Herbal medicine in aquaculture 1306


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With the continued expansion of cultured fish and shellfish species, aquaculture has become a key component of the animal health industry. Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry around the world with around 80 million tonnes produced annually. With an average annual growth rate of 7 percent, more then 60 percent of the global seafood is currently supplied from aquaculture. However, this growth is not without its problems, as demonstrated by the latest outbreak of Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) in the shrimp industry, sea lice in the salmon industry and an array of other diseases.

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Herbal medicine in aquaculture 1306

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y November | December 2013 Herbal medicine in aquaculture International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
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  3. 3. FEATURE Herbal medicine in aquaculture by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski, R&D Director, Nutra-Kol, Australia W ith the continued expansion of cultured fish and shellfish species, aquaculture has become a key component of the animal health industry. Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry around the world with around 80 million tonnes produced annually. With an average annual growth rate of 7 percent, more then 60 percent of the global seafood is currently supplied from aquaculture. However, this growth is not without its problems, as demonstrated by the latest outbreak of Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) in the shrimp industry, sea lice in the salmon industry and an array of other diseases. to antibiotic or other chemotherapeutics residues are an almost daily occurrence, and yet there is currently no alternative solution to antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics. During the past decade, several outbreaks of disease devastated the aquaculture industry around the world. In the past three years, the Southeast Asian and Mexican shrimp industries were affected by EMS outbreaks. The Chilean salmon industry suffered (and still does) a devastating outbreaks of sea lice and the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus, causing losses of hundred of millions of dollars. These outbreaks drove the authorities to review and revise the use of chemotherapeutics in this industry. Misuse of antibiotics Disease in aquaculture Due to the intensification of rearing methods and systems, diseases and pathogens have been an integral part of, and a formidable obstacle to, the aquaculture industry worldwide. Moreover, antibiotic resistance has become a major issue affecting the aquaculture industry. Already in 1994, the American Society of Microbiology stated that ‘the increasing problems associated with infectious diseases in fish, the limited number of drugs available for treatment and prevention of these diseases, and the rapid increase in resistance to these antibiotics represent major challenges for this source of food production worldwide’ (ASM 1994). Currently, almost every sector of the aquaculture industry, from fish to crustaceans and shellfish, is using some sort of chemotherapeutic agents including antibiotics and many other chemicals. Although the use of drugs such as Fluoroquinolones, Nitrofurans, Chloramphenicol are prohibted in many countries, the use of these these drugs is still a common practice. Banning and rejection of seafood imported to the United States or EU countries due This misuse of antibiotics in all areas – human medicine, veterinary medicine, animal production and plant protection – led the FAO to write a 2005 paper, ‘The responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture’, to raise awareness of the antibiotic resistance problem in fish farming and related sectors. The document focuses on antibiotics misuse and the concomitant threat of resistance development, which is seen as a public health concern affecting the population worldwide. In its opening statement the authors remarked: ‘Antibiotic resistance as a phenomenon is, in itself, not surprising. Nor is it new. It is however, newly worrying because it is accumulating and accelerating, while the world’s tools for combating it decrease in power and number.’ Diseases and pathogens are part of all intensive farming. In aquaculture a ‘natural mortality’ of 10-25 percent is considered to be normal in grow-out systems. Marine finfish larvae (such as sea bream, sea bass, yellowtail kingfish etc) survival in intensive hatcheries is 5-40 percent (Kolkovski, personal comment). These low survival rates are usually the result of combined factors, such as environmental conditions, non-specific pathogens, larvae susceptibility and low immune system development. In fact, this situation is true to most marine and freshwater organisms reared in intensive systems. Although banned in most countries, in many cases antibiotics are used to combat this problem, whether as growth promoters or specifically against bacterial infection (Hernández Serrano, 2005). Alternative therapy Phytotherapy (the use of herbal extracts in human