Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Fighting banana
diseases – the end
of Cavendish?
05 February 2014...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

What is the World Banana Forum (WBF)?
Multi-stakeholder global pl...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Why bananas?
•  The world’s most exported fresh fruit (> US$ 7 bi...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Background information
•  Several sector-specific events organize...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Structure of the WBF and deliverables
•  Steering Committee
•  Se...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Members
The WBF welcomes the participation of any stakeholder
fro...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Banana diseases – Case Studies:

• Fusarium wilt Tropical Race 4
...
Fusarium Wilt or Panama Disease
www.panamadisease.org
©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

The	
  current	
  banana	
  industry	
  is	
  ‘Cavendish’	
  Ocean	
  

Cavendish...
Cavendish	
  varie,es	
  comprises	
  41%	
  of	
  all	
  bananas	
  grown	
  worldwide	
  	
  
and	
  >	
  60	
  %	
  in	...
©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
...
©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  

©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  	
  

Fusarium	
  Wilt	
  :	
  Symptoms	
  	
  
Fusarium Wilt of Banana: Global distribution

2013	
  

2012	
  

2013	
  

This map represents the FOC distribution for i...
Fusarium wilt of banana: Global distribution
Possible scenarios for spreading to LAC

2013	
  

2012	
  

2013	
  

This m...
Foc	
  dissemina,on	
  in	
  the	
  field	
  –	
  Soil-­‐borne	
  disease	
  	
  
Next	
  vic.m	
  

Future	
  vic.m?	
  

...
According	
  to	
  Hor,culture	
  Plant	
  Protec,on	
  Department	
  (2007)	
  reported	
  that	
  
epidemic	
  rates	
  ...
Impact	
  of	
  Foc	
  TR4	
  in	
  Asia:	
  A	
  global	
  threat	
  	
  	
  
PRODUCTION AREA

MARKET EFFECTS

Indonesia	...
New entries: Jordan, Mozambique, Oman,
Pakistan (?)
Jordan:

§  2006 first disease
symptoms

§  1,500 ha Cavendish
§  8...
Fusarium wilt of banana: Global distribution
Three urgent Actions

2013	
  

2012	
  

2013	
  

This map represents the F...
Importance	
  of	
  diagnos.c	
  tools	
  
•  First	
  set	
  made	
  available	
  
140	
  years	
  a^er	
  first	
  report...
Risk	
  assessment,	
  capacity-­‐building	
  and	
  preparedness	
  	
  
for	
  Foc	
  TR4	
  in	
  LAC	
  

Bioversity,+...
A	
  Con,ngency	
  Plan	
  for	
  Foc	
  TR4	
  -­‐	
  La,n	
  American	
  and	
  the	
  Caribbean	
  
Is	
  eradica.on	
  of	
  TR4	
  possible?	
  
•  Good	
  farming	
  prac.ces,	
  
•  Bio.c,	
  abio.c	
  factors	
  	
  
...
©	
  Miguel	
  Dita	
  

Resistance	
  is	
  the	
  first	
  best	
  management	
  op,on	
  
Banana	
  cul,vars	
  reported	
  with	
  resistance	
  to	
  Foc	
  TR4	
  
Variety	
  	
  

Resistance	
   Market	
  

F...
Enhancing	
  plant	
  health	
  and	
  resistance	
  through	
  soil	
  	
  
management	
  	
  

Photos taken 4 weeks afte...
Integrated	
  approach	
  for	
  Foc	
  disease	
  management	
  and	
  	
  
improved	
  produc,vity	
  	
  
TC#plants#+#
...
Integrated	
  crop	
  and	
  watershed	
  management	
  

Adapted from Staver 2011

Generating a toolbox of practices base...
Is there hope for Fusarium wilt in
banana?
•  Immediate:	
  Rapid	
  diagnos.cs,	
  
quaran.ne	
  measures	
  
•  Short-­‐...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Task Force on Fusarium Tropical Race 4
The Task Force was created...
Black	
  Sigatoka	
  
Popula.on	
  included:	
  
Mar.nique?	
  	
  	
  40	
  
Guadalupe?	
  	
  30	
  

Popula.ons:	
  
Costa	
  Rica	
  	
  	
 ...
Management	
  op.ons	
  of	
  BLSD	
  
•  Deleafing,	
  
•  Good	
  farming	
  prac.ces	
  
•  Use	
  of	
  chemicals	
  (a...
INCIDENCE OF BLACK SIGATOKA CONTROL TO THE
RETAIL PRICE

Fe
rtil
iz

the
O

ers

28%

Sigatoka

32%

15-20% INCIDENCE in 2...
Fungicide resistance in Costa Rica

Wild type
Hope for Black Sigatoka in banana??

§  Immediate: Improved screens
for resistance monitoring

§  Short-term: Test & com...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

Key conclusions
1. 

Industry is > 70% depending on Cavendish ban...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

The way forward for Cavendish
1.  Menu of options are available f...
Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations

The Secretariat of the World
Banana Forum
Mr Gianluca Gondolini, ...
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WBF Presentation Fruit Logistica 05 February 2014

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WBF Presentation on Future of Cavendish, delivered at Fruit Logistica 2014

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WBF Presentation Fruit Logistica 05 February 2014

  1. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Fighting banana diseases – the end of Cavendish? 05 February 2014 Gianluca Gondolini Secretary of the World Banana Forum Trade and Markets Division FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  2. 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is the World Banana Forum (WBF)? Multi-stakeholder global platform created to leverage dialogue and cooperation among players in the banana value chain Mission: Promote sustainable production and trade Objective: Support the adoption of good practices that address environmental, economic and social challenges including value distribution, externalities and negative impacts. WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  3. 3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Why bananas? •  The world’s most exported fresh fruit (> US$ 7 billion/year) •  Essential source of income and employment for hundreds of thousands of rural households in developing countries. •  Serious environmental, economic and social challenges due to: •  Large monoculture plantations •  High use of agrochemicals (mostly fertilizers and pesticides) •  High production costs •  Impacts on workers and local communities •  Low market prices Meeting those complex challenges requires the involvement of all stakeholders of the banana sector worldwide. WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  4. 4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Background information •  Several sector-specific events organized from 1998 to 2008 to discuss challenges and possible solutions. •  WBF was established in 2009 at the first global conference. •  Focus on internationally traded bananas. •  Two global conferences organized in 2009 and 2012. The third conference planned for the last quarter of 2014. •  Strong linkages with the Inter-Governmental Group on Banana and Tropical Fruits whose Secretariat is hosted by the FAO WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  5. 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Structure of the WBF and deliverables •  Steering Committee •  Secretariat hosted by the FAO •  Thematic Working Groups: 1.  Sustainable Production Systems and Environmental Impact 2.  Distribution of Value 3.  Labour Rights •  Task Forces: Fundraising, Communication, Fusarium TR4 Some Outputs to date •  Key players working together to set a level playing field; •  Online portal to exchange information on good practices; •  Training workshops and capacity-building projects; •  Collaborative public-private partnerships and field research; •  National and international events to plan joint actions; •  Publication of statistics, analyses and case studies. WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  6. 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Members The WBF welcomes the participation of any stakeholder from the sector willing to contribute towards a sustainable banana value chain. •  Major banana companies •  Retailers •  Producers and their organizations •  Trade associations and exporter groups •  Civil Society Organizations •  Trade Unions •  Research institutions •  Governmental representatives •  International Organizations •  Public and private donors WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  7. 7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Banana diseases – Case Studies: • Fusarium wilt Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture • Black leaf streak Black Sigatoka WBF | The World Banana Forum Banana Forum 2009
  8. 8. Fusarium Wilt or Panama Disease www.panamadisease.org
  9. 9. ©  Miguel  Dita           The  current  banana  industry  is  ‘Cavendish’  Ocean   Cavendish  planta.on  –  Colombia  2013  
  10. 10. Cavendish  varie,es  comprises  41%  of  all  bananas  grown  worldwide     and  >  60  %  in  Top  10  producing  countries   14%$ Cavendish*(AAA)* 15%$ Plantains*(AAB)* 64%$ 6%$ Other*dessert*types* Other*cooking*types* Banana  produc.on  -­‐  Top  10  producing  countries    [Dita  et  al  2013  -­‐  Data  FAO  stat,  Lescot  2010]    
