The Journey Mapping Guidance Cabinet Office[1]

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Copy of guidance from Cabinet Office on Customer Journey Mapping. Is good. You Like!

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  • It is part of the wider set of tools that provide insight into customer needs, behaviours and motivations. [1] In terms of service transformation, it is key: It allows an organisation to understand how customers define and experience services from their own point of view, how this varies between different types of people, and thus, where action can be taken to improve delivery. one of the best ways available of understanding what needs to be done to simplify a particular area Also exposing those steps which lie outside government control but which hold part of the solution to streamlining the whole journey. So a customer journey approach to joining up services can drive out efficiencies easily as well as improving customer experience.
  • By customers we mean anyone – people or businesses, who use either central or local government services. When lookIng across boundaries, journey mapping helps you to see things from the customer viewpoint, cutting across silos and forcing you to think beyond your own priorities or policy agenda.
  • Many parents/carers abandon their application to Free School Meal because of lack of awareness and the complexity of processes, as illustrated in this customer journey map
  • However, there is an opportunity to transform Free School Meal service delivery by joining up back office processes, creating an online application and making the whole experience for parent/carers effortless. This would encourage a greater take-up of Free School Meal
  • This example is based on the work done in Tameside to review the process for applying for free school meals. This map, re-formatted slightly to fit the standard tool used in the cross-government guidance, reflects the process as it stood when the mapping was first done.
  • This is based on an actual example of mapping done by the Borders & Immigration Agency, reworked into the formats used in the new cross-government guidance.
  • This is based on an actual example of a heart monitor created by the MoJ and HMCS. It’s been shortened for simplicity and reworked slightly into the formats used in the cross-government guidance
  • This is an example of some customer journey mapping which was done in MOJ to understand the experience of court users (witnesses, victims, jurors and also defendants themselves) Interesting departure for MOJ – previously they had focused on process maps and major customer satisfaction research, but they had never tracked the journey through the customer’s eyes and by doing so, they found out some fascinating facts – e.g. satisfaction levels or positive vs negative experience can be driven by small details (e.g. jurors being thanked by the judge for their contribution), or having to queue in the canteen at lunch time with other court staff. Obviously this is a small scale piece of qualitative work but it can be substantiated against existing data or feedback from front line – which is what did Found it particularly powerful to drive change in perception amongst policy community – and it has successfully driven a number of changes – e.g. in training / induction of court staff; front of house experience; also better joining up of different agencies (e.g. recognising that expectations set by police in persuading jurors to give evidence cannot always be met)
  • Journey mapping helps look at your business from the outside in to achieve genuine service transformation. It’s a win:win opportunity - better customer experience and greater operational efficiency can go hand in hand.
  • Any one of these will add value alone, but the greatest benefit comes from using them in combination. Start with either Customer Experience Mapping or Mapping the System, and combine the approaches to drive understanding and action. You can achieve optimal benefit by measuring and quantifying what you have learned
  • All the journey mapping guidance was commissioned from Oxford Strategic Marketing by the Cabinet Office and HMRC jointly on behalf of the Customer Insight Forum (CIF). CIF enables service transformation by being an advocate across government for the role and value of customer insight, promoting best practice and knowledge. The role of CJM What we use CJM for Benefits of CJM When to use CJM Different types of CJM How to do it Selling it in and evaluating the results Case studies from Tameside, Holloway Prison, Argos, BIA, Luton and Dunstable NHS Trust, HMRC, MOJ, Eurostar and DWP.
