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Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how it's feed is managed.

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  1. 1. September | October 2012 EXPERT TOPIC - SHRIMP International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. EXPERT T●PICSHRIMP EXPERT TOPIC Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed. 28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  3. 3. EXPERT T●PIC 2 11 Vietnamese and his team, the causative agent of EMS remains unknown. The EMS research team at the University of Arizona isStakeholders putting strong effort to determine the cause of this disease based on different approaches.discuss early To find an answer to the common EMS threat, shrimp stakeholders should group their effort to tackle the issue.mortality Research will be carried out to get more knowledge on the disease and try to identify the responsible microorgan-shrimp disease ism and/or possible toxicants in the environment that may be associated with this disease. The further step of EMS research to be carried out by theby Adrien Louyer, Technical Arizona team is to find viable solutionsSupervisor Aquaculture, Olmix, to prevent or reduce the risk of EMS inVietnamO shrimp farming. n August 6, 2012, Olmix To fully achieve program objectives, was the sponsor of a dinner quick and strong financial support is for Shrimp Vietnamese needed. Stakeholders to discuss the The following companies werenewly emerging disease early mortality in present at the dinner CP, Minh Phu Seashrimp (EMS) or more descriptively, the food, Proconco, Sunjin vina feed, HuyAcute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome Director of the OIE reference Laboratory of Thuan, Skretting and Evialis. I would like to(AHPNS). The disease is significant to China Aquaculture Pathology at the University of thank Dr Lightner and Mr. Loc Tran to haveand Southeast Asian shrimp farming coun- Arizona. His current research area is on EMS joined our dinner and helped me to writetries including Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, disease. the article.and Thailand. In Vietnam alone, EMS caused The dinner was an opportunity fordirect losses of over $250 million in 2011. Vietnamese feed millers and research insti- tutes to have an open discussion with Dr. More InforMatIon: Prof. Donald V. Lightner, from University Lightner on EMS disease. On the side of this To help fund the EMS projectof Arizona, was invited as a key speaker. He discussion, shrimp sensitivity to mycotoxins Dr. Donald V. Lightneris a prominent expert of aquaculture pathol- was presented including a presentation of dvl@u.arizona.eduogy, especially in penaeid shrimp diseases. He MTX+, the Olmix answer based on activated Mr. Loc Tran thuuloc@email.arizona.eduhas been involved in penaeid shrimp diseases clay with seaweeds to deal with it. Website: www.olmix.comfor over 40 years and currently being the After extensive research from Dr Lightner September-october 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29
  4. 4. 2 EXPERT T●PICProductionof shrimp inan indoorfarming all feed pellets interact with shrimp moving sources and a carbon source into biofloc protein system with around in the tank. Bioflocs requires a lot of oxygen and results in a build-up of bioflocs because of poor conversion of those biofloc proteins into shrimp biomass. Then bio-bioflocs Shrimp are filter feeders and are able to benefit from bioflocs in the water. In a shrimp farming system with bioflocs, flocs have to removed from the system. Another strategy is to use a normal protein feed, which corresponds with the protein requirement of several strategies are possible. Utilization of a low shrimp. When using a feed with a protein content of by Eric De Muylder, CreveTec, belgium protein feed and addition of a carbon source 30 percent, the carbon: nitrogen ratio is around 10. F results in very low levels of ammonia, because With a feed conversion of 1,5, around 35 percent eed management in extensive and they are assimilated by the bioflocs and converted of proteins are converted into shrimp biomass and semi-intensive shrimp farming into proteins. Typically, these systems have a 20 ù of the Carbon. This means that the faeces systems is not optimal to obtain carbon: nitrogen ratio of over 20. However, of shrimp, fed with a diet containing 38 percent the best results. Feeding frequency the conversion of ammonia and other nitrogen proteins, will result in a carbon: ration of 10. is limited to four or six times per day. The feed is spread over the whole pond which is labor-intensive. There is an important period between feeding and actual con-sumption by the shrimp, which results in leaching of important nutrients and feed quality loss. This is caused by the low density of shrimp in the ponds and the shrimp can only find the fed by chemical attraction, which take time. The feeding affects the water quality parameters in the ponds. An oxygen drop is observed after feeding. A continuous feeding will result in a more continuous water quality and less stress for the shrimp. Often shrimp are not fed at night to avoid low oxygen, which results in important loss of potential C100: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at normal feeding giftgrowth. C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) In intensive farming, the natural produc- Water quality for C100, C80 and C60 was maintained by continuously changingtion of the tank is represented by bioflocs. water which was filtered with a protein skimmer and biofilterThese bioflocs directly interfere with the C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) andwater quality. Intensive farming also allows bioflocs are added to maintain water qualitythe mechanization of feeding without extra C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) and bioflocs are added to maintain water qualitylabor. Feed consumption is facilitated because 30 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  5. 