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Automatic Irrigation System

This ppt is explained how to develop an automatic irrigation system that switches a pump motor on/off upon sensing moisture content of the soil.By using this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation. has a wide range of electronic projects ideas that are primarily helpful for ECE, EEE and EIE students and the ideas can be applied for real life purposes as well.

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Automatic Irrigation System

  1. 1. Automatic Irrigation System
  2. 2. Automatic Irrigation System:  Irrigation Is The Artificial Application Of Water To The Land Or Soil.  It Is Used To Assist In The Growing Of Agricultural Crops, Maintenance Of Landscapes And Re-vegetation Of Disturbed Soils In Dry Areas And During Periods Of Inadequate Rainfall.  Irrigation Also Has A Few Other Uses In Crop Production That Includes Protecting Plants Against Frost. Automatic Irrigation System
  3. 3. Problems on Irrigation System:  Over irrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management of waste water, chemicals may lead to water pollution.  Under irrigation leads to increased soil salinity with consequent buildup of toxic salts on the soil surface in areas with high evaporation.  Farm Lands and Fields should be situated miles away from your home.  Extensive travel required, sometimes several times in a day to start and stop the irrigation water pumps. Automatic Irrigation System
  4. 4. Soil moisture sensor:  Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in the soil.  Soil moisture sensors measure some other property, such as electrical resistance, dielectric constant, or interaction with neutrons, as a proxy for moisture content.  Reflected microwave radiation is affected by the soil moisture and is used for remote sensing in hydrology and agriculture. Automatic Irrigation System
  5. 5. Working of Automatic Irrigation System:  The power supply consists of a step-down transformer, which steps down the voltage to 12VAC.  By using a bridge rectifier this AC is converted to DC, then it is regulated to 5v using a voltage regulator that is used for the operation of the microcontroller.  Automatic Irrigation System comprises three main components namely a microcontroller, a motor-driver circuit and a sensor circuit.  When the sensor circuit senses the condition of the soil, it compares it with the reference voltage 5v. A 555 timer does this process. Automatic Irrigation System
  6. 6.  When the soil condition is less than the reference voltage, i.e., 5v, then the soil is considered as dry and instantly the 555 timer sends the logic signal 1 to the microcontroller.  The microcontroller then turns on the motor driver circuit and prompts the motor to pump water to the plants. When the soil condition is greater than the reference voltage, the soil becomes dry.  Then the timer sends the logic signal 0 to the microcontroller, this turns off the motor driver circuit and prompts motor to pump water to the fields Finally, the condition of the motor and soil are displayed on the LCD. Automatic Irrigation System
  7. 7. Block Diagram of Automatic Irrigation System: Automatic Irrigation System
  8. 8. Circuit Diagram: Automatic Irrigation System
  9. 9. Circuit Diagram of Irrigation System:  The main component used in this automatic plant irrigation system is 7404 Hex Inverter.  The main function of the inverter output is proportional to the input. It means if the input of the inverter is low, then the output of the inverter will be high, and the inverter will give low output if the input is high.  The Hex inverter 7404 IC includes six independent inverters and the range of operating voltage is around 4.75V to 5.5V, and the Supply voltage is 5V.  This IC is available in different packages like quad-flat package and dual- inline package. The pin configuration of the 7404 IC is shown below. Automatic Irrigation System
  10. 10. 7404 IC Pin Configuration: Automatic Irrigation System
  11. 11. Applications:  Useful Irrigation in Fields.  Useful Irrigation In Gardens, Parks.  This Irrigation System is very efficient for Paddy, Rice Fields.  It is effective in Pisciculture also. Automatic Irrigation System
  12. 12. Merits:  Highly sensitive, Low cost and reliable circuit.  Works according to the soil condition.  Complete elimination of manpower.  Can handle heavy loads up to 7A.  System can be switched into manual mode whenever required. Automatic Irrigation System
  13. 13. Demerits:  This is applicable for only large farms.  Have limited life after installation due to the detoriation of the plastic component in a hot, arid climate when exposed to ultraviolet light to ultraviolet light. Automatic Irrigation System
  14. 14. Future Extension:  The working of the project is dependent on the output of humidity sensors. Whenever there is a need for excess water in the desired field (RICE crops), then it will not be possible by using sensor technology. For this, we will have to adopt the DTMF technology. By using this, we will be able to irrigate the desired field & in desired amount. Automatic Irrigation System
  15. 15. Conclusion:  In present days, especially farmers are facing major problems in watering their agriculture fields, it’s because they have no proper idea of when the power is available so that they can pump water.  Even after then they need to wait until the field is properly watered, which makes them stop doing other activities.  Here is an idea that helps not only farmers even for watering the gardens also, which senses the soil moisture and switches the pump automatically when the power is ON.  Automatic Irrigation System is very useful. Automatic Irrigation System
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