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History of NC Colonial and Continental Port of Bath and its Colonial Customs Service

A slide deck from presentation made at the November annual conference meeting of the NC Maritime Council in Elizabeth City NC

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History of NC Colonial and Continental Port of Bath and its Colonial Customs Service

  1. 1. 1300th Anniversary
  2. 2. 2 Letter to the Governor of North Carolina Charles Eden From the Lords Proprietors August 1st 1716: …We have consented that Bath Town according to the Petition sent by you shall be made a Sea Port Town, and we have given our Secretary Orders accordingly. But how or after what manner it shall be made a Corporation we have taken time to consider of. We wish you all happiness and success in your Government and are, Your very loving Friends, CARTERET Palatin, JA: BERTIE for BEAUFORT, FULWAR SKIPWITH for CRAVEN, M. ASHLEY, J. OLLETON, J. DANSON
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  7. 7. 7 Barnwell’s 1717 map of NC and SC, showing towns, Indian trails, Indian villages, Forts. COPY 1744
  8. 8. 8 Homann’s 1714 map of Virginia, Maryland and Carolina, Courtesy of Tryon Palace, New Bern NC
  10. 10. 10 BATHTOWNE
  11. 11. CarolinaCharters 1663 and 1665 •Note the original southern boundary of the Virginia Charter which originally included most of the populated Albemarle County. •The 1665 southern border of the Carolina Charter included all of Georgia North Florida below Spanish St. Augustine south down to Dayton and west along the Gulf Coast 11 BATHTOWNE
  12. 12. 12 Moseley’s 1708 map sent to Lambeth Palace. Map was delivered by a missionary petitioning the London Bishop for a new Edenton church . Note Landgrave Gov. Daniel on Archbell Point & Leigh the customs. Collector on the south shore. 350 tytheable adult white males 16 + yo vs. 1250 males Albemarle County.
  13. 13. 13 733 map, drawn urtesy of ECU rary 4th Floor
  14. 14. 14 1729 1704 1702
  15. 15. Thereareports, littlep … and ThenThere Are PORTS…. CAPITAL P In early 18th c. There were ports and landings on every navigable creek and river. The Port of Bath was much more than just a small peninsula town with five wharves. This map shows the boundaries of the later 1730 Port Bath district as well as shows the vast region Bath County covered down to the Cape Fear River. 15 1. N. CAROLINA FIVE COLONIAL PORT REGIONS 1733 - 1775
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  17. 17. 17 1766 map of Bath showing five Water St.wharves 1807 copy John Forbis Bath town plan by John Lawson 1706-1710, no wharves only sandy landings , vessels anchor out in the creek or tie mooring lines to trees
  18. 18. 18 The 1766/1807 Forbis Map showing 5 wharves in old Bath 1. Marsh 2. Scott’s 3. Adams 4. Willis 5. Oden’s Town Point
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  20. 20. 20 Great Britain, the mother country followed economic principles of Mercantilism, the predecessor to Laissez Faire/Free Market Supply and Demand…. Mercantilism was also known as bullionism
  21. 21.  All the Navigation and Trade Acts of Parliament with approval of British royal sovereigsn (below King Charles II, Queen Anne, King George )mandated by were accepted in theory but defied in practice by most New England and Carolina planter-merchants selling surplus crops, livestock, and lumber. Planters, merchants, common farmers and pirates all knew full well avoiding Customs could result in fines, penalties like jail or hanging, at best seizure and sale of both vessel and cargo if caught. 21
  22. 22. 22 Navigation Acts of 1650— Trade conducted on English vessels with English captains only Navigation Acts of 1660—Crews had to be ¾ English (or American), enumerated products (tobacco, sugar, etc)could only be shipped from colonies to England Navigation Acts of 1663— all raw goods and commodities shipped first to England. Ships continued to violate shipping directly between British colonies and Holland, Spain, Venice and other foreign 1671 The first royal customs officer was appointed by King Charles to Virginia 1673 – The Act of 1673 detailed new duties for enumerated goods levied by the Commissioners of the Customs under the Authority of the Lord Treasurer, or Commissioners of the Treasury. The first customs officers were assigned to only Maryland, the Carolina, Virginia, Bermuda and a few West Indies Islands. 1696 -The Act of 1696 re-organized the Colonial Customs Service and new Vice- Admiralty courts established in 11 districts. New powers of enforcement were granted, proceeds from seizure one-third to the king, one third to the governor and one third to the prosecuting agent.
