Andrew Charlesworth Director, Centre for IT & Law IPR and Research Data CRASSH, University of Cambridge 02 February 2011
Intellectual Property Law <ul><li>Intellectual property rights (IPRs) allow individuals to claim and exercise rights in th...
Copyright in the UK <ul><li>UK primary legislation - Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1998) as amended. </li>...
Copyright in the UK 2 <ul><li>UK copyright law  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protects ‘expressions of ideas’ not ‘ideas’ </li></u...
Copyright in the UK 3 <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the original owner of © in a given work is usually the perso...
Copyright in the UK 4 <ul><li>Several copyrights may subsist simultaneously in a single item </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A song ...
Copyright in the UK 5 <ul><li>A rightsholder has the exclusive right to do certain things with their work - making a copy,...
Permitted Acts <ul><li>There are things that you can do with a © work without the rightholder’s permission, e.g. </li></ul...
The Creative Commons <ul><li>Creative Commons Licences are © licences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work can only be CC licensed ...
Assignment and licensing out <ul><li>If you wish to let third parties use your copyright work you can :  </li></ul><ul><ul...
Enforcement of Copyright <ul><li>The primary remedies under UK law are civil remedies e.g. injunctions and damages  </li><...
Research data issues <ul><li>Is the research data capable of protection by copyright? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. some rese...
Research project issues <ul><li>Legal risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of rights and IPR strategy – e.g. relati...
Case Study 1 –Preservation <ul><li>Interactive BBC videodiscs to celebrate 900th anniversary of original Domesday Book – i...
Case Study 2 – Digitisation <ul><li>BioMed Image Archive at Bristol University </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation project - bi...
Case Study 3 – Web Archiving <ul><li>JISC & Wellcome Trust Web Archiving Study  </li></ul><ul><li>Broad overview of legal ...
Case Study 4 - User Generated Content <ul><li>Digital Lives project - personal digital collections  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
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'IPR and Research Data' (Andrew Charlesworth)

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  • Fair dealing (Berne): 1. the limitation or exception can only apply in certain special cases; 2. the limitation or exception must not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work; and 3. the limitation or exception must not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.
  • Attribution=you must attribute the author and/or licensor in the manner they require. NonCommercial=you may not use the work in a manner primarily directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation. NoDerivatives=you may only make verbatim copies of the work, you may not adapt or change it. ShareAlike=you may only make derivative works if you license them under the same Creative Commons license terms.
  • 'IPR and Research Data' (Andrew Charlesworth)

