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IAAG Africa Regional Conference - Dr Alex Kalache Robert Butler Mermorial Presentation

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ILC South Africa together with the Institute of Ageing in Africa at the University of Cape Town co organised the AFRICA AGEING Conference, held in Cape Town, South Africa on 17-20 October 2012.

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IAAG Africa Regional Conference - Dr Alex Kalache Robert Butler Mermorial Presentation

  1. 1. International Longevity CentreRobert Butler Memorial LectureThe Longevity Revolution withinthe African context: opportunity and challenge. Cape Town, October - 2012 Alexandre Kalache President - International Longevity Centre - Brazil Senior Policy Advisor on Global Ageing, New York Academy of Medicine HelpAge International Global Ambassador
  2. 2. BOB BUTLER
  3. 3. AGEISM______________ The Longevity Revolution
  4. 4. Revolution”A radical and pervasivechange in society and thesocial structure”
  5. 5. LongevityWorldwide, life expectancy at birth hasincreased by 30 years over the last century
  6. 6. The reality though is that theLongevity Revolution has yet to happen in Africa.
  7. 7. Proportion of 65 + 2010 2020Angola 2.9 3.1Botswana 3.9 4.5Chad 2.9 3.1Ghana 3.6 4.0South Africa 5.5 7.4Italy 20.3 23.1Japan 22.6 28.3 US Census Bureau 2012
  8. 8. However, more than everOlder Persons in Africa areplaying a crucial role in their societies.
  9. 9. Moreover, there is hope and opportunity for Africa toprepare itself to the Longevity Revolution.
  10. 10. What a privileged time we live in…shaping a society for all ages to face the Longevity Revolution
  11. 11. Who?There are many contributors to this reshaping – in particular: US !
  12. 12. Us - Baby Boomers
  13. 13. The emergence of a new transition.
  14. 14. Gerontolescence Changing roles…yesterday’s Adolescents – today’s Gerontolescents
  15. 15. The difference is that whileadolescence lasts for 4 or 5years, gerontolescence will last for 2, 3 decades.
  16. 16. And once again Butler was ahead of the pack!
  17. 17. Re-inventing the Life Course
  18. 18. Life Course today (man)
  19. 19. Life Course future (woman)
  20. 20. Foundations to face the Longevity Revolution
  21. 21. Frames are mental structures that shape the way we see the world: The WHO Active Ageing Framework
  22. 22. Active Ageing A Policy Framework
  23. 23. WHO definition of Active Ageing The process of optimising theopportunities for health, life-long learning, participationand security in order to enhance quality of life as individuals age
  24. 24. The determinants of Active Ageing
  25. 25. The Life Course perspective
  26. 26. ‘The Life Course approach offers an interdisciplinaryconceptual framework to guide research and policies in relation to health, human development and ageing’
  27. 27. Functional capacity decline Early Life Adult Life Older age Growth and Maintaining highest Maintaining independence and development possible level of preventing disability Functional Capacity function Rang e indiv of functio idual n in s Disability Threshold Rehabilitation and ensuring the quality of life AgeKalache 2011 Fonte: Kalache and Kickbusch, 1997
  28. 28. Functional capacity decline and the impact of interventions Early Life Adult Life Older age Growth and Maintaining highest Maintaining independence and development possible level of function preventing disabilityFunctional Capacity Disability threshold Rehabilitation and ensuring the quality of life Age
  29. 29. Healthy, active olderpersons are resourcesto their families, to theircommunities and to theEconomy.
  30. 30. The need for standard language:• Positive ageing• Healthy ageing• Successful ageing• Vital ageing• Ageing well• Productive ageing• ........................... ACTIVE AGEING
  31. 31. An Ageing WorldPopulation 2000 20252050(in billions)Total 6.0 7.8 8.9Developed countries 1.2 1.2 1.2Developing countries 4.7 6.67.860+ 0.6 1.2 2.0Developed countries 0.2 0.30.3Developing countries 0.4 0.91.7
  32. 32. In Africa, by the year 2050,there will 212 million people aged 60 and over.
  33. 33. Heterogeneous:THE DIVERSITY OF OLD AGE Gender SES Nationality Age group Culture Ethnicity Sexual identity Religion...
