Road To Independence


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Road To Independence

  1. 1. Road to Independence Causes of the Revolution
  2. 2. French and Indian War <ul><li>The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris . France officially ceded all of its holdings in North America, west of the Mississippi. The cost of the war and of controlling the newly acquired territories was high. </li></ul><ul><li>The British had 10,000 troops in North America at the end of the French and Indian War. The British felt they had, and were, spending a great deal of money to defend the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>By war's end, the British found themselves in debt to the tune of 140 million pounds, an enormous sum for those times. </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Colonial Policies <ul><li>The British tried to address both their problems: governing and protecting the Colonists, as well as, keeping their costs down. </li></ul><ul><li>First , they issued the Proclamation of 1763 that established a western boundary for colonial settlement, along the Appalachian Mountains. They hoped this effort would decrease the violence between the Colonists and the Indians, thus decreasing the need for troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Second , the British government decided to increase the enforcement of existing taxes on the Colonists and impose additional taxes, with the hopes of at least covering the cost of the British troops stationed in North America. </li></ul>
  4. 4. British Trade Laws <ul><li>To avoid paying taxes, the colonists had been smuggling for years. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1760’s Britain passed several laws to address this problem. </li></ul><ul><li>All smugglers would no longer be tried by American courts, but rather in naval courts, without the benefit of a jury. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs officials were given writs of assistance – the right to enter any location and search for smuggled goods </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Sugar Act <ul><li>In 1764 Parliament passed the Sugar Act, with the goal of raising 100,000 pounds, an amount equal to one-fifth of the military expenses in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>The act lowered the duty on foreign-produced molasses in attempts to discourage smuggling. </li></ul><ul><li>The act further stipulated that Americans could export many commodities, including lumber and iron to foreign countries, only if they passed through British ports first. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament predicted that if shippers had to stop at British ports en route to other destinations they would be more likely to purchase imperial goods to bring back with them to the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>The enforced tax on molasses caused the almost immediate decline in the rum industry in the colonies. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Stamp Act <ul><li>Despite the revenue raised by the Sugar Act, Britain's financial situation continued to spiral out of control. In 1765, the average taxpayer in England paid 26 shillings per year in taxes, while the average colonist paid only one- half to one and a half shillings. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament thought that the colonists should bear a heavier tax load. To this end, it passed the Stamp Act that required Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents. Violators faced juryless trials in vice-admiralty courts, just as under the Sugar Act. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Protest of the Stamp Act <ul><li>Colonists claimed the Stamp Act was taxation without representation. </li></ul><ul><li>England claimed that colonists &quot; virtually represented &quot; in Parliament. The theory of virtual representation held that the members of Parliament took into consideration the well-being of all British subjects when deliberating on legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, Americans were not exempt from taxation because they elected their own assemblies which legislated for and taxed the colonies. Colonial assemblies could only exercised as much power as was granted to them by Parliament. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Opposition to the Stamp Act <ul><li>Samuel Adams organized a protest group known as the Sons of Liberty . Members took to the streets in protests. </li></ul><ul><li>Protesters burnt effigies – rag figures – of tax collectors, raided and burnt houses of royal officials, and led protest marches in the streets </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates from 9 colonies met ( Stamp Act Congress ) and wrote a petition to the king and Parliament protesting the tax and asking for its repeal (end). </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants signed nonimportation agreements and boycotted British goods. </li></ul><ul><li>British merchants lost so much money, the act was repealed. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Declaratory and Quartering Acts <ul><li>The Declaratory Act stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies in all cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists did not protest this since no tax was levied. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament on the other hand viewed this act as a means of enacting other taxes </li></ul><ul><li>The British further angered the colonist by passing the Quartering Act . The act forced American colonist to house and feed British forces who were serving in North America. The act further inflamed tensions between the colonist and the British. The colonist were angered at having their homes forced open </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Townshend Acts <ul><li>Acts that imposed duties on the import of paint, glass, paper, lead, and tea to the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>These were external taxes – paid by merchants at the time of importation – Parliament hoped this would not anger the colonist as the Stamp Act had </li></ul><ul><li>The Stamp Act was an internal tax – a tax paid by colonists inside the colonies </li></ul>
  11. 12. Problems with Townshend Acts <ul><li>The British tightened their supervision of colonial trade by raising the number of customs officials and providing money to pay informers </li></ul><ul><li>Customs officers enforced the duties in an underhanded manner, often relaxing certain restrictions for a time and then suddenly clamping down. Customs officers would often claim that small items stored in a sailor's chest were undeclared cargo, and seize entire ships on that charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Defendants were assumed guilty until they could prove otherwise. Informers were awarded one-third of all goods and ships confiscated from smugglers, an incentive to falsify charges and report shippers who committed even the slightest of offenses. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Problems with Townshend Acts <ul><li>Colonists led protests, boycotts, and riots. Customs officials were tarred and feathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial women formed the Daughters of Liberty and urged colonists to produce goods from home </li></ul><ul><li>Nonimportation agreements among colonial merchants cut British imports in half by 1769. In 1770 all the duties except the tax on tea were repealed. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Boston Massacre
  14. 16. Tea Act
  15. 17. Boston Tea Party
  16. 18. The Intolerable Acts
  17. 19. The Intolerable Acts