    1. 1. Andrew Charlesworth Director, Centre for IT & Law IPR and Research Data CRASSH, University of Cambridge 02 February 2011
    2. 2. Intellectual Property Law <ul><li>Intellectual property rights (IPRs) allow individuals to claim and exercise rights in their creative and innovative works </li></ul><ul><li>Some IPRs are well known (if poorly understood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copyright, patent, designs, and trademark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others are known primarily to specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trade secrets, geographical indications, semiconductor chip topography rights, plant varieties and performers rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A work may be protected by several IPRs. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Copyright in the UK <ul><li>UK primary legislation - Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1998) as amended. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ipo.gov.uk/cdpact1988.pdf (324 pages) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Works covered include: literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works, sound recordings, broadcasts, films, published editions </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright has been expanded (often controversially) to cover new types of works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer programs – UK Copyright (Computer Programs) Regulations 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases – UK Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Copyright in the UK 2 <ul><li>UK copyright law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protects ‘expressions of ideas’ not ‘ideas’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires that the work be ‘original’ and created in a permanent form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not require formal registration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration of © protection varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary works (inc. software) = author’s life + 70 years; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound recordings/broadcasts = 50 years from end of year created or 50 years from end of year first released. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases = 15 years, but may be renewed if substantial change to database </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Copyright in the UK 3 <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the original owner of © in a given work is usually the person who created it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT there are exceptions e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>© in works created in the course of employment - the employer (issue of what is ‘in the course of’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>© in a sound recording or film - the person who made the arrangements for its creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>© in a computer-generated literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work - the person who made the arrangements for its creation. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Copyright in the UK 4 <ul><li>Several copyrights may subsist simultaneously in a single item </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A song - the words may be © as a literary work, the music may be © as a musical work, sheet music may be © as a typographical arrangement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These ©s might be held by different people, and might have different commencement and expiry dates. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Copyright in the UK 5 <ul><li>A rightsholder has the exclusive right to do certain things with their work - making a copy, public performance, broadcasting - ‘bundle of rights’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These rights can be assigned, licensed, inherited etc. as a bundle, or as individual rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>© infringement occurs when you copy a work (or a substantial part of a work) without authority of the © holder (unless legally permitted – fair dealing). </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing of © is common – the rightsholder grants permission to others to do certain things with the work, but retains overall control of it – lawful use of work is conditional on obeying the licence terms. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Permitted Acts <ul><li>There are things that you can do with a © work without the rightholder’s permission, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair dealing – such as purposes of non-commercial research, private study, criticism and review. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain uses in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain uses by librarians or archivists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These exceptions are very tightly constructed and construed. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Fair dealing is probably the most misunderstood and misused term in © </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Creative Commons <ul><li>Creative Commons Licences are © licences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work can only be CC licensed by rightsholder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can’t be used to prevent © exceptions - fair dealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can’t be used to protect things not protected by © - ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons licenses are non-revocable. </li></ul><ul><li>Works under a Creative Commons licence must be used by licencees in accordance with its terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Key CC terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution, NonCommercial, NoDerivatives and ShareAlike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CC licences can vary considerably in scope. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assignment and licensing out <ul><li>If you wish to let third parties use your copyright work you can : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign the rights in the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an ad hoc licence between yourself and the users of your copyright work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a licence for particular works on a case-by-case basis from a collective licensing agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a blanket licence enabling access to a range of works under a fixed set of terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit use under a Creative Commons licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicate the copyright work to the public domain </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Enforcement of Copyright <ul><li>The primary remedies under UK law are civil remedies e.g. injunctions and damages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many infringements are inadvertent – infringer is unaware of © in a work, or ignorant of © generally - they are still potentially liable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The burden of proof in a civil case is lower than a criminal case - balance of probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a case goes to court legal action tends to be both lengthy and costly (and poor PR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: 1 st rule of litigation - don’t sue poor people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: unless the client wants to prove a point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Universities aren’t perceived as poor. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Research data issues <ul><li>Is the research data capable of protection by copyright? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. some research data may simply fail to qualify. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If it can be copyrighted, who owns it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the researcher, the researcher’s employer, other third parties, joint ownership with others? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If third parties have rights in the data, what rights do you have to use them? </li></ul><ul><li>If you’ve licensed rights in, have you licensed all the rights that you need to carry out the research, disseminate the results and where necessary archive the research data. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Research project issues <ul><li>Legal risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of rights and IPR strategy – e.g. relationship with publishers, sponsors etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-party projects – prior agreements on IPR e.g. consortium agreement – ownership, sharing, reuse </li></ul><ul><li>If using 3 rd party IPRs, document terms of use for each work – assignment, licence or other – rights register </li></ul><ul><li>If archiving data ensure that IPR information is included for archivists to guide permissible reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Where possible, attach IPR information to digital works as metadata. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Case Study 1 –Preservation <ul><li>Interactive BBC videodiscs to celebrate 900th anniversary of original Domesday Book – info. about how Britain in 1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulation of software to preserve the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying of works held in original videodiscs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright in software and other works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to legally copy for preservation </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Case Study 2 – Digitisation <ul><li>BioMed Image Archive at Bristol University </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation project - biomedical images </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing IPRs required for archiving and dissemination of images & allowing educational use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining warranties and indemnifications to shield the University of Bristol, from unnecessary liabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing sufficient and accurate info. from the depositor to create adequate metadata to describe the image, and ensure its proper use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing data protection and confidentiality issues in subject matter of the images and in descriptive metadata </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Case Study 3 – Web Archiving <ul><li>JISC & Wellcome Trust Web Archiving Study </li></ul><ul><li>Broad overview of legal issues of concern to web archivists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National laws on legal deposit of digital materials; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property laws, esp. copyright; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defamation law , esp. libel law; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy law, esp. data protection law; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content liability laws, esp. obscenity/indecency laws. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Case Study 4 - User Generated Content <ul><li>Digital Lives project - personal digital collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how modern PDCs are created, managed, and made accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to select, describe, preserve and provide access to PDCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impacts of legislation, confidentiality and professional ethics on PDCs and the implications for their dissemination, or acquisition by repositories. </li></ul></ul>

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