medicine) has been known for thousands of years. In China, India, Southeast Asia and some countries in South and Central America, phytotherapy is considered mainstream, while in the West naturopathy and herbal medicine are becoming more and more acknowledged. Different medicinal plants and herbs, and/ or combinations of them, are known to have various health benefits, including antibacterial and antifungal properties, hormonal balancing and support for the immune and digestive systems. The world market for herbal medicine has been estimated to have an annual growth rate between 5 and 15 percent, with an estimated value of US$62 billion (Citarasu, 2009). Strategies for prophylaxis and control of pathogens include improvement of environmental conditions, stocking of specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp post-larvae, and enhancement of disease resistance with immunostimulants such as glucans. Immunostimulants are substances that enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against pathogenic organisms (Citarasu et al., 2006). Many plant-derived compounds have been found to have non-specific immunostimulating effects in animals, of which more than a dozen have been evaluated in fish and shrimp (Citarasu et al. 2002, 2006, Sakai, 1999). Many herbs and plants have been used as home remedies in cultures around the world for millennia, for human and animal consumption. Some of these remedies have potent 34 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2013
  4. 4. FEATURE table 6:annual production of olive oil is estitional feeds and hence food. OP The Wheat flour table 1: Chemical composition of olive pomace (oP) and mated 1. Plants and herbs withafla tonnes with in aquaculture in several agricultural to be Wheat flour million at least 2.9 Zen Don FUM ota table antibacterial effects is now used Co-occurance fish oil (Fo) diet (% wet weight) (nasopoulou et al., 2013a) some 15 million tonnes of OMW being pro- and aquacultural applications with Biological effects in Ingredient Fo diet * Botanical name Family Useful parts reference oP diet number of tests 172 341 Distribution 434 189 186 duced annually. In Mediterranean countries, promising results. The novelty of aquaculture is the production of olives has been a major part our approach though 13 that we Percentage of positive (%) 5 31 70 10 interested0 produc- Crude protein in of the agricultural(µg/kg) of 0 produce these countries are not only33 44.95 ± 1.3 46 ± 4.3 average 38 842 antibacterial amd ing fish and also for many decades (if not centuries). For every India (novel)leaves but roots we are Fat Daemia extenas asclepiadeae Sivaram 19.4 ± 2004; Jinish, 2012 et al., 1.7 21 ± 2.1 immunostimulant Maximum (µg/kg) 11.1 2,991 12,000 2,273 30 100 kg of olives, 35 kg of OP are produced; it assessing the nutritional value of Moisture Psoralea corylifolia Papilionaceae Citarasu 8.6 ± 0.6 et al., 2003 b 9.1 ± 1.3 India Seeds could, thus, be suggested that the production this (novel) fish in terms of cardio- antibacterial table Adathoda vasica 7: rice bran 1.8 ± 0.3† Dietary fibre 5.2al.,0.3† Minimol, 2005 Citarasu et ± 2001 acanthaceae Whole ultimately, in antibacterial protection, aiming, plant of OMW and OP are sustainable and the India Don FUM Co-occurance 1.4 ash 8.3 ± creating and Whole plant patentingota func- antibacterial novel availability of OPindica euphorbiaceae Zen India for use afla Acalypharice bran in any type of feed Citarasu 6.0 ± 0.9 et al., 1999 21.8 ± 2.1 23 ± 2.6 production and thus aquaculture should be tional fish feeds, fish and health energy (MJ/Kg) Direkbusarakom, 2004; Citarasu et Andrographis number of tests acanthaceae 22 22 22 21 22 antibacterial supplements.Whole plant straightforward. OP is not expensive (€0.1- India paniculata Protein digestibility al., 2003b; Rani, 1999; Jinish, 2002 (%) 89 ± 4.4 90 ± 6.2 Percentage of positive (%) 45 41 18 24 32 In two diets 0.2/kg), it is thus a price-competitive raw Burma detail, Whole planthave been antibacterial Azadirachta indica Sivaram 000 ± 2004 20 000 ± 410† et al., 210† Meliaceae India, Vitamin a (IU/Kg) 7 average (µg/kg) 1.5 56 128.2 181 commercial ingredient compared to other vegetable oils. compared: one being the1.3 Vitamin D (IU/Kg) Shagnliang et ± 110 3 150 al., 1990 3 000 ± 120 Whole bream antibacterial, antiviral Maximum (µg/kg) that 4 to 8 165India, Japan 61 648 220 1.7 This Artemisaia vulgaris fact Compositae percent one for gilthead seaplant (Sparus cost linked to the 258 ± 19† 180 ±17† of OP is needed to be included in the fish aurata) called fish oil diet (FO diet) Vitamin e (mg/Kg) Elephentopus scaber Alex Rajan, 2002 Compositae India, Bengal roots and leaves antibacterial indicated that processed products are increas- trout and shrimp. Similar OP even higher levels K3 aquaculture farms must be developed 7.3† (mg/Kg) 10 ± 0.7† 33 ± to minifeed formulation make OP as a promising lipid and the novel one where or (8 per- Vitamin et were found in final pellet) has been antibacterial mize the negativeal., 1998 b; Alex Rajan, ppb of ing the risk aquaculture. contamination in the India w/w at the several ingredients. 