzius, his son, Michael, former captain of the Pine Grove company in the sixthbattalion of Berks County militia during the Revolution, acquired ownership of the mill. Michael continuedto occupy the original structure until about 1799, when it was torn down and replaced with a modern framebuilding. He conducted a milling and grain business in the new building until his death....Beginning 1824, Michael Bretzius also built and operated a cardingmill and cloth-dressing establishment. Itwas located about three-quarters of a mile northeast of the gristmill. The mill was equipped with twocarding machines, a foot-power spinning frame and a foot-power loom for weaving. This small textile millwas the most complete in Pine Grove Township at the time.When he erected his new gristmill, practically all the machinery was of his own construction. He built mostof the machinery used in the carding mill. Upon his death the properties passed to his son, who continued tooperate both mills for more than ten years.One of the pioneer millers in Pine Grove Township was John Adam Brown, a soldier of the Revolution. In
  24. 24. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 241790 he established a gristmill on the Little Swatara between Rock and Moyers Station. Browns Millacquired prominence as a milling center and for generations it served the residents of WashingtonTownship. Ever since it was founded, it has remained in the Brown family.John William Kremer built the first sawmill in what is now Washington Township. He, too, served in theRevolution as a member of the Berks County militia. He built his mill between Rock and Moyers Stationand operated it for nearly thirty years. He was succeeded by his sons who ran it long after his death.... (PineGrove, p 66)One of the oldest gristmills in this region is the Roeder Mill at Roedersville. Title to the property was givento John Graft of Tulpehocken by Godfried Rehrer, who kept a tavern at Rehrersburg in Berks County....Later it became the property of Conrad Roeder, who came to Pine Grove Township soon after theRevolution and erected a mill of logs about 1785. It was rebuilt about 1849, and enlarged in 1872. Theproperty has remained in the Roeder family continuously since it was built.....Christopher Uhler of Lebanon erected a large sawmill and a gristmill in North Pine Grove about 1786. Themills were located on a race-way east of the covered bridge on the old Tremont Road. They were of roughlog construction. These mills, together with another sawmill that Uhler owned in the township, were sold toDaniel Zerbe, who operated them for a period of years. The mills in later years were acquired as part of theBatdorf farm and were known as the Batdorf mills. (Pine Grove p67)The first gristmill erected in Pine Grove village was built by Philip Gerdel in 1810, and was located onSwatara Creek, near the present site of Fegleys Mill. Built of hewn logs, it was two stories high. Gerdeloperated it for several years and then sold it to Daniel Rondebach, who possessed it for five years and soldto Conrad Reber. It remained in the latters possession a number of years and was then sold to Peter Eckertwho enlarged and improved it. Eckert disposed of his interest to Levi Miller who operated it until 1848when he sold it to Enoch Moore. The mill remained in Moores possession until 1852, when he sold toCharles Fegley. Moore remained as miller for Fegley for a number of years. The old mill building haddeteriorated greatly and was almost unfit for use when Fegley acquired possession. He operated it, howeveruntil 1858, when he tore it down and erected a larger one in place of it. This structure was swept away bythe flood that followed the destruction of the big dam in June 1862. Immediately after the flood, Fegleybuilt the present structure, which has remained in the Fegley family ever since.A steam flouring and gristmill was erected at the corner of Wood and Carbon Streets by Edward T Filbertof Stouchsburg, Berks County. After operating for more than twenty years, the mill was leased to AGMeck. The building was completely destroyed by fire during the early 1990’s, and never rebuilt.(Pine Grove PP 119-120)The flour and grain business of the community has been associated with the gristmills that have operated inthe borough and township for more than a century. The old Fegley Mill and Bergers Mill are the only twoof importance in Pine Grove.... For many years, the business of milling was largely conducted by theowners of local gristmills, but during the past fifty years marked changes have taken place. The generalstores began to sell whole and ground grains, and a number of feed stores were established. One of thefirst was operated by AG Meck in the old factory building that stood at the corner of Mifflin and MapleStreets. This store was established in the early 1890’s and lasted for a short period. About the middle1890’s, George Banger built a feed store and mill at the southerly end of Tulpehocken Street, whereZimmermans Garage is now located.. Mr. Banger operated a cider mill near the old Wagner sawmill atStanhope. When he came to Pine Grove, he moved his apple cider mill to the new building. The grainbusiness proved prosperous and the cider grinding popular. During the cider season, the mill was therendezvous for hundreds of farmers who brought apples there to be pressed into cider. (Pine Grove p256)The most important privilege/water right on the Upper Swatara was at Roedersville where Casper Roederused the water-power to operate his gristmill. Several sawmills also secured water power from the stream..With the building of the Big Dam, these vanished. After the dam was destroyed, Bergers Dam waserected and furnished water-power to Bergers Gristmill.
