• Prototyping can be many different things – Purposes • Explore, evaluate, communicate – Representations (prototypes) • What is a representation of a service? • Concept, process(es), system
What are they talking about?• What do they mean by prototyping• Types of prototyping – Creating prototypes, using prototypes, evaluating prototypes• Learning occurs throughout – but is qualitatively different
Conversation with situation • A designer creating a prototype • Closed-loop – Paper – Artefact – System (service)
Conversation with situation • A designer creating a prototype • Sketching • Building • Preparing Reflective conversation with materials (Donald Schön)
Conversation with situation • Service design – Preparing • Post-its • Flowcharts • Sketching • Making props (2D, 3D, 4D)
Situational/contextual/embodied • One or more stakeholders ”use” a prototype • Rests on an external representation of a service
Situational/contextual/embodied • Representation of service • Whole services or segments? – Service walkthroughs • Different knowledge based on type of representation – Roleplay – Desktop prototype – Experience prototype (Buchenau & Fulton Suri, 2000) – Props or no props?
Situational/contextual/embodied • Iterative use and redesign approach – no ”formal” evaluation – based on general ”feeling” of using the prototype
Situational/contextual/embodied • Use of the prototype – Users/customers use a prototype for a time period – Designers’ learning limited • Not reading a scenario, not looking at a chair or a list of specifications • Embodied understanding of use, situated (in a situation) and contextual (in a context) • What you learn about a prototype depends on its’ representation (fidelity aso), and where and how you use it!
Situational/contextual/embodied • Use and evaluation – Think aloud – Probe – Feedback provided during enactment of service
Recall-based learning • Recall-based learning – Based on a period of using the prototype – Questionnaire or more informal evaluation • Learning based on static representations – Scenarios, storyboards, customer journeys aso…