60 Vitamin C (mg/Kg)Citarasu 200impact of mycotoxins on cent source for of mycotoxin rubiaceae Ixora coccinea root ± 20 168 ± 14 2002 panga- the health of exposed fish. feeds. Afla, the problem of presented higher Afla in most fish species such of the Finally, ZEN and OTA transferring OP used (OP diet). In our first part as trout,Cu (mg/Kg) performance and 1.1 7.0 ± Citarasu 7.5 risk for Immanuel 1.1 et ± seabass Moreover, the al., 1998;consumers et needs contaminations (18 percent,labiatae northern sius, tilapia, shrimp, of sea bream fed antibacterial 19 to from Mediterranean countries percent, and work, the total lipids plant European * Leucus aspera Southern India Whole catfish, al.,2004b; Jinish, Data of FO diet from previous study2002 to be addressed as mycotoxin 26 percent, respectively) in soybean meal. with OP a risk of low statistically Europe or to other places of the world representsdiet containedto medium. †Statistically significant according to Wilcoxresidues were on test Citarasu et al., 2001 Meliaceae Whole Plant In Melia azedarachby extracting the polar decreased levels of fatty acids, while antibacterial found in fish muscle beyond acceptable levels. couldregards to wheat flour, ZEN and DON India be rationalised Murraya koenji Sivaram et OP diet antibacterial experiments, the research and FO diet (i.e. were the OP that they arerutaceae with 31 India exhibited the leaves lipids of most prevalent mycotoxins the active feed Conclusion most potent biological activity For that, further al., 2004 is needed in this percent and 70 percent of positive samples against platelet aggregation on the by platelet topic and of course, analysed Citarasu et The available studies induced effects of pellets)Direkbusarakom, 2004; for mycotoxins have been an effective a number components and therefore reducing the antibacterial antiviral, Ocimum sanctum al., 1998a; Rani, 1999; into account. labiatae Whole and other show that and average levels of 38 needsand be trans- India activating factor (PAF). the of management must be takenPraseetha, volume of material that ppb to 842 ppb, mycotoxins in fish Plant In shrimp words, stress risknutritional parameters and the results are anti 2005 References available al., 2013a). respectively. performance andhad stronger cardioprotective given in Table 1 (Nasopoulou et upon request OP-fed sea bream health status are negaported (Nasopoulou and Zabetakis, 2013). Finally, rice bran was mostly contaminated tively affected. The analysed concentrations of Greece, asia, Values are means of three individual measproperties when compared to the FO-fed one. Quercus infectoria Citarasu et al., 1999 Cupuliferae Galls and Bark antibacterial with Afla, ZEN fish OTA testing fish mycotoxins in have suggested used in could OP-enriched and feeds and positive Syria These data feed ingredients that OP aqua- urements; results are expressed as mean ± at 45 percent, 41 focus in and 32 percent, feeds, shows partial substitute of management SD More InforMatIonlimits); data of FO diet (95% confidence : The research percent our group has be used as a the importance of fish oil in fish Solanum surattense Sivaram et al., 2004 Fruits mycotoxins antibacterial respectively. Levels of 100 Solanaceae have India improving its cardio protective proper- areWebsite:our previous work and are given ppb of DON from www.biomin.net feed been towards the commercial exploitation strategies for the and roots problem. been reported to to produce novel func- tiesThe awareness of mycotoxin problems in here to enable easy comparison; † indicates (Nasopoulou et al., 2011). In further of OP in order cause harmful effects in VIV Europe 2014 M lling International World Expo for Animal Husbandry & Processing Directory May 20-22, 2014 | Utrecht, the Netherlands SPANISH LANGUAGE EDITION EDICION Special themes ESPANOLA MORE INFORMATION visit 2013/14 our website www.viv.net twenty two Come to Utrecht in 2014 and connect to all players for premier resource international The global milling industry in today’sthe complete meat milling production chain. ONLINE | PRINT .comwww.aquafeed.co | MOBILE Die and roll re-working machines The GLOBALG.A.P. AquAcuLTure STAndArd Food Safety and Sustainability at every Stage of Production Next stop: tHe NetHeRLANDs & BeLGIUM GENERAL ENQUIRIES Major sarah-jane.day@aquaculture.org.au 20 november 2013 in hoogstraten, Belgium. Sponsor & Host held in collaboration with the national Technical CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT worldaqua@aol.com Working Groups of The netherlands and Belgium. Conference Sponsors Next stop: JApAN 29-30 november 2013 in Miyazaki city, Japan. WAS Premier Sponsors held in collaboration with the national Technical www.was.org Working Group of Japan. www.oj-hojtryk.dk Organisers Phone: website 22 check out our +45 75 14 for55 Fax: +45 near you! events happening 82 28 91 41 mail: info@oj-hojtryk.dk www.tour2013.org November-December 2013 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 17 29 35 O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11
