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International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES)
ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356
www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 1 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.09-16
www.ijres.org 9 | Page
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
Dr.Ali Hasan
Asstt.Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, F/O- Engineering & Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia
University, Delhi-110025,India,
ABSTRACT :The present work deals with the problem of detection of isomorphism which is frequently
encountered in structural synthesis of kinematic chains. A new method based on theoretic approach, easy to
compute and reliable is suggested in this paper. It is capable of detecting isomorphism in all types of planer
kinematic chains.
I. INTRODUCTION
Over the past several years much work has been reported in the literature on the structural analysis and
synthesis of mechanisms [1-29]. Motives behind these studies range from the desire for an orderly classification
system, to studies of mechanism degree of freedom to the hope of identifying the mechanisms. Methods for the
recognition and identification of a given mechanism’s kinematic structure can be divided into two main
categories, graphical methods based on the visual inspection of various forms of simplified systematic diagrams
and numerical methods many of which are based on the theory of graphs. However, even with the current
numerical methods no efficient generalized method is known which will characterize the given mechanisms by
inspection.
In this paper , a new method to detect isomorphism in mechanisms kinematic chains is presented by
comparing the sum of absolute polynomial coefficient values [JJMP∑ ] and maximum absolute polynomial
coefficient [JJMPmax] of Joint-Joint [JJM]matrix.
II. PROPOSED TEST-BASIS
The kinematic chains are complex chains of combination of binary, ternary and other higher order
links. These links are joined together by simple pin joints. It is the assembly of link/pair combination to form
one or more closed circuits. While considering structural equivalence it is essential to consider type of
links/joints and layout of the links in the assembly. An identification number is assigned to links. Thus a binary
link has a value of two, ternary three, quarter nary four and so on. Link values are used to assigned values to
[JJM] matrix and these are utilized to identify layout of the kinematic chains.
For detecting isomorphism in kinematic chains a [JJM] matrix is determined and characteristic polynomials
[JJMP], composite structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix are compared.
III. THE JOINT-JOINT [JJM] MATRIX.
One possible symbolism for the topology or connectivity of kinematic chain is the link-link form of the
incidence matrix, more properly referred to as the Joint-Joint [JJM] matrix. Once the joints of the chain have
been numbered from 1 to n, the [JJM] matrix is defined as a square matrix of the order n, each row and each
column representing the joint with the corresponding number. The elements of the matrix are then entered as
either zero or type of the link, depending on the absence or presence of a direct kinematic connection between
the joints corresponding to that row and column.
IV. STRUCTURAL INVARIANTS [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax]
Polynomial coefficient values are the characteristic invariants for the chains and mechanisms. Many
investigators have reported co-spectral graph (non-isomorphic graph having same eigen spectrum). But these
eigen spectra (eigen values or polynomial coefficient values) have been determined from (0, 1) adjacency
matrices. The proposed [JJM] matrix provides same set of polynomials of the co-spectral kinematic graph. To
make this [JJM] matrix polynomial spectrum as a powerful single number characteristic index, new composite
= Degree of link or type of link, if joint i is directly connected to joint j
=0, if joint i is not directly connected to joint j
Jij =
------(1)
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 10 | Page
invariants are proposed. These indices are [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix. The polynomial values of
[JJM] matrix are obtained using MATLAB. It is hoped that these invariants are capable of characterizing all
kinematic chains and mechanisms uniquely.
V. ISOMORPHISM
Two basic kinematic chains will be isomorphic if and only if, both the composite invariants [JJMP∑] and
[JJMPmax] are identical respectively. If any set of structural invariants of one matrix of a chain does not match
the corresponding set of structural invariant of the other chain, the two chains will be non-isomorphic. In other
words, the two basic kinematic chains will be isomorphic if and only if the characteristic polynomial equations
are identical other wise non-isomorphic.
Theorem: Two kinematic chains are isomorphic to each other, have identical characteristic polynomials for
their associated [JJM] matrices.
