Copyright and Intellectual Property David Dawson Director Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society With thanks...
Wiltshire Archaeological and  Natural History Society <ul><li>museum, library, archive, publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Indepe...
Our Collections ...
Digital Collections <ul><li>Images on collections database </li></ul><ul><li>Video on YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Images on ...
Previously on ... <ul><li>Used to work at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDA (Collections Trust) – trained people in documenting ph...
COPYRIGHT BASICS <ul><li>It is much more complicated than this, but this is bad enough ... </li></ul>
Basics - 1 <ul><li>Copyright exists when a work is created – it does not need to be stated or registered </li></ul><ul><ul...
Basics - 2 <ul><li>Copyright last for 70 years after the death of the creator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or 70 years after comm...
© Tim Padfield - see www.collectionslink.org.uk
Basics - 3 <ul><li>Moral rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator has a right to be identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crea...
Basics - 4 <ul><li>A work may have multiple rights </li></ul><ul><li>Film is a nightmare – each element has its own copyri...
Grey Area <ul><li>If you scan something that is out-of-copyright, you can argue that you create a new ‘artistic work’ and ...
CREATING CONTENT <ul><li>That’s the hard part over! </li></ul>
We are all pirates ... <ul><li>Most of us are breaking the law all the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning a photo </li></...
Digitisation projects <ul><li>You need to understand who owns the copyright of everything you want to digitise </li></ul><...
So you know the creator! <ul><li>Congratulations! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either pay them a reproduction fee </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Make plenty of time to clear rights – it takes longer than you think! </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources for rig...
Orphan works <ul><li>Where you do not know the creator </li></ul><ul><li>Where you do not know who are their heirs </li></...
Manage the risk <ul><li>Demonstrate your good faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show you have done your best to seek permission ...
MAKING LIFE EASY FOR YOUR USERS
Make it easy for your users <ul><li>Tell them how they CAN use your content </li></ul><ul><li>Licencing </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Provides a range of licences for different uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow commercial use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
COPYRIGHT AND US ...
Flickr
 
 
Further information <ul><li>Collections Link - good basic information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.collectionslink.org.uk </l...
Funny YouTube video about US copyright law created by splicing together short Disney clips  
[email_address] No copyright holders have suffered economic  harm in the making of this presentation
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Copyright for Still Images

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Copyright presentation from JISC Digital Media seminar on 15th September by David Dawson

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Copyright for Still Images

  1. 1. Copyright and Intellectual Property David Dawson Director Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society With thanks to Naomi Korn Copyright Consultancy for advice, but any errors are mine!
  2. 2. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society <ul><li>museum, library, archive, publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only £35,000 in public funding ... </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Our Collections ...
  4. 4. Digital Collections <ul><li>Images on collections database </li></ul><ul><li>Video on YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Images on Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Newspaper scanning project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsored by Document Control Services </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Previously on ... <ul><li>Used to work at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDA (Collections Trust) – trained people in documenting photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member of Libraries and Archived Copyright Alliance and Museum Copyright Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took part in Intellectual Property Office consultations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke to All-Party Parliamentary IT Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advised DCMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represented UK in Europe on Orphan Works initiative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT BASICS <ul><li>It is much more complicated than this, but this is bad enough ... </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basics - 1 <ul><li>Copyright exists when a work is created – it does not need to be stated or registered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly different rules apply to literary and artistic works ... (as well as typography, moving images, music etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright belongs to the creator except </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the creator is employed under the PAYE scheme and creates the work in the course of their employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the creator signs away their copyright </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Basics - 2 <ul><li>Copyright last for 70 years after the death of the creator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or 70 years after commercial publication by a company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or 50 (or 125) years for Crown Copyright, 50 for sound recordings, 25 for typography etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession is NOT 9 / 10 of the Law! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It doesn’t matter if you own the photo, painting, film etc etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. © Tim Padfield - see www.collectionslink.org.uk
  10. 10. Basics - 3 <ul><li>Moral rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator has a right to be identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator has a right to object if their work is used in ways that they would not approve of </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Basics - 4 <ul><li>A work may have multiple rights </li></ul><ul><li>Film is a nightmare – each element has its own copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Script </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc etc </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Grey Area <ul><li>If you scan something that is out-of-copyright, you can argue that you create a new ‘artistic work’ and therefore create a new copyright </li></ul><ul><li>The US Courts do not agree with this but should agree that if you carefully light an object to photograph it, then this is an ‘artistic work’ and subject to copyright </li></ul>
  13. 13. CREATING CONTENT <ul><li>That’s the hard part over! </li></ul>
  14. 14. We are all pirates ... <ul><li>Most of us are breaking the law all the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning a photo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading a picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning a CD to MP3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We could all be sued ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But damages should be related to the economic harm done to the rightsholder </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Digitisation projects <ul><li>You need to understand who owns the copyright of everything you want to digitise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who created the work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When did they die? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were they employed by your organisation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did they sign over their copyright? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For many things in your collection, you won’t know the answers! </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. So you know the creator! <ul><li>Congratulations! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either pay them a reproduction fee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or ask them nicely ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome will depend upon the material, economic value, nature of the project etc </li></ul><ul><li>There might be a Collecting Society – they collect a standard fee and redistribute to rightsholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg PRS for playing recorded music </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Make plenty of time to clear rights – it takes longer than you think! </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources for rights clearance (staff time and salaries, administration costs and potential rights clearance fees </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the range of rights which will require clearance, and for how long the rights will be needed </li></ul><ul><li>Record this information on a rights management database </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out an IPR risk assessment, prioritise high risks and incorporate risk mitigation strategies into project planning </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize how the material will be reproduced and any other treatment (i.e. interaction, manipulation and alteration) </li></ul><ul><li>Compile a list of the various ways in which the material will be used now and in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Identify rights holders and request permissions to reproduce the material in the ways that you require (including the terms under which you wish to make it accessible). </li></ul><ul><li>Request permission in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Use, if necessary, different types of licences according to your rights holders </li></ul>Rights Clearance Checklist Information from Naomi Korn Copyright Consultancy
  18. 18. Orphan works <ul><li>Where you do not know the creator </li></ul><ul><li>Where you do not know who are their heirs </li></ul><ul><li>5-10% of works in collections are Orphans </li></ul><ul><li>Only answer – ‘due diligence’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate that you have tried to trace them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep copies of letters, advertise locally, advertise on your website etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WATCH File http://tyler.hrc.utexas.edu/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance developed at a European level and agreed with publishers (see SCA in further info) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Manage the risk <ul><li>Demonstrate your good faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show you have done your best to seek permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask rightsholder to tell you if a work is theirs and offer to remove immediately while you check and do a deal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are you going to make real money from the project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be explicit about non-profit / educational use </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. MAKING LIFE EASY FOR YOUR USERS
  21. 21. Make it easy for your users <ul><li>Tell them how they CAN use your content </li></ul><ul><li>Licencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will depend upon the content you have and what agreements you have made for your project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can only licence the content you own or have negotiated a licence for </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Provides a range of licences for different uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow commercial use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow modifications? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow others to share their modifications? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human, lawyer and machine-readable versions of the licences </li></ul><ul><li>Used by Flickr, Wikipedia etc </li></ul>
  23. 23. COPYRIGHT AND US ...
  24. 24. Flickr
  25. 27. Further information <ul><li>Collections Link - good basic information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.collectionslink.org.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Content Alliance – full toolkit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://sca.jiscinvolve.org/ipr-publications/ </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Funny YouTube video about US copyright law created by splicing together short Disney clips 
  27. 29. [email_address] No copyright holders have suffered economic harm in the making of this presentation

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