  11. 11. ©  Miguel  Dita           ©  Miguel  Dita           ©  Miguel  Dita           By  the  1960s,  ‘Gros  Michel’  had  been  replaced  in  export  produc,on  by  cul,vars  of   the  Cavendish  subgroup     ‘Gros  Michel’  learns    his  fate  
  12. 12. ©  Miguel  Dita     ©  Miguel  Dita     Fusarium  Wilt  :  Symptoms    
  13. 13. Fusarium Wilt of Banana: Global distribution 2013   2012   2013   This map represents the FOC distribution for illustrative purposes only and it is not based on scientific research or to be taken as an official reference. !
  14. 14. Fusarium wilt of banana: Global distribution Possible scenarios for spreading to LAC 2013   2012   2013   This map represents the FOC distribution for illustrative purposes only and it is not based on scientific research or to be taken as an official reference. !
  15. 15. Foc  dissemina,on  in  the  field  –  Soil-­‐borne  disease     Next  vic.m   Future  vic.m?   RIP  -­‐  Killed  by  TR4  
  16. 16. According  to  Hor,culture  Plant  Protec,on  Department  (2007)  reported  that   epidemic  rates  of    Foc  race  4  in  Sumatra  and  other  provinces    -­‐     A.  Molina   reach  100  km/year  
  17. 17. Impact  of  Foc  TR4  in  Asia:  A  global  threat       PRODUCTION AREA MARKET EFFECTS Indonesia   1434$ha$ 400" 350" 300" 715$ha$$ 250" 200" 150" 100" 50" 0" 2000" 2001" 2002" West  Sumatra     2003" (Hor.culture  Processing  and  Marke.ng  Department,  2005)       Export to Japan (Million"Box"124kg")" 1600" 1400" 1200" 1000" 800" 600" 400" 200" 0" Taiwan   1999" 2000" 2001" 2002" 2003" 2004" 2005" 2006" 2007" 2008" Chao(2008) BAPNET meeting Molina, 2010
  18. 18. New entries: Jordan, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan (?) Jordan: §  2006 first disease symptoms §  1,500 ha Cavendish §  80% affected §  No solution §  Origin?
  19. 19. Fusarium wilt of banana: Global distribution Three urgent Actions 2013   2012   2013   This map represents the FOC distribution for illustrative purposes only and it is not based on scientific research or to be taken as an official reference. ! !
  20. 20. Importance  of  diagnos.c  tools   •  First  set  made  available   140  years  a^er  first  report     •  2008  for  FOC  TR1  and  2010   for  FOC  TR4  (Wageningen   University)     •  Available  Soil,  water  and   plants     •  6  hours  with  PCR   •  15  minutes  with  Lamp       Lamp
  21. 21. Risk  assessment,  capacity-­‐building  and  preparedness     for  Foc  TR4  in  LAC   Bioversity,+ MUSALAC+ &+ Na5onal+Plant+ Health+ Organiza5ons++ Trained(( In(the(pipeline(
  22. 22. A  Con,ngency  Plan  for  Foc  TR4  -­‐  La,n  American  and  the  Caribbean  
  23. 23. Is  eradica.on  of  TR4  possible?   •  Good  farming  prac.ces,   •  Bio.c,  abio.c  factors     •  Biofumiga.on   –  –  –  –  Ver.cillium   Rhizoctonia   Fusarium  oxysporum   Nematodes   •  Chemicals   –  Fungicides   –  An.-­‐fungals  
  24. 24. ©  Miguel  Dita   Resistance  is  the  first  best  management  op,on  
  25. 25. Banana  cul,vars  reported  with  resistance  to  Foc  TR4   Variety     Resistance   Market   FHIA  01   R   Seeded   FHIA    02   R   Seeded   FHIA  18   R   Good   FHIA    25   R   Poor     Pisan  Jai  Buya     R   NA   *GCTV  119   MR   Good     GCTV  218   MR   Good     M.  accuminata  malaccensis**     R   ABB  varie.es     (Saba,  Tanduk)   R   Sources   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   Bingzhi  et  al.  2004   Molina  2011   Molina,  2011   Seeded   Walduck  &  Daly  2007   NA   Molina  -­‐  unpublished   *  There  are  many  GCTV,  produced  by  TBRI,  Taiwan,  which  are  con.nuously  replaced  for  new   somaclons  with  some  resistance  levels     **Some  M.a.  malaccensis  are  suscep.bles  
  26. 26. Enhancing  plant  health  and  resistance  through  soil     management     Photos taken 4 weeks after inoculation
  27. 27. Integrated  approach  for  Foc  disease  management  and     improved  produc,vity     TC#plants#+# indigenous# endophytes# “ B i o > z e d ” / b i o B f o r > fi e d# healthy# plants# acclima>zed# B# Fitness#increased## Use# of# Beneficial# Microbial#Diversity## Use#of#tailored#fer>liza>on#based# o n# o r g a n i c# a m e n d m e n t s# (Biochar,#manures,#compost)#and# beneficial#soil#microbes# Healthy#plants#are# established#on#a#healthy#soil## Soil#Bhealth#oriented#prac>ces# And#crop#Integrated# management## Sustainable  produc,on  of  banana  from  high  value,  but  Foc-­‐  suscep,ble  varie,es  