  • 2 documents: Promoting Customer Satisfaction – Guidance - aspires to take customer satisfaction measurement and surveys out of the social research and insight departments where they have often been burried and to put them centre stage in policy and strategy with key results presented at board level. Aimed at senior level audience. Toolkit: How to measure customer satisfaction – to create expert commissioners
  • Customer focus By carrying out this kind of research the organisation is giving thought to the customer experience, and shifting the focus of the organisation to be more outward looking. Understanding of the key drivers of satisfaction Also, importantly, help an organisation to differentiate between what people say influences how satisfied they are, and what is really driving their satisfaction during a service experience . Strategic Alignment Programme of customer satisfaction measurement can act as a powerful tool for strategic alignment within an organisation. It enables clear objectives which can be shared across the different departments or agencies which touch the customer and provide a consistent focus. Customer satisfaction measurement makes customer focus concrete and provides a common framework and language for and motivating and connecting with customer-facing staff, which can help organisations to tackle the challenge of culture change. Performance management Once customer satisfaction measurement has been put in place, the results can also be used for the internal management, to hold people to account and to highlight good and bad performance. However, it has dangers when used in isolation from other measures, as customer satisfaction measures tend to be influenced by many drivers, some of which may be out with the control of the organisation or individual Efficiency and Cost Saving One of the key advantages of focusing on customer satisfaction is its ability to reduce cost at the same time as improving service. Although it is important to recognise that this is not always the case and that there can be a tension between service and cost, there are also widespread examples of where this double benefit can be realised. These include situations such as reducing avoidable and repeated contact by improving customer communication, and reducing the cost of complaints by getting things right first time.
  • Customer satisfaction measurement is an on-going process that helps an organisation continue to meet the on-going rise in customer expectations As customers have experienced improvements to the services they receive in the private and public sectors, this has lead to rising expectations of those services. This means that the challenge of delivering customer satisfaction is likely to become more difficult as service levels improve. This is illustrated well by the Kano satisfaction model, a widely used framework for understanding the drivers of customer satisfaction. The model, developed in 1984 by Professor Noriaki Kano, distinguishes between essential and differentiating drivers of customer satisfaction and shows how, over time, what were drivers of delight become basic requirements for products or services. The Kano model suggests that customers are never, finally, ‘satisfied’ – that as new service standards are reached, so expectations rise to meet them. Service providers have to accept that maintaining customer satisfaction is an endless task – it has to become part of the fabric and culture of an organisation.
  • What are the different stages in measuring customer satisfaction – what do you need to do first? Prompt: Engage stakeholders, find out what you already know, define objectives Measure Feedback, communicate, agree action plan Measure track and start again
  • Benefits and opportunities Cross-learning from other services Resource efficiency Getting started more easily Disadvantages and risks Lack of customisation: The risk that the requirements of common measurement take precedence over the need for tailored insight remains, especially where resources are limited. Difficulty in implementation: Inability to compare services: Putting the focus on scores rather than interventions
  • Who is saying what? Are there patterns? Is this what we expected?
  • Example of a bubble chart which is used by BT where they model the drivers of satisfaction according to the impact they have on levels of dissatisfaction. This type of visual display is very useful for communicating progress over time. In this case, the organisation chose to actively focus on ‘shrinking’ a small number of the largest bubbles over a three month period, before moving on to others. The analysis was done on a monthly basis, and the charts shared with management and front line staff, so they were all able to understand the progress that was being made.
  • Links back to objectives setting What are you going to communicate and to whom? Prioritise – don’t try to do everything at once, but make sure that you do agree what you are going to do
  • The Journey Mapping Guidance Cabinet Office[1]

    1. 1. The Journey Mapping Guidance <ul><li>Allows organisations to understand how customers define and experience services from their own point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Defines what needs to be done to simplify a particular area </li></ul><ul><li>Exposes steps which lie outside government control but which hold part of the solution to streamlining the whole journey </li></ul><ul><li>… . And so has the potential to drive out efficiencies as well as improving customer experience </li></ul>Customer journey mapping is the process of tracking and describing all the experiences that customers have as they encounter a service or set of services, taking into account not only what happens to them, but also their responses to their experiences. At its best, journey mapping can be truly transformational
    2. 2. CUSTOMER JOURNEYS IN GOVERNMENT Many customer journeys dealt with by government cut across departmental boundaries. Journey mapping can be particularly valuable here. INDIVIDUAL JOURNEYS BUSINESS JOURNEYS <ul><ul><li>Maternity leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ante-natal care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registering birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust fund </li></ul></ul>Birth or adoption <ul><ul><li>Ofsted reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying for school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-school boosters </li></ul></ul>Starting school <ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name change </li></ul></ul>Getting married Starting a business <ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying for grants </li></ul></ul>Tax/compliance <ul><ul><li>End of year returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditing requirements </li></ul></ul>Employing someone <ul><ul><li>Jobcentre Plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAYE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National insurance </li></ul></ul>Health & safety <ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HSE inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local authority regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying for pension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax on retirement income </li></ul></ul>Retiring <ul><ul><li>Registering death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notifying change of circumstances </li></ul></ul>Bereavement Closing down <ul><ul><li>Changing name, address or status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax & accounts </li></ul></ul>
    3. 5. MAPPING THE SYSTEM (PROCESS MAPPING) FREE SCHOOL MEALS EXAMPLE KEY STEPS IN SYSTEM/CUSTOMER JOURNEY Tameside council FSM section NOTES ON PROCESS AND CRITICAL INCIDENTS End to end system definition Process of making a new application for FSM from becoming eligible through to receiving meals Objectives/ scope Map Free School Meals (FSM) to identify how to deliver a better customer service and achieve cost savings Customer segment All new applicants Core system goals Goal 1: Deliver an important benefit consistently and without delays Goal 2: Minimise the number of entitled people leaving the process without obtaining the benefit G o a l 3 : Contribute towards a required 3% efficiency improvement across the council Customer Becomes eligible/ aware of eligibility Finds out about FSM and how to apply Receives request for more information/ verification Receives confirmation of FSM entitlement Sends extra information/ verification Child starts receiving meals School Receive report on entitlement Provides meals Receive and check application Add claim dates and authorisation Report sent to school and confirmation to parent Bring up child’s record and add note Leaves process Leave process Completes application form (4 routes leading to same process) No No Critical moment Critical moment No Yes Yes Yes <ul><li>Sharing what the current process looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying duplications and deviations from the norm – where do things go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying how and where things can be improved </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing the view of staff with the view of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Training – showing how things should be done </li></ul>Do I want to apply? Can I/ do I want to proceed? Is all correct info provided? Sometimes can verify internally , sometimes have to go back to the customer Wasted materials often associated with this step Will continue to receive benefit until next review, even if eligibility changes On-line applications have earlier start date than paper ones Four different routes have very different associated costs Application rates may vary by area; in some places there’s more stigma attached
    4. 6. CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MAPPING BORDERS AND IMMIGRATION AGENCY EXAMPLE Objectives, scope & journey type Applying for entry clearance to the UK Customer segment Short-term student from China (Sichin) Moments of truth © Oxford Strategic Marketing Key Journey Steps Key Journey Steps Key Journey Steps Touchpoints Visa arrives in the post. Hugely relieved and can now look forward to and finalise her plans for coming to England Sichin has details of her course and tries to find out about visa application. Finds the website easily and is encouraged Sichin applies online and sends supporting documents by secure post. Expensive but can’t risk losing them Payment has gone through but she’s heard nothing yet. It’s a big sum of money – hope all’s OK Application and checks have shown one of the documents is missing. Sichin finds this but more expense Contacted for interview. Worried – biometrics sounds alarming. Anxious now about timing – all taking a long time Attends her interview. Nervous – building intimidates her. Hope it’s gone OK but hard to tell Actions, feelings, thoughts and reactions at each step <ul><li>Getting managers and other staff to think about how people think, feel and act at every journey step </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying key points where we can act to transform the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing this to life to ‘sell’ internally </li></ul>VISA received Finds information Application submitted Payment processed Query from UK Visas received Receive interview request Biometrics and interview Postal delivery of visa Can be sent with more info on immigration Website; needs to be easy to access 24/7 Supporting phone line Currently no contact. Opportunity to confirm receipt Payment goes through bank – no direct acknow-ledgement Query sent by email. Opportunity to update on progress and timing Letter sent out. Opportunity to say more about the process Face to face contact with interviewer. Could say more about process to reassure