VI. APPLICATIONS
EXAMPLE 1: The first example concerns three kinematic chains with 12 bars, 16 joints, one degree of
freedom as shown in Fig.1, 2 and 3. The task is to examine whether these three chains are isomorphic. The
[JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J1, J2 and J3 respectively.
The characteristic polynomial for chain 1 = 0.0000, 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0000 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -0.0001,
-0.0004 , 0.0016 , 0.0109 , -0.0056, -0.1239 , -0.1243, 0.4736, 0.7954 , -0.4396 , -1.0219
The characteristic polynomial for chain 2 = 0.0000 , 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000, -
0.0001, -0.0004 , 0.0016, 0.0109 , -0.0056 , -0.1239, -0.1243 , 0.4736, 0.7954, -0.4396 , -1.0219,
The characteristic polynomial for chain 3 = 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -0.0000, -0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -
0.0001, -0.0004 , 0.0016 , 0.0108, -0.0059, -0.1238, -0.1160 , 0.5008, 0.8031 , -0.5288 , -1.1287
The values of composite invariant
For chain 1: [JJMP∑] = 2.9971e+010 , [JJMPmax] =1.0219e+010
For chain 2: [JJMP∑] = 2.9971e+010, [JJMPmax] =1.0219e+010
For chain 3: [JJMP∑] = 3.2201e+010, [JJMPmax] =1.1287e+010
Our method reports that chain 1 and 2 are isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are same
for both the kinematic chain 1 and 2 respectively. Similarly, our method reports that kinemaic chains 1 and 3
are non-isomorphic as the values of structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are different for kinematic
chain 1 and 3 respectively. Note that by using another method eigen vector [19] and artificial neural network
[24], the same conclusion is obtained.
EXAMPLE 2 (Multidegree freedom chains): The second example concerns two kinemtic chains with 10
bars, 12 joints, three degree of freedom as shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5. The task is to examine whether these two
chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J4 and J5 respectively.
The characteristic polynomial for chain 4 = 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0001, -0.0002, 0.0063, 0.0170, -0.1055, -
0.3730, 0.4376, 2.1856, 0.0372, -3.5938, -1.6171
The characteristic polynomial for chain 5 = poly(J6) = 0.0000 , 0 , -0.0001 , -0.0002 , 0.0058 , 0.0161, -
0.0965, -0.3525 , 0.4307 , 2.2696 , 0.1572 , -2.9393 , 0.7465.
The values of composite invariant
For chain 4: [JJMP∑] = 8.3734e+006 , [JJMPmax] =3.5938e+006
For chain 5: [JJMP∑] = 7.0147e+006 , [JJMPmax] = 2.9393e+006
Our method reports that chain 4 and 5 are non-isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are
different for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using other method summation polynomials [25], the same
conclusion is obtained.
EXAMPLE 3: The third example concerns another example of two kinematic chains with 10 bars, 13 joints,
single freedom as shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7. The task is to examine whether these two chains are isomorphic.
The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J6 and J7 respectively.
The characteristic polynomial for chain 6 = 0.0000 , 0 , -0.0000 , -0.0000, 0.0012 , 0.0026, -0.0324, -
0.0947 , 0.2944 , 1.0537, -0.6359, -3.5648, -1.3812 , 0.4952.
The characteristic polynomial for chain 7 = 0.0000 , -0.0000 , -0.0000 , -0.0000 , 0.0012, 0.0026 , -0.0324, -
0.0947, 0.2944, 1.0537 , -0.6359, -3.5648, -1.3812 , 0.4952.
The values of composite invariant
For chain 6: [JJMP∑] = 7.5562e+007, [JJMPmax] = 3.5648e+007
For chain 7: [JJMP∑] = 7.5562e+007 , [JJMPmax] = 3.5648e+007
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 11 | Page
Our method reports that chain 6 and 7 are isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are same
for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using another method artificial neural network [24], the same
conclusion is obtained.
EXAMPLE 4: The fourth example concerns two kinematic chains with 6 bars, 7 joints, one freedom as shown
in Fig.8 and Fig.9. The task is to examine whether these two chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for
these chains are represented by J8 and J9 respectively.