  23. 23. TheLONDON CUSTOMS HOUSE All customs service officials ultimately reported to a branch of the British Treasury and all reports of vessels and cargo clearing customs were submitted quarterly. The London Customs House located on the north shore of the Thames River just east of the old London bridge and near the Tower of London . 23Colored Engraving of London by Probst 1740 Courtesy Tryon Palace, New Bern North Carolina
  24. 24.  Mercantilism, British economic theory of the day:  The amount of gold in the world is essentially fixed  A nation increases its power by increasing stockpiles of gold  Gold supply at home is increased by minimizing imports (importing or bartering for raw goods) and maximizing exports (selling finished or manufactured goods )  Colonies and building an empire best way to supply raw materials to the mother country  The mother country can reduce sending gold payments to a foreign country by making all colonies buy English products  Mercantilist Policies—making sure through the Navigation and Trade Acts that port officials monitor trade involving North America and Caribbean Island colonies to the benefit of England 24
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  26. 26. 26 Albemarle County Bath County
  27. 27. 27 Customs Collectors, Comptrollers, Naval Officers, Tidewaiters, Riding surveyors, Ocracoke pilots, stevedores, slaves, navigation apprentices and port tradesmen In 1715 A packing and shipping inspection system was set up for pork, beef, pitch and tar . Initially the warehouses were near Core Point, by `1743 they moved to Bath and upstream to Red Banks. The commodities warehouse also stored the powder and lead duties payments, sometimes paid in powder or swanshot, sometimes paid in equivalent commodities. In 1723 The General Assembly set up a self-perpetuating Port Bath Board of Commissioners. They were instructed to take duties collected on powder and lead entering the district, use the money marking channels between Ocracoke Inlet and Bath with buoys and beacons. In 1739 “powder money” was used to hire people to mark routes from Edenton, Bath and New Bern to Ocracoke. Two boats were to be outfitted and the pilots were to bring ships through the inlet and lead them to port and report changes in the channel. In 1750 additional inspection items were added: hemp, flax, flax seed, rice flour, butter, turpentine, indigo, tanned leather, deerskins, staves, shingles, lumber1752 a tonnage duty, was imposed on clearing ships. These funds were used to stake and mark channels. The governor appoint pilots but they were paid by the sea captains who used them. Michael Coutanche, a Boston captain and merchant, built the Palmer Marsh house around 1751. He married the daughter of a successful Bath Merchant and by 1758 operated two stores to sell merchandise. owned 7 Bath lots, 600 acres and other properties along the Pamlico River and Pantego Creek
  28. 28.  James Lee/Leigh 1703 Customs collector to Port Pamtico Source Beaufort Co. Deed Book Vol. I  Wm. Barrow 1704 Appointed deputy customs collector by James Leigh  BelowPort Bath official names from Alan D. Watson’s 2005 book about Historic Bath:  Wm. Alexander To 1724 Also served Port Currituck  Isaac Ottiwell 1724-1731 Council papers Apr15 1724  Wm. Owen 1731-1735 Exec Council Minutes, Oct 17 1732  Roger Ormond 1735-1736  John Rieusset 1736-1739  George Gould 1739-1753  Robert Palmer 1753-1772  Wm. Palmer 1772-1776  Wm. Brown Last Royal Collector appointee  Nathan Keais 1776-1790 Appt’d by NC Gen Assembly 28
  29. 29. 29 Example of Customs Operations Record keeping 1767 INCOME Revenue collected 20 Pound Sterling GB EXPENSES: Customs Collectors Salary 40 Boats and Workers 10 Stationary 20 Postage 1 Office rent 10 Total Expenses 81 Pound Sterling GB
  30. 30.  The practice is, so soon as Ships arrive, the Commanders first wait on the Governor, then go to the Secretaries Office and give Bond and Security … after which they go to the Comptroller of the Customs to pay a fee of 6s 3d: from thence they go see the Naval Officer and lodge their Cockets (cargo lists), they receive two certificates, one directed to the Collector, the other to the Receiver General who grants a permit and then the Ship is allowed to deliver her cargo. This process generally takes three days. 30
  31. 31. 31 Imports ledger Jan 1-March 8, 1790 includes columns for vessel name, master name, from whence, cargo, duties paid Type merchant vessels: 6 sloops, 4 schooners, 1 brig. Total Duties collected, ledger sheet in pounds, shilling, pence L 288 s 14 p 3 ½. Eight From Where ports: Martinique, Boston, Norfolk (4), Demerara, Baltimore, Cape Francais, Barbados and Guadeloupe.