  34. 34. More older people throughout the world By 2050 the number of people 60+ living in urban areas of the developing world will be 6 times larger than now.
  35. 35. The contrasts
  36. 36. Enabling environments, physical and social,are urgently needed – andthis urgency also applies to the developing world.
  37. 37. THE AGE FRIENDLY APPROACH
  38. 38. But ... do we need moreAge Friendly societies?
  39. 39. WHO main staircase in Geneva
  40. 40. Enabling environments should not be a preserve of the developed world.
  41. 41. Operationalising theActive Ageing paradigm
  42. 42. The WHO Age Friendly Cities Global Network
  43. 43. What is an Age Friendly City?An urban environmentaccessible and inclusivethat promotesACTIVE AGEINGin all its main pillars: Health, Life-long learning, Participation and Security
  44. 44. The 8 dimensionsfor research and action Transportation Housing Outdoor Spaces & Public Social Buildings ParticipationCommunity Age-FriendlySupport & Cities Respect &Health SocialServices Inclusion Civic Communication Participation & Information & Employment 50
  45. 45. A bottom up approach …Older persons as protagonists
  46. 46. ... but also top downThe need for responses from the public sector
  47. 47. However, age friendly policies are particularly needed at a macro level: From cities to States: Sao Paulo South Australia Andalucía
  48. 48. A Rights-based approach
  49. 49. ... implying:• The Right to Health• The Right to Learn• The Right to Work• The Right to be Protected• The Right to be Insured• The Right to Participate• To have access to services ....as well as...
  50. 50. The Right to StopThe Right to Rest
  51. 51. In developing countries 80%of Older Persons do not have basic incomeOn the whole they are highly productive... and deeply unprotected.
  52. 52. PROTECTIONOlder People as resources to their families, communities and the Economy.The role of non-contributory pensions in, for instance, South Africa and Brazil
  53. 53. The burden of inappropriate, unequal policies:In Brazil, the cost of social security for one million ex-civil servants is 5 times higher than the cost of non-contributory pensions benefitting over 9 million much poorer older persons.In financial terms the cost is over USD 60 billion !
  54. 54. Productive ageing:...”the capacity of an individual or population to serve in a paid employment, in volunteer work or in the family and to keep a certain degree of independence and autonomy for as long as it is possible”... Bob Butler
  55. 55. Productivity should not thoughbe measured only in financial terms. The role of older persons, particularly older women in providing CARE.
  56. 56. The economic argument:In Spain a study conducted in 2002 indicated that 88% of total care to sick individuals took place in the community – mostly by women, particularly older women.Those aged 75-84 devoted 320 minutes/day providing care compared to 23 minutes among women aged 18- 29 or 50 minutes for those aged 30-49. Duran, M (2002)
  57. 57. The need for quality data RESEARCH
  58. 58. Subsidising the NorthCare of older persons in thedeveloped world is, by and large,done by formal and informalcarers from developing countries.
  59. 59. Above all what is needed TO FIGHT... Age discrimination and
  60. 60. SOCIAL EXCLUSIONKalache - Consultorias
  61. 61. SymbolicKalache - Consultorias
  62. 62. InstitutionalKalache - Consultorias
  63. 63. Socio-economicKalache - Consultorias
  64. 64. TerritorialKalache - Consultorias
  65. 65. IdentityKalache - Consultorias
  66. 66. Capital SocialKalache - Consultorias
  67. 67. Socio-politicalKalache - Consultorias
  68. 68. Generavity – Leaving footprints
  69. 69. ‘Moving from a focus on oneself to a focus on a broader social radius… the ability to care for and guide the next generations… mentoring, coaching, guiding, nurturing them’ Erik Erikson
  70. 70. The increasing presence of older persons in an ever moreurbanised andglobal world …
  71. 71. ... reminds that we live in a global village.Therefore we should …
  72. 72. … develop a culture of ageing …Kalache 2011
  73. 73. Planning for Diversity ...
  74. 74. and promoting SOLIDARITYBetween• The rich and the poor• Men and women• All social classes• The developed and the developing worldbut, above all.....
  75. 75. Solidarity between the young and the old

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