The characteristic polynomial for chain 8 = 0.0010, -0.0000, -0.0700, -0.1080, 0.9010, 0.9720, -3.1680,
0.0000
The characteristic polynomial for chain 9 = 0.0010 , -0.0000 , -0.0670, -0.0990 , 1.0640 , 2.2470 , -
2.1500, -3.3000
The values of composite invariant
For chain 8: [JJMP∑] = 5.2200e+003 , [JJMPmax] =3.1680e+003
For chain 9: [JJMP∑] = 8.9280e+003 , [JJMPmax] = 3.3000e+003
Our method reports that chain 8 and 9 are non-isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are
different for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using another method s distance matrix [2], and summation
polynomials [25], the same conclusion is obtained.
VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a simple, efficient and reliable method to identify isomorphism is proposed. By this
method, the isomorphism of mechanisms kinematic chains can easily be identified. It incorporates all features of
the chain and as such violation of the isomorphism test is rather difficult. In this method, the characteristic
polynomials, composite structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix of the kinematic chain.
The advantage is that they are very easy to compute using MATLAB software. It is not essential to determine
both the composite invariants to compare two chains, only in case the [JJMP∑] is same then it is needed to
determine [JJMPmax]for both kinematic chains. The [JJM] matrices can be written with very little effort, even
by mere inspection of the chain. The proposed test is quite general in nature and can be used to detect
isomorphism of not only planar kinematic chains of one degree of freedom, but also kinematic chains of multi
degree of freedom. The characteristic polynomials and composite structural invariants are very informative and
from them valuable information regarding topology of kinematic chains can be predicted. According to this
method, we can find that the [JJM] matrix is a map of mechanism kinematic chains and characteristic
polynomials and other characteristic invariants may reflect some nature and inner property of the mechanism.
The inner relation between characteristic value and mechanism kinematic chain need further study.
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 12 | Page
0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0
0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0
J1=
0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0
0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0
J2=
0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3
0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0
J3=
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 13 | Page
0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0
4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0
0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 3
0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0
J6=
0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0
4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 3
0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0
0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3
0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0
J7=
0 2 0 0 0 3 3
2 0 2 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 3 0 0 3
0 0 3 0 2 0 3
0 0 0 2 0 2 0
3 0 0 0 2 0 3
3 0 3 3 0 3 0
J8=
0 2 0 0 3 0 3
2 0 3 0 0 3 0
0 3 0 2 0 2 0
0 0 2 0 2 0 0
3 0 0 2 0 0 3
0 3 3 0 0 0 2
3 0 0 0 3 2 0
J9=
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0
2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 0 3
0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0
J5=
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0
2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 2
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0
J4=
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 14 | Page
L
k
j
i
h
g
e
d
c
b
a
16
1514
13
12
11
10
9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Fig.1: Twelve bar chain, single freedom
f
g
h
a
k
b
j
e
i
f
L
d
16
1514
13
12
11
10
9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Fig.2: Twelve bar chain, single freedom
c
l
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
k
16
15
14
13
12
1110
9
8
7
6
5
3
2 1
4
Fig.3: Twelve bar chain, single freedom
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 15 | Page
i
j
g
f
e
d
c
b a
h
3
7
12
11
10
9
8
6
5
4
2
1
Fig.4: Ten bar chain, three freedom
j
i
h
g
f
ed
c
b
a
12
11
10
8
7
6
4
3
2
1
Fig.5: Ten bar chain, three freedom
5
9
i
h
f
e
d
c
b
a
7
13
12
11
10
9
8
6
5
4
3
2 1
Fig.6: Ten bar chain, single freedom
j
g
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
5
13
11
10
9
8
7
6
4
3
2
1
Fig.7: Ten bar chain, single freedom
12
j a
f
e
d
b
a
7
6
5
4
32
Fig.9: Six bar chain, single freedom
1
c
f
e
d
c
7
3
2
1
6
4
5
Fig.8: Six bar chain, single freedom
b
a
Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains
www.ijres.org 16 | Page
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C0110916

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES) ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356 www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 1 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.09-16 www.ijres.org 9 | Page Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains Dr.Ali Hasan Asstt.Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, F/O- Engineering & Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Delhi-110025,India, ABSTRACT :The present work deals with the problem of detection of isomorphism which is frequently encountered in structural synthesis of kinematic chains. A new method based on theoretic approach, easy to compute and reliable is suggested in this paper. It is capable of detecting isomorphism in all types of planer kinematic chains. I. INTRODUCTION Over the past several years much work has been reported in the literature on the structural analysis and synthesis of mechanisms [1-29]. Motives behind these studies range from the desire for an orderly classification system, to studies of mechanism degree of freedom to the hope of identifying the mechanisms. Methods for the recognition and identification of a given mechanism’s kinematic structure can be divided into two main categories, graphical methods based on the visual inspection of various forms of simplified systematic diagrams and numerical methods many of which are based on the theory of graphs. However, even with the current numerical methods no efficient generalized method is known which will characterize the given mechanisms by inspection. In this paper , a new method to detect isomorphism in mechanisms kinematic chains is presented by comparing the sum of absolute polynomial coefficient values [JJMP∑ ] and maximum absolute polynomial coefficient [JJMPmax] of Joint-Joint [JJM]matrix. II. PROPOSED TEST-BASIS The kinematic chains are complex chains of combination of binary, ternary and other higher order links. These links are joined together by simple pin joints. It is the assembly of link/pair combination to form one or more closed circuits. While considering structural equivalence it is essential to consider type of links/joints and layout of the links in the assembly. An identification number is assigned to links. Thus a binary link has a value of two, ternary three, quarter nary four and so on. Link values are used to assigned values to [JJM] matrix and these are utilized to identify layout of the kinematic chains. For detecting isomorphism in kinematic chains a [JJM] matrix is determined and characteristic polynomials [JJMP], composite structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix are compared. III. THE JOINT-JOINT [JJM] MATRIX. One possible symbolism for the topology or connectivity of kinematic chain is the link-link form of the incidence matrix, more properly referred to as the Joint-Joint [JJM] matrix. Once the joints of the chain have been numbered from 1 to n, the [JJM] matrix is defined as a square matrix of the order n, each row and each column representing the joint with the corresponding number. The elements of the matrix are then entered as either zero or type of the link, depending on the absence or presence of a direct kinematic connection between the joints corresponding to that row and column. IV. STRUCTURAL INVARIANTS [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] Polynomial coefficient values are the characteristic invariants for the chains and mechanisms. Many investigators have reported co-spectral graph (non-isomorphic graph having same eigen spectrum). But these eigen spectra (eigen values or polynomial coefficient values) have been determined from (0, 1) adjacency matrices. The proposed [JJM] matrix provides same set of polynomials of the co-spectral kinematic graph. To make this [JJM] matrix polynomial spectrum as a powerful single number characteristic index, new composite = Degree of link or type of link, if joint i is directly connected to joint j =0, if joint i is not directly connected to joint j Jij = ------(1)
  • 2. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 10 | Page invariants are proposed. These indices are [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix. The polynomial values of [JJM] matrix are obtained using MATLAB. It is hoped that these invariants are capable of characterizing all kinematic chains and mechanisms uniquely. V. ISOMORPHISM Two basic kinematic chains will be isomorphic if and only if, both the composite invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are identical respectively. If any set of structural invariants of one matrix of a chain does not match the corresponding set of structural invariant of the other chain, the two chains will be non-isomorphic. In other words, the two basic kinematic chains will be isomorphic if and only if the characteristic polynomial equations are identical other wise non-isomorphic. Theorem: Two kinematic chains are isomorphic to each other, have identical characteristic polynomials for their associated [JJM] matrices. VI. APPLICATIONS EXAMPLE 1: The first example concerns three kinematic chains with 12 bars, 16 joints, one degree of freedom as shown in Fig.1, 2 and 3. The task is to examine whether these three chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J1, J2 and J3 respectively. The characteristic polynomial for chain 1 = 0.0000, 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0000 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -0.0001, -0.0004 , 0.0016 , 0.0109 , -0.0056, -0.1239 , -0.1243, 0.4736, 0.7954 , -0.4396 , -1.0219 The characteristic polynomial for chain 2 = 0.0000 , 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000, - 0.0001, -0.0004 , 0.0016, 0.0109 , -0.0056 , -0.1239, -0.1243 , 0.4736, 0.7954, -0.4396 , -1.0219, The characteristic polynomial for chain 3 = 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -0.0000, -0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , - 0.0001, -0.0004 , 0.0016 , 0.0108, -0.0059, -0.1238, -0.1160 , 0.5008, 0.8031 , -0.5288 , -1.1287 The values of composite invariant For chain 1: [JJMP∑] = 2.9971e+010 , [JJMPmax] =1.0219e+010 For chain 2: [JJMP∑] = 2.9971e+010, [JJMPmax] =1.0219e+010 For chain 3: [JJMP∑] = 3.2201e+010, [JJMPmax] =1.1287e+010 Our method reports that chain 1 and 2 are isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are same for both the kinematic chain 1 and 2 respectively. Similarly, our method reports that kinemaic chains 1 and 3 are non-isomorphic as the values of structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are different for kinematic chain 1 and 3 respectively. Note that by using another method eigen vector [19] and artificial neural network [24], the same conclusion is obtained. EXAMPLE 2 (Multidegree freedom chains): The second example concerns two kinemtic chains with 10 bars, 12 joints, three degree of freedom as shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5. The task is to examine whether these two chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J4 and J5 respectively. The characteristic polynomial for chain 4 = 0.0000, -0.0000, -0.0001, -0.0002, 0.0063, 0.0170, -0.1055, - 0.3730, 0.4376, 2.1856, 0.0372, -3.5938, -1.6171 The characteristic polynomial for chain 5 = poly(J6) = 0.0000 , 0 , -0.0001 , -0.0002 , 0.0058 , 0.0161, - 0.0965, -0.3525 , 0.4307 , 2.2696 , 0.1572 , -2.9393 , 0.7465. The values of composite invariant For chain 4: [JJMP∑] = 8.3734e+006 , [JJMPmax] =3.5938e+006 For chain 5: [JJMP∑] = 7.0147e+006 , [JJMPmax] = 2.9393e+006 Our method reports that chain 4 and 5 are non-isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are different for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using other method summation polynomials [25], the same conclusion is obtained. EXAMPLE 3: The third example concerns another example of two kinematic chains with 10 bars, 13 joints, single freedom as shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7. The task is to examine whether these two chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J6 and J7 respectively. The characteristic polynomial for chain 6 = 0.0000 , 0 , -0.0000 , -0.0000, 0.0012 , 0.0026, -0.0324, - 0.0947 , 0.2944 , 1.0537, -0.6359, -3.5648, -1.3812 , 0.4952. The characteristic polynomial for chain 7 = 0.0000 , -0.0000 , -0.0000 , -0.0000 , 0.0012, 0.0026 , -0.0324, - 0.0947, 0.2944, 1.0537 , -0.6359, -3.5648, -1.3812 , 0.4952. The values of composite invariant For chain 6: [JJMP∑] = 7.5562e+007, [JJMPmax] = 3.5648e+007 For chain 7: [JJMP∑] = 7.5562e+007 , [JJMPmax] = 3.5648e+007
  • 3. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 11 | Page Our method reports that chain 6 and 7 are isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are same for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using another method artificial neural network [24], the same conclusion is obtained. EXAMPLE 4: The fourth example concerns two kinematic chains with 6 bars, 7 joints, one freedom as shown in Fig.8 and Fig.9. The task is to examine whether these two chains are isomorphic. The [JJM] matrices for these chains are represented by J8 and J9 respectively. The characteristic polynomial for chain 8 = 0.0010, -0.0000, -0.0700, -0.1080, 0.9010, 0.9720, -3.1680, 0.0000 The characteristic polynomial for chain 9 = 0.0010 , -0.0000 , -0.0670, -0.0990 , 1.0640 , 2.2470 , - 2.1500, -3.3000 The values of composite invariant For chain 8: [JJMP∑] = 5.2200e+003 , [JJMPmax] =3.1680e+003 For chain 9: [JJMP∑] = 8.9280e+003 , [JJMPmax] = 3.3000e+003 Our method reports that chain 8 and 9 are non-isomorphic as the set of values of [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] are different for both the kinematic chains. Note that by using another method s distance matrix [2], and summation polynomials [25], the same conclusion is obtained. VII. CONCLUSION In this paper, a simple, efficient and reliable method to identify isomorphism is proposed. By this method, the isomorphism of mechanisms kinematic chains can easily be identified. It incorporates all features of the chain and as such violation of the isomorphism test is rather difficult. In this method, the characteristic polynomials, composite structural invariants [JJMP∑] and [JJMPmax] of [JJM] matrix of the kinematic chain. The advantage is that they are very easy to compute using MATLAB software. It is not essential to determine both the composite invariants to compare two chains, only in case the [JJMP∑] is same then it is needed to determine [JJMPmax]for both kinematic chains. The [JJM] matrices can be written with very little effort, even by mere inspection of the chain. The proposed test is quite general in nature and can be used to detect isomorphism of not only planar kinematic chains of one degree of freedom, but also kinematic chains of multi degree of freedom. The characteristic polynomials and composite structural invariants are very informative and from them valuable information regarding topology of kinematic chains can be predicted. According to this method, we can find that the [JJM] matrix is a map of mechanism kinematic chains and characteristic polynomials and other characteristic invariants may reflect some nature and inner property of the mechanism. The inner relation between characteristic value and mechanism kinematic chain need further study.
  • 4. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 12 | Page 0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 J1= 0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 J2= 0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 J3=
  • 5. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 13 | Page 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 J6= 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 J7= 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 3 0 J8= 0 2 0 0 3 0 3 2 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 2 0 J9= 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 J5= 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 J4=
  • 6. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 14 | Page L k j i h g e d c b a 16 1514 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Fig.1: Twelve bar chain, single freedom f g h a k b j e i f L d 16 1514 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Fig.2: Twelve bar chain, single freedom c l j i h g f e d c b a k 16 15 14 13 12 1110 9 8 7 6 5 3 2 1 4 Fig.3: Twelve bar chain, single freedom
  • 7. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 15 | Page i j g f e d c b a h 3 7 12 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 2 1 Fig.4: Ten bar chain, three freedom j i h g f ed c b a 12 11 10 8 7 6 4 3 2 1 Fig.5: Ten bar chain, three freedom 5 9 i h f e d c b a 7 13 12 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 Fig.6: Ten bar chain, single freedom j g i h g f e d c b 5 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 4 3 2 1 Fig.7: Ten bar chain, single freedom 12 j a f e d b a 7 6 5 4 32 Fig.9: Six bar chain, single freedom 1 c f e d c 7 3 2 1 6 4 5 Fig.8: Six bar chain, single freedom b a