  32. 32. 32 Data source St. Eustatius* and Port Bath: a state archives bar chart dated 16 July 2004 by Richard Lawrence, retrieved Raleigh state archives and history 7/7/15. Percentages of top six ports listed in Port Bath’s 1761-1790 records, based on vessels clearing Port Bath customs inbound/outbound by city: New York 18.3/12.2% Philadelphia 16.5/14.2% Baltimore 8.6/ 7.7% Charleston 6.2/11.4% Boston 4.4/ 2.4 % St. Eustatius 2.5/ 6.0% * The Penny University: A History of the Coffee- Houses. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1952.
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  34. 34. September 1773 The Brig Elizabeth Col. Robert Palmer, the former Port Bath CustomsCollectorand formeraideto GovernorTryon. chartered from the London merchantThomas Walters, theowner, and was to sail from London to Bath Townwhereshewasto takeonacargoof tarand turpentineon joint account of Palmerand Walters. Brig Elizabeth, 160 tons burden, crew of 8. Captain Scott master. Sailed from London in ballast. Forced by bad weather into Isle of Wight. A Cowes merchant consigned cargo of hoes, axes, canvas, strong beer to be bartered for NC Tar. Temporary Repairs from storm damage made in Beaufort Dec 1773-Mar 1774, five day sail to Bath. Captain executed a bottomry bond witnessed by two Bath merchants Richard Nassau Stephens, formerly of NY, and William. Tyler Kilby. .Departed Bath June 12 1774, arrived Plymouth Aug 13. Arrived London Aug 29. Significance: Robert Palmer after moving back to England in 1772 still was cooperating in trade with his son William, who by then had inherited both the Port Bath collector post and his father’s home, the Palmer- Marsh House. The events were recounted in English High Court Admiralty 1775-1778 in a dispute related to the captain selling the goods to pay for repairs, versus using letters of credit as instructed to William Palmer of Bath, son of “Robert Palmer of London, Merchant.” 34 PILOT SCHOONER GUIDING A MERCHANT BRIG
  35. 35. 35 9 June 1755 the “Dunluce” under Captain William Palmer, son of Col. Robert Palmer, arrived in Whitehaven England from Edenton with cargo of naval Stores , rice, staves, and black walnut logs. The “Dunluce” was of 120 tons and carried a crew of 12. William Palmer lived in the Palmer Marsh house and served as Port Bath customs collector 1772-1776 after his father moved back to England. William Palmer died in 1786 leaving a wife and five children.
  36. 36. 36 Northerly and Southerly routes to Britain relied on trade winds and currents. Bath to Boston to London was the shorter route, a 7-12 week voyage.
  37. 37. 37 Vessels from Port of Bath passing through Port Roanoke 12 April 1704 The Pamtico Adventure under Captain Levi Truewhite bound from Maryland To Port Roanoke with cargo of meat, lard, and feathers. 9 May 1704 brig Martha under Captain Henry Munfort bound from Boston to Port Roanoke with cargo of rum, molasses, and ships rigging. She was registered At North Carolina in 1699, was of 40 tons burden, and carried a crew of 2…. Also 25 August 1704 Brig Martha under Captain Jeffry Bedgood bound for Boston with cargo of furs and skins. 3 August 1704 sloop Tryall under captain Joseph Mind bound for Maryland. 1751 Michael Coutanche Bath Merchant bought the 100 ton New Bern, frequently sailing between Liverpool and Bath with hundreds of barrels of tar.