5. C L E A N C O N T R O LSwivel Valve Cooler MkIINo hollow spaces | No cross contaminationExcellent cleaning access | Filtered air inletTemperature control | Moisture control | Cleaning in Place cool and dry clean and leanGeelen Counterflow info@geelencounterflow.comHolland / USA / Argentina / China T +31-475-592315
  6. 6. EXPERT T●PIC The excess ammonia will then be converted into nitrite and nitrate by nitrifying bacteria present in the bioflocs. But these nitrates will accumulate into the culture tanks and reduces the possibility to re-use this water for future production cycles. This nitrification also decreases the pH, which makes it necessary to adjust pH regularly. To solve this problem, a new system was developed with two additions: a meiofauna-protecting sub- strate to favor the conversion of bacterial biofloc into digestible meiofauna and a central bioreactor with the possibility of denitrification. The denitrifi- cation can use the carbon present in the shrimp faeces as energy source to remove nitrate and produce alkalinity. This way, the nitrate level can be controlled. Influence of biofloc presence on growth The positive influence of biofloc presence in the water column has been shown. A trial was set up to evaluate if bioflocs could replace some of the feeds. The results show that C100 was the opti- mal feeding gift. C80 showed a slight reduced growth while C60 had a reduced growth. However, the best results were clearly obtained in the presence of bioflocs. There was no difference at 60 or 80 percent feeding. This means that the presence of bioflocs can reduce the feeding gift by 40 percent and still result in better growth. A growth trial with vannamei and mono- don confirmed that a fast growth could be obtained in an intensive system. Based on these results a pilot scale farm was installed in Italy. This system is based on the following principles: • There is no exchange of water but removal of a limited quantity of bioflocs is necessary • Water is recuperated for the next cycle • Control of biofloc density for optimal growth and optimal nutrient composition • Efficient aeration • Continuous, automatic feeding • Phase growing for optimal utilization of culture water volume • Possibility for partial harvesting Conclusions The combination of shrimp farming and bioflocs makes it possible to grow shrimp in an indoor farm, without water exchange. Even though this farming system is more intensive, it doesnt not have the disadvantages that could be expected. On the contrary, intensive farming enables more efficient feeding, keep- ing the optimal temperature and oxygen level. The presence of bioflocs can replace the natural production based on an algal system that is found in open ponds. More inforMation: A growth trial with vannamei and monodon confirmed that a fast growth Email: could be obtained in an intensive system. Website: 32 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  7. 7. FEATURE EXPERT T●PIC VII FERIA INTERNACIONAL DE ACUICULTURA 10 al 13 de octubre Puerto Montt - Chile take your production to the TOP of the aquafOOd chain. Many leading aquafeed manufacturers in the industry count on Extru-Tech to engineer the perfect aquafeed production solution. Industry leading equipment and engineered Innovative and proven production advantages will give you the yeast products upper hand over the competition. Could in aquaculture r- you use a cost effective improvement in e performance and finished product quality? Consistent products supported byer Contact one of the aquafeed Consultants the Lesaffre group experience and it its unique know-how in biotechnologyal at extru-tech today at 785-284-2153. and nutrition; is of Selected strains and controlled production; is nt 40 18.000 1.000 70.000 Designed to solve nutritionalay países visitantes empresas m2 de recinto and sanitary issues;r t o Dedicated range of products: live yeast, yeast cell wall, yeast extracta- EVENTO SOLO PARA MAYORES DE 18 AÑOS and enriched yeast. d SISTEMA DE REGISTRO ON-LINE FREE pAss d On-line registration system e AuspICIAN CONTACTO COMERCIAL María Paz · Corporate offiCe P.O. Box 8 • 100 Airport Road Tel. (56-2) 756-5402 · Cel. (56-9) 9547-7589 rformance Wellbeing, the source of pe Sabetha, KS 66534, USA ® Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143 ORGANIZA For more information: Empresa Integrante del Grupo Editorial Editec InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 13 ET-221A.indd 1 1/20/12 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 33 September-October 20121:57 PM