    5. 8. THE HEART MONITOR <ul><li>Expressing a journey in a highly visual way that can engage and motivate stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the highs and lows of the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly highlighting the areas where we need to take action most urgently </li></ul>MINISTRY OF JUSTICE EXAMPLE Objectives, scope & journey type Track the process experienced by jurors to improve levels of service Customer segment Jurors Moments of truth © Oxford Strategic Marketing Key Journey Steps Key Journey Steps Post trial Receive summons Jury selection In court pre-trial In court – during trial Deliber-ation Delivery of verdict Key journey steps Comms: Ensure follow-up letter goes out re sentencing Comms: Manage expectations Channel: 24 hour access Customer face: Explain delays Environment: Make the wait as painless as possible Process: Simplify expenses system Look at time-keeping Comms: Make jurors aware of role played by all the evidence Environment: Provide adequate facilities Comms: Brief on verdict delivery Customer face: Talk to jurors – stress the importance of what they’ve done Levers for solution hunting Great +100 -100 Poor Customer Satisfaction Rating Receive letter – looking forward to it Easy to change date by email Judge was ‘professional’ Slow selection process Judge thanks jury – much appreciated Locked in No preparation for delivering verdict Finishing was a relief Not sent information about sentencing Only small amount of evidence useful Trial was impersonal Late start most days Expenses ‘a hassle’ Victims family start to cry – ‘lowest point’
    6. 9. Generating a picture of the customer journey is a valuable way to understand how customers experience public services Level of satisfaction Reporting the crime Before the trial At court After the trial Neutral Positive Negative Police investigation Reported crime immediately. Police ‘very good’ – told him what to do and who was coming. Felt secure Identity parade. No coaching, no reassurance wouldn’t meet attacker Barrister not very confidence inspiring Drove him home - grateful, but didn’t feel like standard service Would report a crime again, because found out defendant had been held for 5 months. But court experience was a ‘waste of time’ Received call from detective Gave statement in police car – felt were ‘helping him’ Drove around looking for attacker – ‘waste of time’ as in marked car Had to go to the detective – ‘foreign territory’. Police station ‘disconcerting’ Gave formal statement. Worried whether justice would be done. Detective seemed ‘dim’. Changed the statement into his own words Phone conversations with detective – ‘kept in touch’ Called up to identify criminal on computer system seemed ‘efficient’ Identified attacker – ‘felt good, this will be straightforward’ Few days before trial, still no information on process Called Witness Service as wanted to speak to barrister. Told to arrive early on the day. Seemed ‘disorganised’ Pack from Witness Service. Personal contact became formal. No information about process ahead Case submitted to CPS. Unclear where next contact from. Had to ask detective Didn’t see barrister, and detective late In locked witness room – ‘cut off’ Little contact with anyone – only detective Didn’t go into court at all on day 1. No information on why. Lack of information most frustrating thing Witnesses have to be flexible but judges aren’t (lunch 12-1). Annoying Food terrible – had to go out Told to come back next day. Not a big problem Asked to see barrister again. Did – but he wasn’t informative Called - court room an alien situation. From a tiny room to a theatre. Everyone else in the know Judge asked if he would like to sit – only introduction Jury is a ‘sea of faces’ Accused got off Got off because he had been identified on computer system before line-up (which made evidence invalid. Police knew this was a problem, so why didn’t victim? Other reason was that a detail of appearance had changed. Frustrating, ‘knew it was him’ Only communication with detective. Happy to explain situation Detective told him ‘You should have said…’ Too late now Detective gave him background to accused: first offence, had been held since arrest. ‘Felt a bit better’ Worried attacker could come to house September March Source: DCA Customer journey through court: Victims of crime
    7. 10. JOURNEY MAPPING IN ACTION Journey mapping helps: Journey mapping helps: + <ul><ul><li>See things from the customer’s point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get it right when it really matters e.g. when emotions are highest or need greatest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver information, messages and services at the most appropriate time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver a seamless, streamlined experience that cuts across silos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target limited resource for maximum impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the most efficient and effective experience by reducing duplication and shortening the length of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify ‘baton-change’ points where service or communication breakdown is most likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify cheapest ‘cost to serve’, </li></ul></ul>BETTER CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE GREATER EFFICIENCY Northumbria 101 partnership found that 70% of calls about anti-social behaviour were made outside traditional office hours Working across boundaries, ‘Tell us Once’ will reduce customer stress by enabling a citizen to report a birth or death only once DWP mapped the journeys of carers to understand the critical points at which it was most vital to offer help and support. HMRC used journey mapping to help reduce the high customer error rates that had been a major component of cost in certain areas. The BIA used journey mapping to understand and simplify customer journeys that cut across other government areas, such as FCO. Tameside transformed the free school meals application process by mapping customer journeys in order to remove unnecessary points of contact and reduce delays Journey mapping in Hammersmith & Fulham has helped design new access systems. Capital costs were paid back in under 2 years, and annual savings of £4m pa are now expected HMRC mapped journeys and used cartoons to bring them to life
    8. 11. How to map a customer’s journey? The different types of journey map can be used alone or in combination to better understand customer experiences.
    9. 12. MORE ON JOURNEY MAPPING… There are also a number of publications that can tell you more: Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Practitioners is a practical reference document for people who will be carrying out the process of journey mapping. An expanded ‘toolkit’, also on the CIF website, gives more tools to use in journey mapping. A set of four online training modules serves as a quick introduction to journey mapping, and can be found on the CIF website. Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Managers is relevant to those involved in leading and supporting cross-government service transformation. QUESTIONS?
    10. 13. www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/public_service_reform/delivery_council/workplan.aspx
    11. 14. What should customer satisfaction do for an organisation? <ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps an organisation focus on its </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customers, and should galvanise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>service owners, customer-facing staff, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>policy, strategy, and research staff, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as senior management, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>around the aim of improving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the customer experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve customer focus and move the organisation to be more outward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what is driving satisfaction / dissatisfaction with services </li></ul><ul><li>Create strategic alignment within an organisation and provide a common framework and language for staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inform performance management to highlight good performance and areas for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Drive efficiency and cost saving </li></ul>“ Focusing on measurement is the wrong place to start. It’s not about data collection, it’s about changing what people think, so the challenge is how to create a shift in thinking in the organisation, not just to get customer information.” (Professor Bob Johnston, Warwick Business school)
    12. 15. Addressing rising customer expectations BUT, recognise that customer satisfaction measurement is an on-going process that helps an organisation continue to meet rising customer expectations The Kano model for understanding the drivers of customer satisfaction
    13. 16. HOW DO YOU MEASURE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION?
    14. 17. The cycle of insight and improvement
    15. 18. Where do I start? <ul><li>How do I define my service? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are my customers? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I know already? </li></ul><ul><li>What else can I find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Do customers have a choice? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a paid for service or is it ‘free’? </li></ul><ul><li>How and where do customers interact with my service? </li></ul><ul><li>Do customers define the service in the same way that I do? </li></ul><ul><li>Simple transactional or complex? </li></ul>
    16. 19. What do I already know? <ul><li>Take time to understand the information already available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery shopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CRM strategy and customer indices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaints process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate performance management system </li></ul></ul>Conducting an Insight Audit : <ul><li>Who is responsible for customer insight or customer satisfaction measurement (if anyone)? </li></ul><ul><li>What customer satisfaction measurement is currently undertaken? </li></ul><ul><li>How is measurement used? </li></ul><ul><li>What qualitative research has been carried out into the customer experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What customer segmentations are in use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do customer-facing staff gauge satisfaction levels? </li></ul><ul><li>How is information from customer feedback (including complaints) used? </li></ul><ul><li>What management information is available? </li></ul><ul><li>What else can I find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary qualitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer facing staff </li></ul></ul>
    17. 20. How do I measure satisfaction?
    18. 21. How do I measure satisfaction? <ul><li>What should I ask? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should be interviewed? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the information be collected? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I know I have got it right? </li></ul>
    19. 22. Common Measurement: Pros and Cons <ul><li>Disadvantages and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of customisation: The risk that the requirements of common measurement take precedence over the need for tailored insight remains, especially where resources are limited </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to compare services </li></ul><ul><li>Putting the focus on scores rather than interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-learning from other services </li></ul><ul><li>Resource efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Getting started more easily </li></ul>
    20. 23. How can I get insight from the results?
    21. 24. Key Driver Analysis <ul><li>Consider your audience: what messages do you need to give to whom and how? </li></ul>
    22. 26. 9 Key Points for Successful Customer Satisfaction Measurement <ul><li>Establish the objectives and how they relate to the strategic direction of the service </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the current situation </li></ul><ul><li>Involve stakeholders including senior management and customer-facing staff </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t reinvent the wheel: carry out an insight audit and build on what is known </li></ul><ul><li>Know who your customers are and which groups you need to understand in greater depth </li></ul><ul><li>Define the customer experience in their terms: consider customer journey mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key drivers of customer satisfaction and work with stakeholders to prioritise action </li></ul><ul><li>Use customer satisfaction measurement to track progress and provide feedback to those responsible for making change happen </li></ul><ul><li>Act: the research findings are the beginning rather than the end of service improvement </li></ul>

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