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  43. 43. 43 Flour, 8s. 9d. to 9s. per C. White Bread, 15s. per C. Middling, ditto 13s. Brown, ditto 10s. to 11s. Tobacco, 9s. to 10s. Moscovado Sugar, 25 to 35s. Turpentine, 10s. Rice, 14s. to 15s. Ginger, 18s. to 20s. Rum, 2s.4d to 2s.6d.p.Gal. Melasses, 1s.3d. to 1s.4d. Salt, fine, 14d. to 18d.per Bush. Ditto, Course, 1s. Wheat, 3s.2d. to 3s.6d. Rye, 2s.3d. to 2s.6d. Indian Corn, 20d. to 21d. Barley, 1s.8d. to 2s. Pale Malt, 2s.9d. Ditto, High-colour'd, 2s.6d. Pork, 25s. per Barrel. Beef, 30s. Pitch, 13s. to 14s. Tar, 10s. Gun-Powder, Bohea-Tea, 25 to 30s.p.Pound Whalebone, 3s.6d. to 3s.9d. Pipe-Staves, 3 l. per Thous. Hogshead, ditto, 45s. Barrel, ditto, 22s.6d. Pine Boards, 3 l. Mad. Wine, 19 to 22l.p.Pipe The American weekly Mercury Gazette 1722, Philadelphia market prices
  44. 44. 44 Ho ho ho RUM and SPIRITS, kegs, barrels, glass and ceramic containers Surviving Port Bath records from the years from September 1761 – September 1769 162 vessels entered Port Bath bringing alcoholic beverages of some type: West Indian rum, Madeira wine, French brandy, English, Irish and Scottish gin and whiskey . Tariffs were collected on 41, 848 gallons of rum alone. Rum duties alone supposedly paid for the building of Tryon Palace and funded the North Carolina government in general in the decade before the American Revolution.
  45. 45. 45 The main small craft work vessels were shallops, periaguers, rafts, skiffs and canoes. Colonial sailing vessels with cargo passing through Port Bath were primarily sloops and schooners, less than 50 -70tons. Less frequent were brigs, snows, pinks and larger merchant ships of maximum 200-250 tons. Colonial Merchant Sailing Vessels 1768-1790 PORT BATH RECORDS Vessel Size # Tons Burden Count Percent % min avg max sloop 1080 0.44 10 33 95 schooner 1006 0.41 6 41 126 brig/snow 335 0.14 40 80 178 ship 22 0.01 90 136 250 2443 sloop schooner brig/snow ship
  46. 46. 46 Danish merchant ship with Spanish pink Merchant ship, Brig, Sloop
  47. 47. 47Drawings courtesy of Michael Alford
  48. 48. 48 Merchant Ship, Brig, Sloop Port of New York 1790 South Street City Seaport Museum, NYC
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  50. 50. 50 Governor Daniel- Brig Martha Edward Salter- Brig Luke Col Robert Palmer-Brig Elizabeth John Gray Blount –Brig Tulley Chesapeake Sloop- Governor Cary name unknown built by Shipwright Harding Sloop Adventure 1718 Blackbeard’s Jamaica Sloop Brig or brigantine
  51. 51. 51 La Chaleur, 1768, 2 masted Schooner Sloop with Oars
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  53. 53. 53 According to records in Raleigh approx. 2443 known vessels paying customs going through Port Bath: 1080 sloops, 1006 schooners, 335 brigs/snows, and 22 merchant ships. Smaller sloops and schooners were equally common clearances at Port Bath, representing together approximately 85% of vessels recorded and averaging under 33 and 41 tons respectively. Larger brigs and ships averaging 80 and 136 tons respectively were the exception. Although large brigs and ships over 150 ton were rare, large brigs as large as 186 tons and at least one ship as much as 250 ton could and did sail over the Ocracoke bar and up to Port Bath. The few early 1700-1730 early era Port Bath sloops whose specs this editor was able to identify, approx. 25 vessels, seem very much at the small end of the sloop and schooner range, varying from 7 tons to 30 tons. Tonnage was an important feature to capture because customs duties were paid based on 3 shillings and 4 pence per ton for example, called “powder duties” because the taxes were collected in powder and ammunition to protect the ports.