  8. 8. 3 EXPERT T●PICAlternativesto natural of fresh and frozen marine organisms usually results in high reproductive performances for both domesticated and wild caught brood-food? stock shrimp. However, this practice is far from ideal, exposing the cultured animals to several major used them differently resulting in high fluc- tuation in FCRs and performances between farmers, regions and countries culturing the - Maturation diets for shrimp issues - same species. Biosecurity: Fresh and frozen food organ- Water quality: In many cases high water isms can, potentially, become transferring vec- flow is needed following feeding of fresh/ by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski & tor for different pathogens and diseases. This frozen food organisms. In many cases daily Judith Kolkovski, ND is more so when crustaceans are been used (or even few times during the day) siphon- (Coman et al., 2006). Although, recognised ing is essential to keep good water quality I for their contribution to the maturation proc- and tank hygiene. This is obviously labour- n recent years, shrimp culture has ess through supplementing maturation hor- intensive task that might also affect the become one of the most important mones and other nutrients, the importation brood animals. aquaculture industries in the world. of crustaceans such as Artemia was banned in Domestication: It is commonly accepted Current production levels reach over several countries in an attempt to reduce the that wild broodstock shrimp needs fresh/fro-three million tonnes per year, corresponding risk of disease transfer. zen food organisms. For example, Conan et to a market volume of over US$10 billion Similarly, in many countries the use of al., 2006 raised the hypotheseis whether the (FAO 2008). shrimp heads or shrimp meal in maturation removal of crustacean component from the diets was banned.. It is not known if non-crus- maturation diet for domesticated P. monodon However, even with this expansion in the tacean organisms can transmit shrimp viruses broodstock has contributed to the brood-production there are some unknowns. such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) stock low performances. One of the problems with shrimp (and and yellow head virus (YHV) or others but Considering the cost of broodstock (espe-other crustacean) culture is broodstock diets due to their origin, post harvest methods and cially ‘SPF’), these are serious risks and in and nutrition. storage, they are all prone to become a vector many cases resulting in high mortality and/ Currently, most, if not all, hatcheries for other pathogens. or reduced productivity, leading to significant around the world use fresh or frozen, unproc- Nutritional profile: Due to the fact that financial loss. essed marine organisms as food items. These fresh/frozen food organisms are been caught Until now, shrimp broodstock fed matura-include squid, various molluscs (mussels, oys- in the wild, their nutritional profile varied. tion-formulated diet, pelleted or extruded did ters or clams), marine polychates, crustaceans Season, location, life cycle, pre and post not match the performances of animals fed on such as shrimp (Peixoto et al., 2004; Preston harvesting methods can and will affect their fresh/frozen food (Wouters et al., 2002. Braga et al., 2004, Coman et al., 2006) and Artemia nutritional profile. This inconsistency in the et al., 2010). Formulated diets tend to break biomass (Anh et al., 2008, Gandy et al., 2007). quality and nutritional profile makes it hard down due to the unique feeding behaviour These feeds are usually topped up with nutri- to standardise protocols even within the of the animals, resulting in polluted water tional additives such as vitamins, minerals and same company. Different countries and even and very high FCR. Moreover, palatability and fatty acids (Hoa et al., 2009). regions within a country will have different ingestion rates are usually low. Even using the Maturation diets based on the combination access to fresh/frozen food organisms and will same food organisms as dry meals in formu- table 1: Comparison between traditional (control) fresh/frozen food and formulated semi-moist diet nauplii/ treatment Days %Mort/day avg. Sr/day total spawns egg/Female Female % Hatch total nauplii Control 124 0.09 3.34% 602 179,364 154,364 86 92,860,000 nutraFeed 124 0.05 4.74 849 186,266 160,188 86 136,000,000 Difference 44.4% 29.5% 29.1% 3.7% 3.7% 0% 46.5% 34 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  9. 