SHALE GAS AND FRACKING:
A CASE STUDY
Understanding a polemical technology using
scientific, technological and financial da...
Outline
➔Context : the case of shale gas
➔First insights: global situation
➔Questioning: environmental issues
➔Conclusion ...
Shale gas: a brief introduction (1/2)
➔Unconventional source of natural gas found trapped within
shale formations
➔Low per...
Shale gas: a brief introduction (2/2)
15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
Sour...
Shale oil and gas reserves (1/3)
➔Technically recoverable resources: 752 billion cubic meters
of gas, of which 28% from sh...
Shale oil and gas reserves (2/3)
6 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
Source:...
Shale oil and gas reserves (3/3)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Eurasia Middle-East Pacific Asia Alena Africa Latin America OECD Europ...
Methodological steps
8
Step 1
Input: IPC codes – Database: Orbit (Questel) –
Output: 9300+ Patents
Step 2
Input: Key-words...
Perimeter under study: Set of
techniques developed for the purpose
of shale gas extraction
Patents : E21B-043/26 OR C09K-0...
Global statistics
10
Patents – priority country
US : 740
RU: 666
CN : 1207
FR : 223
UK : 245
Publications – main author co...
A mature technology ?
11
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Numberofpatentfamiliesapplications
Number of a...
Forces in presence (1/2)
15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 201412
Source : Orbit ...
Forces in presence (2/2)
13
MARATHON OILSINOPEC CN
UNION OILBP GB
SHELL NLCHINA NAT
PETROLEUM CN
CONOCOPHILLIPS
US
CHEVRON...
New entrants
14
CHENGDU HONGTIAN
TELEX ENGINEERING
CHINA UNIV OF
MINING TECHNOLOGY
ALBERTA UNIV
UNIVs CHENGDU CN
ACAD SCI ...
➔ Local environmental issues: non-acceptation
› Harmful fluids used: fear of water contamination
› Water intensive process...
Identification of alternative techniques
16
Number of
patent families
Number of
publications
Electrical fraturing 203 3
Pr...
17
Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment), Gephi (mapping), Sigma.js (visualization)
Competitive positioning throug...
Competitive positioning through the lens of patents (2/2)
15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV ...
Financial strategies
15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 201419
Acquerors
Targets
S...
Positioning through the lens of publications
20
Title Affiliation Date
ExxonMobil’s Electrofrac™ Process
for In Situ Oil S...
Evidence of environmental concerns ?
21
Nb of
Docs
Electrical fracturing 28
Propane-based fracturing 121
Carbon dioxide fr...
Citations
22 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
Source : Orbit (data), Intell...
➔ Technology, scientific and financial data: a relevant source of
strategic information
➔ Fracturing is still an immature ...
➔ Economic issues
› Diversification of sources of energy and greater independence
› Increased attractivity for gas intensi...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !
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II-SDV 2014 Competitive Positioning and Technological Complementarity in the Case of Hydraulic Fracturing: a combination of scientific and technological approaches (

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II-SDV 2014 Competitive Positioning and Technological Complementarity in the Case of Hydraulic Fracturing: a combination of scientific and technological approaches (

  1. 1. SHALE GAS AND FRACKING: A CASE STUDY Understanding a polemical technology using scientific, technological and financial data M. Becue, V. Bouaroudj, J.M. Careil, A. Meunié, D. Virapin IISDV, Nice, April 15th 2014 d.v. 25/03/2014
  2. 2. Outline ➔Context : the case of shale gas ➔First insights: global situation ➔Questioning: environmental issues ➔Conclusion and perspectives 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 20142
  3. 3. Shale gas: a brief introduction (1/2) ➔Unconventional source of natural gas found trapped within shale formations ➔Low permeability of shale formations: absence of significant wellbores, low concentration of gas ➔Hydraulic fracturing or fracking: reproduction of existing natural fractures, permitting to access commercial quantities of shale gas › Horizontal drilling › Use of water, sand and chemicals 3 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
  4. 4. Shale gas: a brief introduction (2/2) 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source: US Energy Information Administration 4
  5. 5. Shale oil and gas reserves (1/3) ➔Technically recoverable resources: 752 billion cubic meters of gas, of which 28% from shale gas (ever-changing estimations) ➔More homogeneous spread of resources: geo-political issues at stake ➔North America concentrates most of the commercial production of shale gas (US: 1/3 of national gas production) 5 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
  6. 6. Shale oil and gas reserves (2/3) 6 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source: US Energy Information Administration
  7. 7. Shale oil and gas reserves (3/3) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Eurasia Middle-East Pacific Asia Alena Africa Latin America OECD Europe National share in the world gas resources National share in the world shale gas resources 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source: US Energy Information Administration Global distribution of world gas and shale gas resources 7
  8. 8. Methodological steps 8 Step 1 Input: IPC codes – Database: Orbit (Questel) – Output: 9300+ Patents Step 2 Input: Key-words – Database: Web of Sciences – Output: 800+ Publications Step 3 Input: Key-words – Database: Zephyr – Output: 2500+ Financial deals Step 4 Portfolio treatment, using Intellixir Step 5 (1st level of analysis) Portfolio segmentation : identification of techniques of fracturing Step 6 (2nd level of analysis) Portfolio segmentation : evidence of safety-driven technologies DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014
  9. 9. Perimeter under study: Set of techniques developed for the purpose of shale gas extraction Patents : E21B-043/26 OR C09K-008/6+  E21B-043/26 : Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells by forming crevices or fractures  C09K-008/6+ : Compositions for stimulating production by acting on the underground formation -> 9304 families Publications : shale gas AND frac* -> 849 articles Financial deals : “shale gas” -> 2518 deals Data Collection 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 20149 Dynamics of patent applications Number of patent families 180 156 187 218 284 315 372 392 372 378 364 468 373 0 100 200 300 400 500 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Total Hydraulic fracturing Alternative fracturing 6 11 15 15 5 7 9 8 10 22 26 49 85 127 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Dynamics of scientific publications Number of articles Source : Orbit, WoS, Zephyr (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  10. 10. Global statistics 10 Patents – priority country US : 740 RU: 666 CN : 1207 FR : 223 UK : 245 Publications – main author country 22% of patents have an international extension 15% of patents have a European extension World : 2030 Europe : 1408 Financial deals – acquirer country 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit,WoS,Zephyr (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  11. 11. A mature technology ? 11 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Numberofpatentfamiliesapplications Number of applicants 1936 1971 1998 2007 1989 1990 2011 2009 2012 1993 1940 Case of fracturing Source : Introduction to Patent Map Analysis, Japan Patent Office Asia-Pacific Industrial Property Center, JIII Reference map of maturity 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit(data), Intellixir (treatment)
  12. 12. Forces in presence (1/2) 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 201412 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment) publicationpatent
  13. 13. Forces in presence (2/2) 13 MARATHON OILSINOPEC CN UNION OILBP GB SHELL NLCHINA NAT PETROLEUM CN CONOCOPHILLIPS US CHEVRON TEXACO US EXXON MOBIL US BAKER HUGUES US SCHLUMBERGER US HALLIBURTON US AE 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 Number of patent families Mean age of portfolio Major active applicants Small active applicants Major inactive applicants Small inactive applicants 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  14. 14. New entrants 14 CHENGDU HONGTIAN TELEX ENGINEERING CHINA UNIV OF MINING TECHNOLOGY ALBERTA UNIV UNIVs CHENGDU CN ACAD SCI RU UNIV OF TEXAS DALIAN BITEOMICS ANTON OILFIELD SERVICES SOANE ENERGY DONGYING SHENGSHI PETROLEUM GENERAL ELECTRIC US 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Numberofpatentfamilies Years New entrants since 2005: 40% 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  15. 15. ➔ Local environmental issues: non-acceptation › Harmful fluids used: fear of water contamination › Water intensive process: usage issues › Emission of volatile gas: air pollution › High density of wells and large-scale production required: landscape deterioration › Geologic formations disturbed: seismic risks ➔ Global environmental issues › Impact on the global energetic mix › Impact on climate change 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 A highly polemical context: environmental issues Are these environmental issues addressed in inventive activities, and if yes, in which way ? 15
  16. 16. Identification of alternative techniques 16 Number of patent families Number of publications Electrical fraturing 203 3 Propane-based fracturing 633 34 Carbon dioxide fracturing 155 66 Thermal fracturing 101 12 Hydraulic fracturing 7033 362 Non classified 1179 372 Total documents 9304 849 Share of alternative 12 % 13 % Share of hydraulic 76% 43 % A major share of patents relate to hydraulic fracturing specifically: main focus of inventive efforts Lower share of publications related to hydraulic fracturing specifically. Publications are more generally related to transversal issues associated with fracturing. 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Share of documents relative to identified alternative techniques of fracturing
  17. 17. 17 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment), Gephi (mapping), Sigma.js (visualization) Competitive positioning through the lens of patents (1/2) Thermal: 101 CO2: 155 Electrical: 203 Hydraulic: 7033 Focus on alternative techniques only Major focus: pure hydraulic fracturing (83% of applicants) Propane-based: 633 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Nodes: number of patents owned Links: number of patent applications filed
  18. 18. Competitive positioning through the lens of patents (2/2) 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 201418 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  19. 19. Financial strategies 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 201419 Acquerors Targets Source : Zephyr (data), Intellixir (treatment) Affiliations Deal Types
  20. 20. Positioning through the lens of publications 20 Title Affiliation Date ExxonMobil’s Electrofrac™ Process for In Situ Oil Shale Conversion ExxonMobil 2009 Title Affiliation Date Study on carbon dioxide thermodynamic behaviour for the purpose of shale rock fracturing Warsaw University 2013 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : WoS (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  21. 21. Evidence of environmental concerns ? 21 Nb of Docs Electrical fracturing 28 Propane-based fracturing 121 Carbon dioxide fracturing 30 Thermal fracturing 16 Hydraulic fracturing 1131 Non classified 101 Total documents 1427 Share of sub-query 14 % Relative share of alternative 14 % Relative share of hydraulic 79 % Sub-query used Patents : E21B-043/26 OR C09K-008/6+ Publications : shale gas AND frac* AND Damage OR environmental* Most documents addressing environmental concerns are relative to hydraulic fracturing 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit,WoS (data), Intellixir (treatment)
  22. 22. Citations 22 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Source : Orbit (data), Intellixir (treatment), Gephi (mapping), Sigma.js (visualization) Nodes: number of forward citations Links: number of times cited
  23. 23. ➔ Technology, scientific and financial data: a relevant source of strategic information ➔ Fracturing is still an immature technology ➔ Implication of Chinese actors sharply increasing ➔ Environmental concerns are weakly being addressed and concern mainly hydraulic fracturing rather than alternative techniques not based on hydraulic tools 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Conclusion and perspectives (1/2) 23
  24. 24. ➔ Economic issues › Diversification of sources of energy and greater independence › Increased attractivity for gas intensive industries › Local job creation › Increased competitivity › Real rentability under question ➔ Further work › Detailed analysis on specific time periods › Refined query relative to environment › In-depth citation analyses ➔ Any questions or suggestions are more than welcome ! 15th of April 2014 Shale gas and fracking: a case study – IISDV Conference 2014 Conclusion and perspectives (2/2) 24
  25. 25. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !

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