  25. 25. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 25Privileges were most numerous on the Lower Swatara, and its small tributaries. Beginning at MoyersStation and following the course of the stream westwardly, two gristmill privileges were located east ofRock. Themost important was that at Browns Mill. There were two at Rock. One was located near the village and theother about a mile distant. There was a privilege along the main stream at Stanhope and another onStanhope Brook where the Wagners operated a sawmill for nearly a century. A weir spanned the LowerSwatara near the Marstown Bridge, and a mill-race conveyed the water to a sawmill located on what is nowthe Glohr farm. There were two privileges on Upper Swopes Creek and another on Lower Swopes Creeknear its confluence with the Swatara. Two privileges were located on Mill Creek. One of these was at theforge and the other was located a short distance beyond.The fact that pioneer owners of saw and gristmills could produce power from streams that barely attractnotice today is a tribute to their resourcefulness. The last of these mills was the Wagner Mill at Stanhope.(Pine Grove p281)The Lower Swatara was dammed a short distance above Stanhope Forge. Directly below the dam was alarge overshot water-wheel that was attached to the side of the building. Mr. Rondebach subsequentlypurchased the old gristmill, known in later years as Fegleys Mill, and sold his interest in Stanhope Forge toAdam Brown, who erected a furnace in conjunction with the forge. The furnace was built in 1844 by EnochMoore, who lived on the Stanhope farm. (Pine Grove p282)The first mill privileges on the Swatara and it tributaries were acquired previous to the AmericanRevolution. The first one of importance, however, was that of Baltzer Smith, who erected a gristmill onUpper Swopes Creek in 1778. The second oldest mill was acquired by John Schaeffer on SwataraCreek near Suedburg. The tax returns of Pine Grove Township for the year 1781 show that MichaelBretzius had a grist and sawmill near Rock. Jacob Dundore and Valentine Heberling had a privilege on theLower Swatara, John S Lengel had a privilege on the Swatara, Jacob Myly had a sawmill and FrederickSchaeffer had a grist and sawmill. Andrew Riegel had a sawmill as did Daniel Zerbe. George Adam Zerbeand Jacob Zerbe also owned a sawmill. The mill owned by Daniel Zerbe was located on the Swatara. Helater acquired the sawmills and gristmill established by Christian Uhler of Lebanon. Known as the "upperprivilege," it comprised the saw and shinglemill and the old gristmill formerly located near the coveredbridge over the Swatara on the old Pine Grove-Tremont Road.With the decline of the timbering industry just previous to the Civil War, many of the old sawmills thatwere operated by water-power from the Swatara were abandoned. (Pine Grove p283)Dr. JN Alberts father was a miller and operated a gristmill at Greble during his active life (Pine Grovep286)
  26. 26. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 26References:1) County Atlas of Lebanon PA, FW Beers, published by FA Davis, 200 N 6th St., Reading PA and 10 N 5th ST., Philadelphia PA1875. “Entered according to Act of Congress…in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington”2) A History of the Lebanon Valley in Pennsylvania by Dr. Hiram H. Shenk, Volume 1, published by the National HistoricalAssociation Inc., Harrisburg 19303) SPOOM – the Society for the Preservation Of Old Mills, PO BOX 10, East Meredith, NY 13757. (2/23/95). Magazine 5444Alpine Ridge, Stevensville MI 491274) Colonel Francis Ditzler and Dorothy H. Ditzler, his wife, local historians, RD1, Jonestown PA 17038, (717)865-4729.5) Evelyn Isele, local historian, 231 W. Market St., Jonestown PA 17038 (717)865-6894.6) Jo Ellen Litz, RD2 Box 4144A, Jonestown PA 17038 (717)865-5468.7) Larry Anderson [SMTP:landers@epix.net8) Black Rock by George Korson (1960), Baltimore – The Johns Hopkins Press9) Lebanon County: A Post Card History, published by The Lebanon County Historical Society, Lebanon PA 1992, Printed byDonald Blyler Offset, Lebanon PA10) History of Pine Grove, Schuylkill County PA, by Judge George B. Hass, first printing 1935, second printing 1975, Seiders Printing, Pottsville.11) The Mills of the Quittapahilla, Lebanon County Historical Society, by Henry S Heilman, October 16, 1903.12) Harpel’s, Inc., Lebanon PA 17042. Various scenes of historic interest from postcards or original pictures provided.13) Ed Chubb, Dauphin County Parks, 100 Ft. Hunter Road, Harrisburg PA 17110 (717)599-518814) Fred Brandt, 803 Maple St., Lebanon PA 1704615) A History of Derry Township, 1729-1976, published by Derry Township Bicentennial Commission provided by Tom Embich TREMBICH@NBN.NET16) William Schmere, hand-written index cards of deceased professor at Hershey Junior College, on file at Derry Township Historical Society, 50 Linden Road, Hershey PA 17033. (717)520-0748. See Janet Maynerd or Leola Weist.
  27. 27. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 27MILLS BY CREEK - County Atlas of Lebanon PAELIZABETH RUN – N to S - Fredericksburg to Little Swatara1 Cider Mill (NE)2 Grove Brothers – 1 grist & 1 sawmill (S)3 Saw & Gristmill (S of Shirksville)LITTLE SWATARA CREEK – W to E4 Saw & Gristmill (E of Elizabeth Run)5 Gristmill @ Freeport Mills6 Grist & Sawmill (N of Deep Run)7 John Albert’s Grist & Sawmill @ GrebleDEEP RUN8 Sawmill (just W of Kutztown—feeds into Little Swatara)SNITZ9 Gristmill (W of Cornwall Furnace @ S end of Snitz)QUITTAPAHILLA – E to W10 Steam Planing Mill (SW of Lincoln Ave & 422—also S of creek)11 Planing Mill (SE side of 7th & the Union Canal, but N of Water St.)12 Reinoehl Planing Mill (Between 5th & 6th S of Green St.)13 AM Bubb Steam Mill (Between 7th & 8th, S side of Maple, N of Union Canal)14 Mill (9th, S of Railroad. Also, N side of Lehman between 13th & 14th Sts.)15 Sunnyside – 1845 Gristmill (N of 422 across from Dairy Queen)16 Tioga @ Sunnyside - Sawmill (S of 422 next to Dairy Queen on 422, E of Cleona)17 S Boyer Gristmill18 JA Kreider Sawmill19 JK Bachman Saw & Gristmills (S of Ulrich St & S of creek)20 D Kreider turning, saw & gristmills (SE of S White Oak St @ creek)21 S & F Killinger Gristmill (W of Bachman Run)22 JK Kreider Mill @ clear Spring23 Annville Mills, Grist (W of Syner)BRANDYWINE24 Light’s Rolling Mill (14th St N of Railroad)BIG SWATARA25 Mill – N of Pont Park/Murray26 Saw & Gristmills @ Union Forge, Lickdale intersection27 Gristmill @ Union Water WorksINDIANTOWN RUN28 Gristmill N of Marquette Lake29 Woolen Mill – SW of Marquette Lake30 Sawmill @ Memorial Lake31 Fulling Mill – W of Vesle Run32 Gristmill – E of 934 near Harpers33 Sawmill – E of 934 near HarpersUNNAMED TRIBUTARY TO SWATARA W OF INDIANTOWN RUN34 Steam Saw & Gristmill (S of pipeline)35 Gristmill (W of Shirk’s Cemetery36 Sawmill (W of Union Canal Canoe Rentals on Black’s Bridge Rd, near mouth with Swatara)
  28. 28. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 28 BA K BAR S 12/30/99 Interview with Lois Stouffer, by Jo Ellen Litz1) Barns have common features, but each is customized for a particular farmer’s use. Bank Barns are a form of “folk art”—built without architectural plans. This barn was on Oak St just west of the Country Club in Lebanon PA, but taken down and reassembled 1-½ miles SW of its former location. Pennsylvania Dutch bank barns typically have ground level entrances on two sides, most often built on a hillside to take advantage of the slope. Otherwise, a dirt “bank” is manmade to an entrance on the second floor. (Personal note--My grandfather once told me his earth-bermed barn provided a natural climate--both a cooler area for animals in summer and a warmer area in winter.) The overhang above the first floor entrance is a forebay providing a dry area for the farmer to work outside the barn or to hitch up animals out of the weather. The main feature of the second floor is the threshing floor—for wheat or other grain products. Typically built in the late 1700’s through 1920, the second floor often has windows to provide light. In addition, the barns often have names and pictures to identify the owner or type of farm.
  29. 29. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 292) A red barn on old Route 22, just west of the Jonestown intersection. Hex signs are built into the windows. Farmers could throw hay out of the doors on the second level. In most cases, the barns are built symmetrically with windows over doors. The siding is also unusual in that it is reverse board and batten—often seen today used as an accent. Because threshing floors are not used anymore, a heavy beam no longer runs the length of the second floor. Besides, try to find a beam like that these days. In short, these barns aren’t often built anymore.3) West on Oak St., Lebanon, turn past South Church Road to view this second floor with a manmade bank. Note the extended roof for additional room for the granary. This barn was made of limestone or fieldstone. The narrow vertical 3” slits are for ventilation, v-shaped to a wider 1-½ foot on the inside.
  30. 30. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 304) On Route 322 just east of Campbelltown, notice the extensions on both sides of the entrance. Since it is on level ground, a concrete reinforced ramp is built to the second floor. Silos, used for storing corn and other silage, are often made of ceramic tile. Older versions are wood. Then came concrete. Modern silos are usually a blue metal.
  31. 31. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 315) Royer’s barn is just west of Myerstown with a beautiful Victorian stone house. The barn roof has dormer windows, representative of a more Victorian style. The end-caps are made of limestone and brownstone. Even the windows are gothic style. The roof is not typical--a gambrel style.Here’s the backside of the same barn. Note the small entrance doors within each larger equipment door.Further, the Pennsylvania Dutch don’t give up. The history of this barn says Samuel & Mary Phillips builtit in 1879. Burned 1905. Rebuilt by Samuel & Mary Phillips. Burned 1936. Rebuilt by Robert & SueRoyer 1936.
  32. 32. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 326) In Mt. Pleasant, past Thousand Trails Campground entrance, is this barn with a sandstone base. It’s a small barn with common features.7) Off Route 422 on the West End of Myerstown is a barn with the end-cap in brick and sheath of wheat ventilation holes. The ramp to the second floor is reinforced with stone. A small milking shed along side has a fancy, scalloped roofline.
  33. 33. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 338) This barn is located on the east-end of Lebanon County near Route 78 in the Hamlin area. Note the paint and wood trim effect to simulate a stained-glass window. Also, the scalloped border edges the top of the siding.9) In Palmyra, near Philadelphia Mixers on Route 422, is a barn with brownstone and limestone mixed for corner accents.
  34. 34. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3410) Located on the Heilman farm off Hill Church Road, this unusual forebay is placed on the end rather than the side, and features a fancy glass and wood cupola on the roof for ventilation and lighting. Because water could enter and rot the wood, some farmers removed cupolas.11) No longer there, this barn was on Main Street in Campbelltown. The large barn had multiple ornate cupolas on top with lightning rods built in. Some farmers planted a locust tree by the barn to serve as a lightning rod. (personal note-- My Grandpa planted a mulberry tree, and I used to gorge myself on mulberries while sunning on his barn’s bank.) When these wonderful treasures burn, it is usually due to electrical shorts, lightning strikes, spontaneous combustion, or arson. In this case, the farmer’s nephew set the fire.
  35. 35. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 35 12) This barn is found on Route 322, west of Quentin. Most barns had a date stone near the point of the roof gable.13) Here’s the aftermath of a barn fire on Route 322, east of Route 241. Notice the construction--two footthick walls, one foot square holes mid-wall where beams rested, and the inside of a ventilation slit. Usingpart of the original foundation, this barn was rebuilt as a pole-barn--possibly used as a site formanufacturing peach crates.
  36. 36. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3614) Off Route 934, near Route 322, notable is the wooden, fan-shaped ventilation window used in many barns in the area.15) In Greble, shown in disrepair, this barn was built solid with a brick and stone base. The plaque said “Build 1844.”
  37. 37. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3716) In Greble. Across the street is an all brick barn with sheath of wheat ventilation. Black bumper cars indicate a plain family owns this barn. However, most barns built by plain folks normally didn’t have large overhangs like this barn. A flower garden by the ramp eliminates mowing.17) On Route 934, south of Annville, the original barn burned from a lightning strike. Mr. Heagy knew of a Lancaster barn with similar dimensions and purchased it for rebuilding on his farm. On this rebuilt barn, the original end-caps remain, but about two feet of wood insert were added.
  38. 38. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3818) Off Route 934 south of Annville, this barn was moved from another location.19) Today, barn beams are irreplaceable. So when a barn comes down, beams are often transported.
  39. 39. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 3920) At the Montieth Studio on Hill Church Road, north of Annville. Because barns are built for specificneeds, air conditioning, a picture window, and garage doors were added.21) Across from Leed’s Corner, on Route 322, Campbelltown, note the horizontal siding—more common in Schuylkill County. Most Lebanon County barns have vertical siding. Even the upstairs windows are louvered.
  40. 40. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4022) Near Messerschmidt’s—Millbach. The green color is unusual. Red or white barns are common in Lebanon. Because of lead in the paint, white wash was safer for dairy farms.23) North of Palmyra is a customized barn with fancy trim around windows; skylights in roof; vinyl-sided sliding doors; and a milk parlor on side. Metal Snowbird hooks )( on the roof keep snow from falling in sheets. They make a good place to rest a two-by-four and ladder to mend the roof.
  41. 41. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4124) North of Annville, notice the forebay section filled in with windows. Dairy farmers who sold milk to Mr. Hershey often did this. He believed cows needed daylight. If the weather was foul, cows could still get light, and Mr. Hershey could make the best chocolate.25) East of Avon on King St. The exterior staircase to the second floor is located under the forebay, and a storage shed is housed under the stairs. Notice the Hex signs.
  42. 42. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4226) Located by the fairgrounds/Lebanon Expo, this barn was built in 1797. Again, there’s an outside stairway. The barn doors are Dutch-style--the top or bottom half opens independently. The top half also has bars so that an animal can get ventilation without extending his head beyond the barn door.27) On Route 322 west of Quentin is a barn with a double row of snow hooks on the slate roof and a concrete silo. The open door has triangular reinforcement. The little doors open inside the big doors.
  43. 43. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4328) South of Route 22 in the Fredericksburg area is a barn with a peaked gable in the middle of the side roof.29) On Mt. Zion Road, Kimmerlings, east of Seyfert’s Orchard, is a barn of cut versus natural fieldstone. The second floor main beam is visible.
  44. 44. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4430) East of Greble, Pleasant Hill farm has an example of the oldest barns with slate or wooden shingles. More recent farms use asphalt shingle or standing seam tin roof. This barn has wooden shingles, while the milk parlor has a slate roof, and another small building has asphalt shingles.31) In the Ono area is a barn with an attached corncrib. A drive-through is great to keep vehicles out of the weather. Human scent also kept some rodents from the corn.
  45. 45. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4532) On a road parallel to Route 22, north of Palmyra near--as locals describe it--where the old lady lived in a tree house, is a barn with a wooden-shake roof. The forebay is enclosed with concrete block. Hex signs are also displayed.33) In Mt Zion is a barn with large hex signs that are out of proportion, but the owner is a painter. This barn also has a slate roof.