9. EXPERT T●PIC lated diets didn’t result in similar performances as when fresh/frozen organisms were given. Recently, a new maturation diet (NutraFeed®) for crustaceans that can completely replace the use of fresh/frozen feed was developed. The diet is semi-moist (around 30-35% moist) and manufactured as short pellets at any length and diameter needed. The diet is stable in the water for 24 hours and will not break down when the The diet was also used with domesti- shrimp is holding and chewing it. cated P. monodon broodstock in Australia NutraFeed® diets are based solely on dry with remarkable results. This is a significant meals without any fresh or frozen products. achievement since it is known that P. mono- They are certified as pathogen free (all ingre- don are particularly picky with their diet and dients pass Gamma radiation) with a shelf life feeding them solely on formulated diet used of six months (refrigerated) or 12 months to be challenging, not to mention, achieving (frozen). To boost the hormonal cycle, herbal similar or better performances. extracts (NutraGreen® products) are incor- Currently the diet is been used in sev- porated into the diets. These are 100 percent eral commercial hatcheries in Thailand, India Hoa, N. D., Wouters, R., Wille, R., Thanh, V., Dong, natural additives aimed at improving brood- and Malaysia and the company is up-scaling the T. K., Hao, N. V., and Sorgeloos, P. 2009. A fresh- stock performance including; enhancing egg production. food maturation diet with an adequate HUFA and larvae quality, sperm mortality, vitellogen- composition for broodstock nutrition studies in esis, as well as immune system and digestive References black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, system support. 1798). Aquaculture, 297, 116-121. Anh, N.T. N., Hoa, N.V.,Van Stappen, G., and Sorgeloos, Initially these natural herbal additives were P 2008. Effect of different supplemental feeds on . Peixoto, S., Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Crocos, P.J., developed as natural hormonal replacements proximate composition and Artemia biomass Preston, N.P., 2005. Histological examination of for woman during IVF treatments and during production in salt ponds. Aquaculture, 286, 217-225. final oocyte maturation and atresia in wild and menopause period. domesticated Penaeus monodon broodstock. Braga, A. L., Nakayama, C. L., Martins, J. G., Colares, Aquac. Res. 36, 666–673. E. P., and Wasielesky, W. Jr. 2010. Spermatophore Large experiment quality of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus Preston, N.P., Crocos, P.J., Keys, S.J, Coman, G.J., To compare the performances of the paulensis (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata) Koenig, R., 2004. Comparative growth of selected maturation diet against traditional fresh/frozen broodstock fed with different maturation diets. and non-selected Kuruma shrimp Penaeus food organism, a large experiment was con- Aquaculture, 307, 44-48. (Marsupenaeus) japonicus in commercial farm ducted independently by one of the biggest ponds. Aquaculture 231, 73–82. Coman, G. J., Arnold, S. J., Callaghan, T. R., and Preston, shrimp producers in the world. The results N. P. 2006. Effect of two maturation diet combinations (see Table 1) showed significant performance on reproductive performance of domesticated improvements when the broodstock fed on Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 263, 75-83. NutraFeed® semi-moist diet. About the authors Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Peixoto, S., Coman, F.E., Moreover, using the semi-moist diet also Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the Principal Crocos, P.J., Preston, N.P., 2006. Reproductive proved to be cost effective compared to scientist, marine aquaculture, at the performance of reciprocally crossed wild-caught traditional diets. Two hundred white shrimp Department of Fisheries, western and tank reared Penaeus monodon broodstock. L. vannamei were fed control diet (squid, Aquaculture 252, 372–384. Australia. He is also the R&D director at polychates and nutritional booster) or Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Judith Kolkovski, ND NutraFeed® SM diet. The broodstock were Gandy, R. L., Samocha, T. M., Masser, M. P., Fox, J. M., is a nutritionist and herbalist and the Ali, S. A. M., Gatlin III, D. M., and Speed, M. 2007. kept in identical tanks and under the same general manager of Nutrakol Pty Ltd. The effect of unilateral eyestalk ablation and diet environmental conditions. Growth, mortali- Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in devel- on the reproductive performance of wild-caught ties, spawning events, fecundity, hatching rates Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) using a closed oping and manufacturing nutritional and and number of nauplii were determined over recirculating maturation system. Aquac. Res. 38, natural health solutions for aquaculture. 124 days. 580–587. Nu tBetter Performance Ko Nutrattract - natural feed attractant Better Fecundity Th Nutrafeed - Crustacean semi-moist maturation diet Nutra-Kol Pty Ltd of Better stress resistance Western Australia, Australia coll K Nutragreen - natural herbal remedies Tel: +61 8 9403 2287 Fax: +61 8 9403 2287 Naturally... Email: T ‘Tailor--made’ Nutrition and natural health solutions for broodstock and larvaeNutroKol_190x58mm.indd 1 01/10/2012 12:43 September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 35
  10. 10. This digital re-print is part of the September | October 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on Vo l u m e 1 5 I s s u e 5 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: • Visit the International Aquafeed website – enhancing digestion in a different manner Fishmeal & fish oil – and its role in sustainable aquaculture • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy • Subscribe to International Aquafeed resources for aquafeed EXPERT TOPIC – Shrimpthe international magazine for the aquaculture feed industryTo purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE