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A presentation
by
Jessie Booth &
James Neill
RESILIENCE AND
COPING IN
OUTDOOR EDUCATION
19th National
Outdoor Education
Co...
 Introduce psychological theory about stress, coping
and resilience.
 Review research about coping strategies and
resili...
Hardiness
Resourcefulness
Mental toughness
RESILIENCE – RELATED CONCEPTS
 Capacity for adapting well in the face of tragedy,
trauma, threats or significant stress
(American Psychological Associa...
RESILIENCE – SOURCES
some types of risk
make individuals
vulnerable
protective factors
lessen an individuals
response to
a...
 Coping = behavioural and cognitive attempts to
manage stress (Carpenter, 1992)
 Diverse range of coping skills enables ...
 3 main categories of coping responses
(Folkman & Lazarus, 1980):
 Problem-focused
 Emotion-focused
 Avoidant
 We sho...
Stress Inoculation Model
 Similar to development of immunity against disease
 Small dosages of stress allow the system ...
 Psychoeducation sessions (x4) for stressed uni students:
 resilience and stress models, coping strategies, responsibili...
 Unfamiliar, wilderness environments
 Challenging nature of adventure activities
 Guided facilitation of experiences
 ...
 Neill and Dias (2001): Adult participants in a 22-day Outward Bound
Australia program
(large change: d = 1.10, N = 41)
...
Investigated development of psychological
resilience and the contribution of different
coping strategies
Outward Bound p...
I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times.
I have a hard time making it through stressful
events. (R)
It does not ...
CHANGE IN RESILIENCE
FOR EACH PARTICIPANT
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20...
RESULTS - CHANGE IN RESILIENCE
QUANTITATIVE: Small increase in resilience-
effect size= .2 (small)
 Positive change
 Typ...
COPE
(CARVER ET AL., 1989)
Average overall use of
strategy
4= a lot
3= a medium amount
2= a little bit
1= not at all
COPING
STRATEGIES
DURING AN OE
P...
3 coping strategies partially explained change in
resilience:
 Qualitative data showed greater use of:
 Positive Reinter...
 Resilience is a core psychological outcome targetted by
outdoor education programs
 There is positive but varied eviden...
 jessiewbooth@gmail.com
 james.neill@canberra.edu.au
FURTHER INFO AND CONTACTS
American Psychological Association (2010). The road to resilience. Retrieved from
http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resil...
Glennie, E. J. (2010). Coping and resilience. In. Rosen, J. A., Glennie, E. J., Dalton B. W., Lennon, J.
M., & Bozick, R. ...
Nadler, R. S. (1993). Therapeutic process of change. In M. A. Gass, (Ed.), Adventure therapy: Therapeutic
applications of ...
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C.S. (1988). A model of behavioral self-regulation: Translating intention into action. In L. Ber...
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NOEC 2016 Booth Neill presentation slides

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Presentation from the article: Booth, J., & Neill, J. T. (2016). Coping strategies and the development of psychological resilience in outdoor education. Paper presented at the 19th National Outdoor Education Conference, University of Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, March 29 - April 1.

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NOEC 2016 Booth Neill presentation slides

  1. 1. A presentation by Jessie Booth & James Neill RESILIENCE AND COPING IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION 19th National Outdoor Education Conference, March 30, 2016 University of Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.
  2. 2.  Introduce psychological theory about stress, coping and resilience.  Review research about coping strategies and resilience in outdoor education (OE).  Explore how OE can use coping strategies to contribute to the development of resilience. THIS PRESENTATION WILL:
  3. 3. Hardiness Resourcefulness Mental toughness RESILIENCE – RELATED CONCEPTS
  4. 4.  Capacity for adapting well in the face of tragedy, trauma, threats or significant stress (American Psychological Association, 2010)  Bouncing back from a challenging experience (Smith et al., 2008)  Conceptualisation has changed from being a special, invulnerable characteristic of some individuals to a normal achievable and basic human adaptation system. PSYCHOLOOGICAL RESILIENCE
  5. 5. RESILIENCE – SOURCES some types of risk make individuals vulnerable protective factors lessen an individuals response to adversity (or make them more resilient) Antecedent → Adversity (e.g., experiences that are difficult to adjust to) Response → Positive adaptation (e.g., behavioural competencies that are symptoms of internal well-being) Coping
  6. 6.  Coping = behavioural and cognitive attempts to manage stress (Carpenter, 1992)  Diverse range of coping skills enables healthy adaptation.  Transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1987) 1. Primary appraisal = perception of a threat as irrelevant/benign or stressful. 2. Secondary appraisal = selecting a response to the threat to best manage it. COPING
  7. 7.  3 main categories of coping responses (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980):  Problem-focused  Emotion-focused  Avoidant  We should be cautious about labelling particular coping strategies as positive or negative because each may be effective in particular situations. COPING
  8. 8. Stress Inoculation Model  Similar to development of immunity against disease  Small dosages of stress allow the system to build resilience COPING & RESILIENCE Challenge (Stress-inducing experience) Adaptive coping behaviour Increased resilience and adaptability Stress Coping Resilience
  9. 9.  Psychoeducation sessions (x4) for stressed uni students:  resilience and stress models, coping strategies, responsibility, changing disempowering interpretations, creating meaningful connections, and self-leadership  Results (compared to control group):  Significantly higher resilience scores  Greater use of problem-focused coping strategies  Lower use of avoidant coping strategies  Techniques to develop coping (what we can do in OE):  Psychoeducation  Change environment/ stressor to test and practice responses  Coping effectiveness training and practice STUDY 1 – COPING INTERVENTION (STEINHARDT & DOLBIER, 2008)
  10. 10.  Unfamiliar, wilderness environments  Challenging nature of adventure activities  Guided facilitation of experiences  Group dynamics  In theory, this can create constructive anxiety or dissonance  Participants are required to engage coping strategies and therefore build resilience  Generally positive but variable results in studies examining change in resilience through OE programs OE AS A RESILIENCE INTERVENTION
  11. 11.  Neill and Dias (2001): Adult participants in a 22-day Outward Bound Australia program (large change: d = 1.10, N = 41)  Shellman (2009): Youth participants in 14 to 30 day Outward Bound USA programs (large change: d = 0.87, N = 63)  Hayhurst, Hunter, Kafka, & Boyes (2015): Youth participants in a 10- day New Zealand sail training voyage (moderate change: d = 0.59, N = 66)  Ewert & Yoshino (2011). US college students outdoor adventure education semester program (moderate change: d = 0.40, N = 66)  However, other studies have found no significant changes:  Sheard and Golby (2006): 26 university students in UK for a 3-month outdoor adventure education curriculum.  Skehill (2001): 99 adolescents in initial 5-week period of residential program that combined outdoor education with traditional school curriculum. RESILIENCE & OUTDOOR EDUCATION STUDIES
  12. 12. Investigated development of psychological resilience and the contribution of different coping strategies Outward Bound program for adolescents Mixed method (quantitative & qualitative) COPING & RESILIENCE IN OUTDOOR ED (BOOTH, 2015)
  13. 13. I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times. I have a hard time making it through stressful events. (R) It does not take me long to recover from a stressful event. It is hard for me to snap back when something bad happens. (R) I usually come through difficult times with little trouble. I tend to take a long time to get over set-backs in my life. (R) BRIEF RESILIENCE SCALE (SMITH ET AL., 2008)
  14. 14. CHANGE IN RESILIENCE FOR EACH PARTICIPANT -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
  15. 15. RESULTS - CHANGE IN RESILIENCE QUANTITATIVE: Small increase in resilience- effect size= .2 (small)  Positive change  Typical of OE/Resilience results Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Time1 Time2 QUALITATIVE: over half 14 interviewed participants had positive changes in resilience.
  16. 16. COPE (CARVER ET AL., 1989)
  17. 17. Average overall use of strategy 4= a lot 3= a medium amount 2= a little bit 1= not at all COPING STRATEGIES DURING AN OE PROGRAM Resilience-enhancing Resilience-undermining
  18. 18. 3 coping strategies partially explained change in resilience:  Qualitative data showed greater use of:  Positive Reinterpretation: Construing a stressful transaction in positive terms e.g., “I learnt something from the experience.”  Quantitative data showed lower use of:  Acceptance: Accepting the reality of a stressful situation e.g., I learnt to live with it.  Focus on and Venting of Emotions: Focusing on what is distressing or upsetting and ventilating those feelings e.g., I felt a lot of emotional distress and found myself expressing those feelings a lot. predicted greater positive changes in resilience RESULTS – CONTRIBUTION OF COPING TO CHANGE IN RESILIENCE
  19. 19.  Resilience is a core psychological outcome targetted by outdoor education programs  There is positive but varied evidence about effect of OE on participants’ resilience levels.  Psychological theory suggests coping strategies can influence development of resilience.  Thus, to improve outcomes of OE programs, consider:  Greater integration of psychoeducation to help guide participants’ coping strategy skill and choices  Facilitators can be influential in teaching, facilitating, and role modeling use of adaptive coping skills  Specially target:  Positive reinterpretation (↑)  Acceptance (↓)  Focus on and venting of emotion (↓) CONCLUSION
  20. 20.  jessiewbooth@gmail.com  james.neill@canberra.edu.au FURTHER INFO AND CONTACTS
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