  54. 54.  Non customs house legal records reveal at least twenty one known vessels with either names, size or ton burden specifics mentioned in the 1700-1730 period with respect to likely Port Bath clearances . They are as follows: Town Clerk Levi Truewhitt’s Sloop Pamlico Adventure (1704) 30 tons, Capt. James Beard’s The James of New York 10 ton sloop, (1704) , Governor Daniels’ brig Martha (1709) which held 100 barrels of Tar, each 250 pounds, the sloop Speedwell 7 tons, (1710), Governor Cary’s nameless sloop 46 feet length built by Harding with an 8 foot hold (1709/1710), Fowler’s Eagle 13 ton sloop, (1725/26) , John West’s large sailing periaguer built by a local shipwright Harding named The Adventure (1725). Edward Salter also had a larger brigantine named The Happy Luke (will probate 1734). For small craft we also know that Edward Teach (1718) and Edward Salter had unnamed two masted sailing pirogues, Thomas Morris had an unnamed 17.5 foot shallop (1707). Teach also had a 64 foot sloop named Adventure with 8 foot draft. Other names of sloops known to have passed through Bath with diligent owners or master leaving records include Batchelor, Content, Fortune, Frances, Rachel , Thomas and John, Tryall…. and schooners Ranger, Seaflower, and Virginity. 54
  55. 55. 55 Sarah Depuis a French widow, William Christopher Gale Fur Trader, Seth Pilkington,Merchant and father in law of Michael Cotanche Col. Robert Palmer Port Collector and Merchant, his son William Palmer, Port collector and Merchant
  56. 56. 56 That your petitioners with Gods blessing on their hard labours have made such improvements in their said respective plantations that they are able yearly to supply her majesties shipps with great stores of victualling stores and of pitch and Tarr and with great quantities of Extraordinary good masts and Plants of Oak. And had your petitioners Iron there and by her Majesties Countenance and Assistance they could carry on a very considerable trade there and much increase her Majesties’ customs and had Immediate Government and protection they could be enabled to pay their duty to her Majestye in diver other perticulars of Publick importance.
  57. 57. 57 August 5, 1703 Vol 22, p 732-735 Hon’d Father…. I cood wish Bro. Miles were with me just now, for Tomorrow’s light I sett out upon an Indian Voiage, in ord’r to follow a shallop’s load off Indian goods, w’ch I sent away about 2 months ago for Cape Fare River. W’ch Voiage wood make him an expert Carolina Coaster, & inure him soe far to ye Customes & Language off ye Heathen, as to make him a well qualify’d Ind. Trader, by w’ch Imploym’e he may secure for himself a Comfortable being in ye world. If he comes, he shall not want Imployment, butt I wood advice y’u to lett him marry before he comes away, provided he can marry a Fortune that wood encounter ye dangers off ye Atlantick Ocean, one penny in England is 3 w’th us, iff well laid out, & iff he cood butt bring w’th him 2 or 300 ll w’th a wife, I cood putt him in ye way to live as happy as ye day is long. Marriage att ye best is butt a happy or unhappy chance . … Christopher Gale, Bath resident, First NC Chief Justice
  58. 58. 58 Gentlemen, Here so many disappointments attend this trade that it’s enough to discourage any person that has a fortune …. Here’s such swarms of N.E. pedlars, running from house to house, that I am afraid these lazy planters will not easily be reconciled to any other way of business. … enclosed you will find account of what I have sold…the scooner is fitted as well as our country will admit, but could not put any oak plank aboard without great loss in storage. I will dispatch her in about 12 days, with beef, pork and tallow. I shall keep a periaguer running to collect and bring to a storehouse I have rented.
  59. 59.  This fall has proved hotter than usual made me afraid to kill beef till October, then Rantree (his captain) has been sick, or the Negroes running away continually, which has given one more uneasiness than you can imagine. This three months past I’ve been hurried about to pick up this little modicum (and lumber for the sloop). However, I’ve brought the better sort to despise N.E. stinkabugs, which gives me encouragement. …I’ve provided an able seaman and artist to bring you the new scooner which I hope you will have the pleasure of seeing next May. If you send again, please send 5 hhds rum, 3 hhds malt, 4 carls sugar, 5 bolts ozenburg, 3 ps garlix, 3 ps, checks, and 1 ream of paper. I’ve sent your peas in carls. That will serve for rum and be more handy than hhds. I am, gentlemen, your most ob’t humble serv’t,  S P  P.S. I should have sent you more livestock of the feathered kind but Rantree would not carry them.  To Messrs. Pilkington & Wilson  At St. Christophers, per Capt. Rantree 59
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  61. 61. 61 Firstly Firsts of Bath Town  First town in NC established 1705, earlier known as Pamticoe named after local Indians  First official port of entry 1715/1716  First lending library  First free school  First Indian school  First church  First Post Road  Second oldest county in the state of North Carolina created 1696  Second oldest surviving courthouse built 1787  Included the largest inland body of water in the 13 original colonies, Pamlico Sound. The old Extinct Bath County
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  63. 63. 63 PSA please do come to this year’s May 28th merged event Port Bath 300th/BathFest where Art meets History . Also July’s Pirates in the Port held annually on Bonner Point
  64. 64. 64  He that keeps a Plantacon Custom house  One year, may bee a man, the next a Mouse.  Your Brother Dyer hath the Divell played, Made the New Yorkers at the first affraide,  He vapoured, swagger’d hector’d (whoe but hee?)  But soon destroyed himself by Villanie.  Written by Bostonians welcoming Edward Randolph as Port of Boston royal customs collector.  Dyer was a disgraced Port of New York customs official  Gillian Hookway Jones  My Email:  THANKYOU!!
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  66. 66. 66 PORT BATH TIMELINE – Proprietorial Era Port Officials Through 1729 1715 - After biennial Assembly meeting Governor Eden carries new laws to the Lords Proprietors for approval and a petition to London seeking a new port 1716, August 1 - Lords Proprietors’ decree from St. James Palace creates Port Bath, part of the British Colonial Customs Service under the Treasury 1720, Nov 23 – On NC trade, Joseph Boone and John Barnwell, agents for South Carolina in a letter to the Lords Proprietors.... “Trade is carried on by small sloops from New England who bring them cloathing and Iron wear and exports Port and Corn. Of Late they made about 6000 barrells of pitch and tarre which the New England sloops carry first to New England and then to Great Britain. “ (Col. Rec. of NC Vol. 2, p. 3, 96) 1723 - John Dunston received his commission as naval officer for North Carolina, including everything north and east of Cape Fear. 1724 - Isaac Ottiwell was deputized and empowered as “Collector of all the Rates and Duties and Impositions at Bath Towne in the Province of North Carolina.” 1729, July 29 - The proprietary period ended, making North Carolina a royal colony and Port Bath a royal customs district.
  67. 67. 67 By the 1750s, Gov. Dobbs said “Port Bath so declined that it was of small importance. “Governors George Burrington and Arthur Dobbs often suggested that a port of entry be established at Ocracoke, (because all shipping to or from Albemarle or Pamlico sound passed there) and that ports of New Bern Bath and Edenton be abolished. (Crittendon, 1936). The five ports continued on as before. 1753 Successful Scottish Bath merchant Scottish Col. Robert Palmer held the customs collector office in the eighteenth century and served nearly two decades. The Palmer-Marsh House where he lived and conducted business still stands. Originally built by Channel Island merchant Michael Coutanche in 1751, the impressive colonial home is part of the Bath State Historic site and is open to the public today. 1755 The Assembly met after county inhabitants complained Bath “the place where Court is held is very inconvenient … and the Court House is being very ruinous.” A commission was appointed to build a courthouse, pillory and stocks on the land of Thomas Bonner on the north side of the Pamlico. 1758 – Gov. Dobbs ordered a shipping embargo due to trouble with France, French- Indian War.