  5. 5. FEATURE Table 2: Plants and herbs with antiviral effects in aquaculture Family Distribution Useful parts Biological effect in aquaculture Oenothera biennis onagraceae Japan, eastern n. america, UK Seeds, flowers and root antibacterial and antiviral Shangliang et al., 1990 Solanum trilobatum Solanaceae India Whole plant antibacterial and immunostimulant Citarasu et al., 2003b Caryophyllaceae Japan Whole plant antibacterial and antiviral Shangliang et al., 1990 aroideae India, Burma rhizome antibacterial and immunostimulant Magdelin, 2005; Minomol, 2005; Praseetha, 2005 Botanical name Stellaria aquatica Acorus calamus Cassia alata reference Caesalpiniaceae tropics leaves antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004 Guttiferae Sea coast of India Bark, leaves and seed antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004 Menispermaceae tropical, Subtropical India root and leaves antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004 Momordica charantina Cucurbitaceae India Fruits, seeds and leaves antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004 Phyllanthus niruri euphorbiaceae India, Sri lanka Whole plant antiviral Rani, 1999; Direkbusarakom, 2004; Immanuel et al., 2004b Phyllanthus urinaria euphorbiaceae India, USa Whole plant antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004 Myrtaceae India, Bengal Bark, fruit and leaves antiviral Direkbusarakom, 2004; Anita, 2001 Ocimum basilicum labiatae India Whole plant antiviral and antibacterial Direkbusarakom, 2004; Citarasu et al., 2001 Tephrosia purpurea Papilionaceae Southern India leaves and root antiviral and antibacterial Direkbusarakom, 2004; Rani, 1999 Tinospora cordifolia Menispermaceae Southern India leaves and stem antiviral and immunostimulant Citarasu et al., 1998a; Direkbusarakom, 2004; Jinish, 2002 Calophyllum inophyllum Tinospora crispa Psidium guajava antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. Natural plant products have been reported to have various other properties making them useful as anti-stressors, growth promoters, appetizers, tonics and immunostimulants. Moreover, these substances also possess other valuable properties: they are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. No herbalresistance immunity has been found by any pathogen to date. Although the properties of herbs and plants are well known, documented, and in use in human medicine around the world, currently very few commercial remedies exist for use in large-scale aquaculture. Medicinal plants in aquaculture It is well known and documented that medicinal plants have strong antibacterial effects. Phenolics, polysaccharides, proteoglycans and flavonoids are known to play an important role in preventing and controlling bacterial infections. Herbs such as S. triblobatum, A. paniculata and P. corylifolia were found to reduce vibrio in P. monodon by a third when supplied in enriched Artemia (Citrasu et al. 2002, 2009). Several plant products have been found to have potent antiviral effects against fish and shrimp viruses. For example, Direkbusarakom et al. 1996 found that shrimp fed ethanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans had 95 percent survival rates when exposed to yellow head virus (YHV), compared to only 25 percent survival in control group of black tiger shrimp. Several species of Indian herbs and plants such as A. marmelos, C. dactylon, L. camara, M. charantia and P. amarus showed strong antiviral activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) when extracted with organic solvents such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol. Many other studies have been published looking at the antibacterial and antiviral effect of herbal extracts with different species (see Table 1). Herbal extracts are also known to have antifungal and antiparasitic properties. Adiguzel et al. (2005) controlled infection of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxyspoum with extract of O. basilicum. A novel anti-fungal molecule, was isolated from the plant Datura metel L. (Dabur, 2004). This molecule was shown to have anti-Aspergillus properties, as well as acting against 10 clinical isolates of Candida, 19 clinical isolates of Aspergillus and a few marine fungi. The herbal extracts involve the fungal cell wall lysis, altering the permeability, affecting the metabolism and RNA and protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to death (Citarasu, 2009). Herbal extracts have been used for centuries against internal and external parasites in humans, through direct effect on the parasite and/or by strengthening the immune system. For example, garlic was used against skin parasites, with sweat containing the garlic’s active ingredients acting as a repellent. Similarly, a mix of herbal extracts added to fish feed assists with gill and skin flukes such as Benedenia seriolae. It is assumed that the mucus on the fish skin containing the herbal active ingredients acts as repellent, and reduces parasitic infection. 36 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2013
