Pastoralist in Northern
By Patrick Katelo, PACIDA
CUSCO - INTERNATIONAL
•In Kenya, the pastoralist communities occupy the largest percentage (over
70%) of the countries total land area. The population of the livestock keeping
(pastoralist) communities in Kenya is estimated at about 20% of the total
population of the country (i.e. about 12 million people out of the total 44.35
•Most of these people occupy the vast Arid and Semi-Arid region of Northern
Kenya. They keep cattle, camel, goat, sheep and donkeys.
•Kenya Population and Housing Census, 2009
• Scarce resources e.g. water, pasture, salt licks etc.
• Frequent droughts that occasion migrations
• Historical rivalries between the ethnic communities
• Disputes over territorial boundary claims
• Traditional / customary practices
• Proliferation of small arms and light weapons (show of power of the gun)
•State politics/ County power wrangles
• Lack of clear land ownership policies
•Cultural practice feed out, leading to weakened traditional institutions.
The Problem and Issues
• Economy is principally dependent upon Pastoralism
• Armed Violence is mostly associated with livestock raiding
• Livestock raiding is an inherent feature of the pastoralist economy
• Instability has sometimes been encouraged for electoral purposes
• Critical regional dynamics (Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia)
• They are thus associated with lawlessness and the unchecked flow of small arms
• lose of cultural site due encroachment, leading to sedentralisation.
• encroachment of pastoralist range lands under pretext of development hence
pastoralist become vulnerable.
• Exploitation of range land through huge Investments like wind power, oil
exploration and massive major project, creating high poverty level among
• political incitement leading to tension building among the Community
• Challenge the government to overcome
the Marginalization of pastoralist and
• Policy to address utilizations of local
institutions for realization of social,
• PACIDA support traditional institutions to
to engage government on their priority
through capacity Building on their roles in
• upholding of Equality as enshrined in the
•Increase cultural relevance in social and
• Institutional publications and filming of
significant cultural practices for prosperity.
Livestock keepers, Youth herders, Women and children, Traders, School children.
How are they coping
• Fast communication due to technological improvement
• Establishment of peace committees
• Establishment of Early warning indicators reports
• Traditional peace keeping meetings and forums
• Engagements of youth in livelihood programs
• Three declarations to guide against wrongs (Maikona,Garissa and Madogashe)
• Cross Boarder peace meetings
• Arm themselves
• Go for hardship areas
• Establishments of vigilant groups
• cultural performance and prayers for peace and prosperity within their respective
Vulnerabilities and coping mechanisms
Actors/Stakeholders involved in
• Traditional council of Elders
• Peace committees
• Peace caravans
• Civil society organizations
• NGO’s Networks/ UN Body eg FAO
• Traditional council of elders
• CBO’s- youth groups and women groups
• Regional, National and County Government
Specific Intervention strategies Employed and their outcomes
• Formation of County/sub County peace committees
• Enhance capacity building through trainings and exchange visits, peace races.,
schools peace clubs and exchange visits, peace caravans and peace dividends.
• Organize forums and meetings/ Livestock Marketing
• Peaceful and harmonious disarmaments/ alternative livelihood for affected
• Sharing available scarce resources and free movements without restrictions
• Cultural performance for peaceful existence among pastoralist.
• Free information sharing among the target in absence of threats
• Adherences to sanctions of fines as stipulated in the declarations
• Others falling victims of circumstance after disarmament to their rivalry
• Increase in banditry due to proliferations of small arms across the porous
• Displacements and high rise in refugees
• High poverty index among the pastoralist communities
• Hatred and retaliation on high rate’
• Pastoralist attitude change towards commercialization of livestock than for
• Pastoralist developing shock mechanism and adaptation to catastrophes'.
• Disaster risk reduction highly adopted among pastoralism.
• use of traditional feeding habits adopted by use of livestock product as oppose
to food Aid.
Local Community level
• Institutionalise peace committees structure
• Develop, fomularize and strengthened the
• CSO’s to be engage in disarmament programs
• Use alternative transport like camel to patrol
the porous borders and ensure no proliferations
of small arms and weapons
• Enhance community policing in disarmament programs
• Create alternative livelihood after disarmament program
• Incentive to be given to the disarmed persons to enhance livelihood
• Exchange visit for the target communities
• Guidance and counselling to over come trauma effects
• Coordination of all problems affecting pastoralist by actors.
• Networking and sharing of information
• People centred security defence approach
• Research on use of indigenous local knowledge
• Programs at all levels to address issues of poverty
• Transparency, accountability and responsibility in approaches
• Encourage border meeting between countries
• Link government with private sector and civil society,
• Enhancing alternative livelihood programs among pastoralist.
• Policy to be put in place in terms of increase marketing to livestock and
• Pastoralist policy frame work developed over time to be functional.
• Monitoring and evaluation of pastoral productions system
• Adherence to the international policy standards on use of products from
•Legislation of regional framework on pastoralism for sustainable,
dependable and reliable livelihood approach to food security.
• Recognition of pastoralism as live and livelihood of pastoralist but not
barbaric practice which is to date in discussion whether it is viable.
• Establish more people driven research on pastoralism to brush the
• Advocacy and lobby for pastoralist they are under threat and loosing the
land, more so to modern development.
• Due to climate change and frequency of drought, Camel to be recognize as
the only serving animal during stress and recognize as food security for
SHILL MAKING DURING SORIO
PASSAGE OF CARAVAN DURING GOL
BLOWING OF DRUM
DURING SITING OF NEW
MAER HOLY MOUNTAIN
DAKA KOI HOLY MOUNTAIN
HOLY VILLAGE HEADING FOR
BLOWING DRUM AT THE SITE OF GOL
BLOWING DRUM AT THE SITE OF GOL
MOVING TOWARDS KAR FOROLE
• Institutional capacity building and protections of the sacred sites for future
• Facilitation and building on traditional institutional knowledge and
documentations of the best practice.
• Encourage pastoralist mobility in the vast range lands with less incidence of
insecurity and displacement of populations.
• Increase investment opportunity in livestock and livestock product to ensure
sustainable livelihood free from food Aid.
• Ensure peaceful coexistence among the pastoralist and reduce incidence of
rustling through community friendly policing.
• Exchange visit and sharing best innovative approaches among the indigenous
communities within the region.
• Sharing available resource among the highly mobile pastoralist to avoid
• The colonial boundaries set by colonial government should be clearly
demarcated to avoid conflict which leads to displacement.
• Traditional foods and feeding habits to be encourage by both governments and
communities in practice.
END OF PRESENTATION.
THANKS FOR LISTENING.
Challenge the government to overcome the Marginaization of pastoralist and traditional institutions.
Policy to address utilizations of local institutions for realizaton of social, Economic progress.
PACIDA support traditional insitutions to to engage government on their priority through capacity Building on their roles in cultural preservation.
upholding of Equality as enshrined in the constitution.
Increase cultural relevance in social and Economic rights.
Insitutional publications and filming of significant cultural practices for prosperity.
MAER HOLY MOUNTAIN