  28. 28. Integrated  crop  and  watershed  management   Adapted from Staver 2011 Generating a toolbox of practices based on agro-biodiversity –ENDURE  Guadalupe   Photo   for sustainable management of Foc in banana Landscape  and  watershed   Local  landscape  &    Mul.-­‐Farm   Farm  ecosystem   Planta.on  ecosystem   Banana  Planta.on   Ll3% Lv% pet3% Lv% Ll2% Pt2% Lv1% Banana  plant  +  Foc(DNA)   Pt1% Ll1% Soil% Composite% Sample% 1/plant% Psudostem)strand) ~)Middle)15320)cm) Psudostem)strand) plant)base)15320)cm) %sucker%(pseudostem%strands%5110%cm)% roots% soil% soil% roots% soil% roots% soil% roots% Roots% Composite% Sample% 1/plant% h"p://www.scien-ficamerican.com/ar-cle.cfm?id=find8 the8dna8in8a8banana8bring8science8home<
  29. 29. Is there hope for Fusarium wilt in banana? •  Immediate:  Rapid  diagnos.cs,   quaran.ne  measures   •  Short-­‐term:  Concerted  Ac.on   Plan,  anaerobic  soil  disinfesta.on,   early  warning  systems,  good   farming  prac.ces,  agro-­‐ diversifica.on   •  Long-­‐term:  Varietal  resistance     •  No  control  measures  are  currently   available     Will  Cavendish  bananas  survive?  
  30. 30. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Task Force on Fusarium Tropical Race 4 The Task Force was created in December 2013. Actual members are: •  Chiquita •  Dole •  Taste •  WBF Secretariat •  FAO Plant Protection Division •  Wageningen University and Research Centre •  Bioversity International •  CIRAD CALL FOR ACTION CIRCULATED All interested organizations are welcome to join! WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  31. 31. Black  Sigatoka  
  32. 32. Popula.on  included:   Mar.nique?      40   Guadalupe?    30   Popula.ons:   Costa  Rica          100     Colombia            100   Ecuador                100   Philippines      100  
  33. 33. Management  op.ons  of  BLSD   •  Deleafing,   •  Good  farming  prac.ces   •  Use  of  chemicals  (aerial  spraying)   –  Systemic  Fungicides   •  Resistance   –  –  –  –  Gene  cloning,  hybrids   Phenotyping   Gene.c  engineering   MusaRadix  
  34. 34. INCIDENCE OF BLACK SIGATOKA CONTROL TO THE RETAIL PRICE Fe rtil iz the O ers 28% Sigatoka 32% 15-20% INCIDENCE in 2001 (Ploetz, 2001) rs 40%
  35. 35. Fungicide resistance in Costa Rica Wild type
  36. 36. Hope for Black Sigatoka in banana?? §  Immediate: Improved screens for resistance monitoring §  Short-term: Test & compare alternative products for disease control that do not suffer from rapid decline in efficacy §  Long-term: True resistance
  37. 37. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key conclusions 1.  Industry is > 70% depending on Cavendish bananas. The future is at risk and depends on several external variables 2.  High reliability on a single cultivar and on dedicated highlevel research work www.bananaresearch.org 3.  Scenario A (BAU): Fusarium wilt continues to spread in 3 major regions, Sigatoka control costs increase as well as fungal resistance. Production costs and price will increase in the medium term 4.  Scenario B (improved): Diseases are controlled through improved farming practices. Diversification and improved varieties in the medium-term. Fair price distribution in the value-chain. 5.  Scenario C (deteriorated): Diseases become unmanageable in the medium term. Production area will shrink. Supply reduced, price very high. Industry will be badly damaged The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  38. 38. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations The way forward for Cavendish 1.  Menu of options are available from simple to sophisticated 2.  Resistant bananas are the first best option but require time, adoption of good farming practices is the second-best but are immediately available from farm to landscape management 3.  Develop a sustainable value chain strategy that includes a risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis to secure supply 4.  Promote smart and responsible production, strengthen local capacity, raise awareness across the supply chain to sustainable sourcing 5.  Anticipate impacts, implement preparedness and contingency plans for Fusarium, explore alternatives to cope with fungicide resistance to Black Sigatoka 6.  Industry and other stakeholders to choose scenario and foster a level playing field, taking into account that cooperation is not an option WBF | The World Banana Forum The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009
  39. 39. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations The Secretariat of the World Banana Forum Mr Gianluca Gondolini, Mr Pascal Liu Thank you! For more information: FAO | Trade and Markets Division e-mail: wbf@fao.org phone: +390657053200 Skype ID: faowbf www.fao.org/wbf The State The State of The State of of Food Insecurity Food and Food Insecurity The World in the World in the World Agriculture Banana Forum 2009

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