  46. 46. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4634) On Route 22, Fredericksburg, stands former Senator Manbeck’s barn. Painted white in the 1980’s, the barn is now red. A fat wife and a big barn never did any man harm. We don’t know about his wife, but his barn was big—approximately 2.5 times the size of a normal barn, and the longest in Lebanon County.35) Near the VFW, on Lingle Road between Campbelltown and Palmyra, is a barn with double roof gables.
  47. 47. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4736) The next barn over from the previous barn in the Campbelltown area has a typical shape, but an unusual pale yellow color. The above barn also has a “T” shaped stone rear.
  48. 48. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4837) North of Annville. The original barn is in the middle. A chicken coop and various other additions suit the needs of the farmer.38) A Mt Zion barn sports a downspout that crosses the end of the barn. Spouts are often brought together to fill a cistern under the bank ramp.
  49. 49. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 4939) On Route 322 in Fontana is an unusual barn with a Dutch-broken roofline. Vertical facing could allowmore windows for light and ventilation. Light’s Fort is the only other building in the region with the sameroofline. The barn is currently used for Chevy repairs, and the roofline is changed. Vinyl siding was alsoadded.40) South of Annville is a tobacco barn with end-slats that flip out or turn sideways for drying tobacco leaves.
  50. 50. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 5041) This is the same green barn in Millbach with a good view of the corncrib. 42) Across from Lebanon Expo fairgrounds is another barn with its corncrib recently converted to agarage.
  51. 51. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 5143) Located in Prescott. In addition to the bank barn, this farm has a washhouse with a water pump. 44) This is a typical Pennsylvania Dutch farm in Kleinfeltersville.
  52. 52. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 5245) Jim Morrissey’s farm in Mt. Zion.
  53. 53. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 5346) Bob Ladds Bank Barn is on Zinns Mill Rd., Lebanon PA. 40 degrees 17.89N and 76 degrees23.51W. Built in 1806, this cut limestone barn takes advantage of natural topography. The barn is builtinto a hillside, thus forming a natural bank. At the turn of the 20th century, the Plasterer family owned thefarm. Bob Ladd purchased the farm from Stanley Smith in 1969. In the thirty plus years Bob has ownedthe barn, he never replaced the roof--and it doesnt leak. Maintenance involves a fresh coat of paint onthe raised-seam tin-roof about every eight years. Interior beams are pegged together. There are vertical slitsfor ventilation. Originally a dairy barn, Flicka, the horse, has a roomy and comfortable stable. Amolasses barrel is molded into the first-floor bank wall. Ladd barn photo series by Jo Ellen Litz Interior view of wheat ventilation.
  54. 54. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 54 Ceramic tile silo.Flicka Molasses barrelIn a January 6, 2000 follow-up interview, Jack Stouffer, Lois’ brother, revealed he also talked to farmers ashe traveled with Lois as her driver. Lois took her pictures between 1980-84 for her brother Paul, who wasin college studying folk art.Further, Jack paraphrased a farmer who told him, “If a man doesn’t think of the Lord when he walks intohis barn, there’s something wrong”. The second floor of a bank barn is divided into three areas, remindingthe farmer of the “Trinity”--Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The center is also equivalent to the sanctuarywhile the sides hold the various grains or “meeting rooms.” Was it technology or common sense thatplaced the grain where it could serve as insulation over the first floor where animals are housed?
  55. 55. Swatara Creek Watershed Association, Inc., 2501 Cumberland St., Suite 2, Lebanon PA 17042 55 Photo by Jo Ellen LitzRemnants of a bank barn on the Ingram Micro Computer Manufacturing site in Lickdale, Lebanon County.In closing, these barns are a part of our heritage and culture. Although there may seem to be an abundanceof these magnificent structures in this region, one by one bank barns disappear as housing, business, andindustrial developments appear. Documenting the features and locations of bank barns is part of an effortto make people aware of their historic significance. The irrevocable loss of dozens of covered bridgesstands as a harsh reminder of what can happen to these remnants of our heritage. ####