  68. 68. 68 1760 Pitt County was divided from Beaufort County. 1764 General Assembly through influence of Col Robert Palmer Surveyor General, swayed court to be moved back to Bath. Effective Jan 1, 1765 inhabitants of Pitt, Beaufort, Craven, Dobbs and Johnston counties were notified “all entries for land would be taken 1767, Jan. 30, Gov. William Tryon reported to the Board of Trade that shipbuilding was not considerable, the largest built vessel not exceeding 200 tons burden. 1771 – Nov. 30, Major James Bonner petitioned for a town to be established on his plantation, sixty lots on 30 acres of his farm were laid out but a bill was not passed. 1776 The center of colonial commerce moved upriver as evidenced in the Journal of the Council of Safety, Halifax, minutes from Oct 21st 1776: Resolved That…The Armed Brig, General Washington now lying at Washington do proceed with all possible dispatch to Ocracok Bar and to remain within the said Bar in order to protect the Trading vessels which may be coming into or going out of the port…. 1777 Capt. Nathan Keais, who served in the Second Regiment of the NC Continental Troops, was last known Port Bath collector . He and family, the Bath courthouse and the customs officials moved to Washington. He and his wife bought a lot and built a house beside John Gray Blount a Port Bath commissioner and one of the most successful Beaufort County Merchants of the late 18th c.
  69. 69. 69 1782, April 13 Hillsboro, Town of Washington incorporated (State Records XXIV p. 458). 1783 – Act of Navigation and Pilotage: “Whereas the commerce of this state has been greatly injured by the insufficiency and negligence of pilots and for want of staking out channels.” Nathan Keais, Thomas Alderson, Richard Blackledge, John Bonner and John Gray Blount of Washington were appointed Commissioners for Port Bath...”to contract with proper persons to examine situation of the swash and keep channels from Occacock bar to Washington, staked out. Said taxes at Port Bath were 20 s[hillings] per 50-100 tons, 30 s[hillings] for vessels above 100 tons.” 1784 - an Act passed to set pilot fees in Washington: “to establish in the towns of Edenton, Washington, New Bern and Wilmington, courts for speedy decisions of Mercantile Transactions with Foreigners and Transient Persons and Maritime Affairs.“ 1785-1787- Shipping lists and Accounts of Duties Received Submitted by Nathan Keias, Port Bath Collector 1788 - Jonathan Loomis Esq. appointed “Judge for Marine court” in Town of Washington. 1790 - Congress declared Washington a federal Port of Entry. First quarter of 1790 is the last time Port Bath appears in use on Continental impost collection shipping lists and correspondence. In 1794 Keias submits a document settling up fees collected from 1790. Keias is buried at St. Peter’s Church in Washington.
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  71. 71. 71 1730’s Port of Philadelphia
  72. 72. 721739 Charleston
  73. 73. 73York Virgina 1755
  74. 74. 741756 Port of Philadelphia
  75. 75. 75Charleston 1767
  76. 76. 76Boston 1768 by Paul Revere
  77. 77. 77 Model of a colonial merchant ship loading at a wharf
  78. 78. 78Salem Mass
  79. 79. 79 Sketch of Charleston’s Tradd St. Wharf 1793
  80. 80. 80William Hogarth “Sent to Sea” 1748
  81. 81. 81 HMS Frigate Squirrel, Port of Charleston
  82. 82. 82 From Frye & Jefferson Cartouche Map of Virginia and MD
  83. 83. 83 John Gray Blount, Port Bath Commissioner’s house on Water Sreet. Washington NC. Capt. Nathan Keias Port Bath Customs Collector bought a next door lot and built a home Nixonton Customs House, built 1820, photo taken 1940, Pasquotank River. Perhaps the Beaufort County Customs Houses in Port Bath and Port of Washington looked similar?
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  87. 87. 87 The naval ensigns of both lack the blue and Scottish saltire element in the upper quadrant, which may just be an unfinished detail. A naval lugger (possibly a launch or longboat) is in the foreground.. The ship on the left flies the red ensign often signifying one on independent commission, while the white one suggests the frigate on the right is from a command under a flag officer of the white squadron. This vessel also shows a rare example of the use of a long square driver (sail) hoisted in a following wind to the peak of the lateen mizzen yard, which normally carries a fore-and aft sail. PT2030 © National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London Two small British Royal Navy frigates, 1775 watercolor by Gabriel Bray. The ships mount 11 guns per side, small frigates carried approx 26-28 guns.