  6. 6. FEATURE Table 3: Plants and herbs used as growth promoters and immunostimulants in aquaculture Family Distribution Useful parts Biological effects in aquaculture acanthaceae India, Sri lanka Whole plant Growth promoter Ipomea digitata Convolvulaceae Hotter part of India root Growth promoter and immunostimulant Solanum nigrum Solanaceae India Berries Growth promoter Terminaelia arjuna Combretaceae India, Burma, Sri lanka Bark Growth promoter Boerhaevia diffusa nyctaginaceae India, tibet leaf and root Growth promoter and appetizer Fruit Growth promoter and appetizer Whole plant Hepeto tonic, immunostimulant and antistress Whole plant Hepeto tonic, immunostimulant, antiviral and antistress leaf and root stalk Immunostimulant and antibacterial Whole plant Immunostimulant and antibacterial Whole plant Immunostimulant Whole plant Immunostimulant Berries and leaves Immunostimulant rhizome Immunostimulant rhizome Immunostimulant and antistress root Immunostimulant and growth promoter Botanical name Hygrophila spinosa Herbal compounds have Carica papaya Caricaceae India the ability to inhibit the generation of oxygen anions Eclipta erecta Compositae India and scavenge free radicals, hance reducing stress effects. Herbal antioxidant effects Eclipta alba Compositae India were demonstrated by Citrasu et al. (2006) when P. Cymodon dactycon Gramineae India kurroa (picrorhiza) was used as an antistress compound Emblica officinalis euphorbiaceae India for black tiger shrimp. Other herbs including Astragalus europe, turkey, Urtica dioica Urticaceae membranaceus, Portulaca olerIndia acea, Flavescent ophora and Vernonia cinera Compositae India A. paniculata are known to India, have specific and non-specific Viscum album loranthaceae Himalayas, antistress effects. turkey Medicinal plants are also India, China, Zingiber officinale Scitaminaceae known to have hormonal Bengal boosting effects with some herbs being used in herbal Picrorrhiza kurvooa Scrophulariaceae India medicine as natural ‘viagra’ and in hormonal replaceWithania somnifera Solanaceae India ment therapy for menopausal woman. Significant increases in fecundity and gonadal weight Issues and reduced intermoult period in P. monodon Although herbal remedies have been used were observed when the shrimp were fed in human therapy for millennia, there has a maturation diet containing W. somnifera, been relatively little research into the use of Mucuna pruita, Ferula asafoetida and Piper medicinal plants in aquaculture. longum extracts (Babu, 1999). Standardisation is an issue when the whole Currently, several hatcheries around plant or herb is used during the extraction procthe world are using the herbal extract mix ess. Moreover, in many countries including the NutraBrood Enhance specifically designed to United States, Australia and the EU, the same boost and modulate the hormonal system herbal and plant extracts approved for use in in aquatic animals. The herbal extracts are human naturopathy and herbal medicine are used with out-of-season broodstock and/or treated as drugs when used in aquaculture. species with fertilization and gonadal developThis means herbal remedies have to be ment problems such as groupers (low sperm registered, a process that can take years, motility and volume) and many other species and costing hundreds of thousands or even (Table 2). millions of dollars. A review of this legislation Another commercial semi-moist matura- needs to be carried out, taking into account tion diet, NutraFeed, that included herbal the benefits of herbal remedies over currently extracts was fed to P. vanamei, resulting in a used chemotherapeutic agents. more than 40 percent increase in total nauplii Herbal extracts can be used not only produced, with a 44 percent reduction in as remedies, but even moreso as growth mortality compared to the normal fresh feed promoters, stress resistance boosters and preand nutritional boosters used (Kolkovski et ventatives for infections. Therefore, the use of al., 2013). Similar results were found with the herbal extracts as feed additives can significantly Black tiger prawn P. monodon (Kolkovski et benefit any organism reared under intensive al., 2010). conditions. Legislation needs to be reviewed and the use of herbal extracts as feed additives allowed. Conclusion The development of drug-resistant pathogens has been reported from all areas of aquaculture. Treating microbial infections in fish and crustaceans involves dissolving high quantities of broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agents in the culture medium, or supplying it in the food. Most of these antibiotics and drugs are now banned for use in the EU, United States and many other countries. Natural plant products present a viable alternative to antibiotics and other banned drugs, being safer for the reared organism and humans, as well as for the environment. Authorities should review the current legislation regarding the use of herbal and natural remedies in aquaculture, taking the above issues into consideration and allowing more flexibility in the use of herbal medicine in aquaculture. November-December 2013 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 37 More InforMatIon: Website: www.nutrakol.com
  7. 7. LINKS This digital re-print is part of the November | December 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. • See the full issue I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y Animal co-product hydrolysates: • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed – a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients: – an update Pellet distribution modelling: – a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 6 2 0 1 3 - N oV e m B e R | D e C e m B e R To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk