TYPES OF IRRIGATIONS
SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to
the land or soil.
It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural
crops, maintenance of landscapes, and
revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and
during periods of inadequate rainfall.
irrigation also has a few other uses in crop
production, which include protecting plants
Farm Lands & Fields situated miles away from your
home. Extensive travel required, sometimes several
times in a day to start & stop the irrigation water
Land is more, we need more manpower.
For conversion of change in resistance to change in voltage, the sensor is
connected with a 200 kΩ resistor in series to form a potential divider
It gives a voltage output corresponding to the conductivity of the soil. The
conductivity of soil varies depending upon the amount of moisture present in
it. It increases with increase in the water content of the soil. The higher the
water content in the soil, the lower the electrical resistance.
The voltage output is taken from the output terminal of this circuit. The
moisture sensor is immersed into the specimen soil whose moisture content is
For the comparator circuit, we are using IC LM 358 which has two
We have selected two thresholds: 5 V for logic high and 3 V for logic
low. These two levels are set at the positive terminal of each opamp.
The output of the potential divider is given to the negative terminals of
The two opamps are arranged such that when the output of the
potential divider circuit falls below the preset value of lower opamp the
lower opamp gives logic 0 and the upper opamp gives logic 1.
When the output of potential divider circuit is in between range (5 V
and 3V), then both opamps give logic 1 and when output of potential
divider circuit is above the set value of upper opamp, then the upper
opamp gives logic 0 and lower opamp gives logic 1.
The output of the comparator circuit is fed to SR Latch
1 >5V EXCESS WET 0 1
2 >3V & < 5V OPTIMUM 1 1
3 <3V DRY 1 0
S R Q
1 >5V EXCESS
1 0 0
2 >3V &<5V OPTIMU
1 1 0
1 1 1
3 <3V DRY 0 1 1
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory.
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range.
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz.
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM.
32 Programmable I/O Lines.
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters.
Eight Interrupt Sources.
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel.
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes.
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode.
Fast Programming Time
The basic operation of control unit is the
controlling solenoid by microcontroller which is
defined by particular program.
solenoid is connected with an output pin of
microcontroller via a relay circuit which is
connected with a transistor.
Electromagnetic device which produces a magnetic
field when electric current passed through it.
These are used mainly in opening and closing of
Operation of valves is done using a relay circuit.
A relay is an electrical switch
that uses an electromagnet to
move the switch from the off
to on position instead of a
person moving the switch .
This makes increase in productivity
Reduces water consumption
Much land will be irrigated
The Microcontroller based drip irrigation system
proves to be a real time feedback control system
which monitors and controls all the activities of drip
irrigation system efficiently. The present proposal is a
model to modernize the agriculture industries at a
mass scale with optimum expenditure. Using this
system, one can save manpower, water to improve
production and ultimately profit.