  • 8. Isomorphism In Kinematic Chains www.ijres.org 16 | Page REFERENCES [1] Preben W. Jensen, “Classical and Modern Mechanism for Engineers and Inventors”, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, (1992). [2] Uicher J.J. and Raicu A, “A method for identification and recognition of equivalence of kinematic chains”, Mech. Mach. Theory, 10, 375-383 (1975). [3] Rao. A.C., “Kinematic chains, Isomorphism, inversions and type of freedom, using the concept of hamming distance”, Indian J. of Tech. 26, 105-109 (1988). [4] Mruthyunjaya T.S. and Raghavan M.R., “Computer Aided Analysis of the structural synthesis of kinematic chains”, Mech. Mach. Theory, 19, 3, 357-368 (1984). [5] C.Nageswara Rao and A.C. Rao, “Selection of best frame, input and output links for function generators modeled as probabilistic systems”, Mech. Mach. Theory, 31, 973-983 (1996). [6] Aas Mohammad and V.P. Agrawal, “Identification and Isomorphism of kinematic chains and mechanisms”, proceedings of the 11th ISME conference, IIT Delhi, New Delhi (1999). [7] A.G. Ambekar and Agrawal V.P. , “Identification of kinematic Generator using Min. Codes”, Mech. Mach. Theory, l 22, 5, 463- 471(1987). [8] Ambekar AG. and Agarwal V.P., “Identification and classification of kinematic chains using identification code”, the fourth international symposium on linkage and computer aided design methods, Bucharest, Romania, 1,3 545-552 (1985). [9] V.P. Agarwal, J.N. Yadav and C.R. Pratap, “Mechanism of Kinematic chain and the degree of structural similarity based on the concept of link path code”, Mech. Mach. Theory, 31, 7, 865-871 (1996). [10] Deo. Narsingh, “Graph Theory with applications to Engineering and Computer Science”, PHI, 2002. [11] Crossley F.R.E, “A contribution to Grubler’s theory in the number synthesis of planar mechanisms”, Trans.ASME, J.Engg.Ind.86B (I), 1-8(1964). [12] Dobrjanskyj L. and Freudenstein F., “Some applications of graph theory to the structural synthesis of mechanisms”, Trans.ASME, J.Engg.Ind.89B (1),153-158(1967). [13] Buchsbaum F. and Freudenstein F, “Synthesis of kinematic structure of geared kinematic chains and other mechanisms”, J.Mechanism 5(3), 357-392(1970). [14] Manolescu N.I., “A method based on Baranov trusses and using graph theory to find the set of planer jointed kinematic chains and mechanisms”, Mechanism and Machine Theory 8(I), 3-22(1973). [15] Verho A., “An extension of the concept of the group”, Mechanism and Machine Theory 8(2)249-256(1973). [16] Raicu A., “Matrices associated with kinematic chains from 3 to 5 members”, Mechanism and Machine Theory (1)123-130(1974). [17] H.S. Yan, A.S. Hall, “Linkage characteristic polynomials: definition, coefficients by inspection”, ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design, 103 (1981)578. [18] T.S.Mruthyunjaya, “In quest of a reliable and efficient computational test for detection of isomorphism in kinematic chains”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 22(2) (1987)131-140. [19] Zonyu Chang, Ce Zhang, “Yuhu Yang and Yuxin Wong, Anew method to mechanism kinematic chain isomorphism identification”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 37 (2002) 411. [20] T.J. Jongsma et al, “An efficient algorithm for finding optimum code under under the condition of incident degree”, Proceedings of Mechanical Conference 47 (1992) 431-436. [21] E.R. Tuttle et al., “Enumeration of basic kinematic chains using the theory of finite group”, ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design 111(1989). [22] E.R. Tuttle et al. , “Further applications of group theory to the enumeration and structural analysis of basic kinematic chains”, ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design 111(1989). [23] J.K.Chu, W.Q. Cao, “ Identification of isomorphism of kinematic chains through adjacent-chain table”, Proceedings of ASME Conference 47(1992)207-210. [24] F.G. Kong, QLi,w.j.Zhang, “An artificial network approach to mechanism kinematic chain isomorphism identification”, Mechanism and Machine Theory ,34(1999) 271-283. [25] Shende S., Rao A.C., “ Isomorphism in kinematic chains”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 29(7) 1065-1070 (1994) [26] Rao A.C., Pratap B. D., “Computer Aided Structural Synthesis of Planar Kinematic Chains obviationg the test for Isomorphism”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 36,489-506 (2001) [27] Rao A.B.S, Srinath A., Rao A.C., “Synthesis of planar kinematic chains”, J. Institution of Engineers (India), 86, 195 – 201 (2006). [28] Agarwal V.P., Rao J.S., “The mobility properties of kinematic chains”, Mechanism Machine Theory, 22(5) 497-504 (1987). [29] Chuen S.L., lee T., “A classification method for input joints of planar five bar mechanisms”, Mechanism & Machine Theory, 38, 1307 – 1322(2003).