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Tercer Seminario regional agricultura y cambio climático: nuevas tecnologías en la mitigación y adaptación de la          ...
l on climate change (IPCC), 2007                                             Intergovernmental pane               METHAN  ...
• Mitigation strategies for methane emissions    • Use of methane as a energy source         •• Sources of methane emissio...
THEY ARE THE ONLY MICROORGANISMS KNOWN THAT PRODUCE METHANE
Methanogenesis:         The Process      Anaerobic condition                                                              ...
Hydroeletric        Rice fields                                                        wetlands  Landfill                 ...
Agriculture - source of methaneMajor sources of methane emissions:• Agriculture : In 2010 accounted for 53% of global meth...
Agriculture sectors            • Manure: stored or treated in liquid system            - Top emmiting counties:           ...
9
Agriculture - CH4 emissions                        Agriculture sectors                 in Brazil                          ...
Vinasse – liquid waste from ethanol        Sugarcane         Sugarcane                      Ethanol                       ...
Brazilian authorities announced that the country  will target a reduction in its GHG between  36.1 and 38.9% from projecte...
Mitigation Strategies: Enteric Fermentation                               • CH4 is not only GHG but it is also a waste of ...
Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to methane                              emission           MS target the...
Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to                      methane emission     • Other strategies: selecti...
Rice fields                                                      CH4 is produced by anaerobic                             ...
••Acetoclastic but mainly hydrogenotrofic methanogens   Acetoclastic but mainly hydrogenotrofic methanogens Methanolinea  ...
Mitigation Strategies: Rice field      • Mitigation strategies include:       - reduction of methane production; increasin...
Mitigation Strategy: anaerobic treatment of manure and vinasse                                             Aim: to apply a...
• Studies        have been carried out to better understand the anaerobicprocess in order to control the process and achie...
Microorganisms – biodigestors treating manure slurries• Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales are predominant in  anae...
Microorganisms – biodigestors treating vinasse• Acetoclastic and hydrogenothrophic methanogens                          Me...
Hydrogen and methane production Use of two -stage bioreactors to produce hydrogen and methane Vinasse     Acidogenic      ...
Conclusions Emissions of methane from agriculture activities are a Emissions of methane from agriculture activities are ...
Brazil• Studies focused on microbial diversity:             Amazon and Pantanal                                           ...
Muchas gracias   Flávia Talarico Saia ftsaia@yahoo.com.br    55 16 33019506                          26
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Arqueas metanógenas en la mitigación del cambio climático en la agricultura

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1 09 flavia talarico

  1. 1. Tercer Seminario regional agricultura y cambio climático: nuevas tecnologías en la mitigación y adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático Arqueas metanógenas en al mitigación del cambio climático en la agricultura Flávia Talarico Saia Chemistry Institute, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil Email: ftsaia@yahoo.com.br 1
  2. 2. l on climate change (IPCC), 2007 Intergovernmental pane METHAN 19th century anthropogenic E CH4 as a source of energy Anaerobic treatment of waste Methane concentration in the atmosphere CH4 as a greenhouse gas CH4 Recovered and used Methane has global warmingFonte: NASA/Goddardas clean energy Space Flight Center potential (GWP) 21-25 times more than CO2 Methane accounts for about 20% Methane to Market of global warming 2
  3. 3. • Mitigation strategies for methane emissions • Use of methane as a energy source •• Sources of methane emission Sources of methane emission •• Methanogenic microorganisms Methanogenic microorganisms 3
  4. 4. THEY ARE THE ONLY MICROORGANISMS KNOWN THAT PRODUCE METHANE
  5. 5. Methanogenesis: The Process Anaerobic condition 1 multi-step process carried out by differentgroups of microorganisms 1. Hydrolytic Bacteria 2 2. Fermentative Bacteria 3. Acetogenic Bacteria 4. Methanogenic Archaea 3Hydrogenotrophic Acetoclastic Methilotrophic Methilotrophic H2, formate Acetate Methanol MethanolMethanobrevibacter Methanosaeta Methanosarcina• It is important for carbon cycle since methanogenesis prevents a build-up of organic matter,allowing the other microorganisms to support the oxidation of substrates 5
  6. 6. Hydroeletric Rice fields wetlands Landfill WHERE ARE METHANOGENIC ARCHAEA ? Methanogens are ubiquitous in anoxic environmentsAnaerobic digesters Livestock - cattle Termites 6
  7. 7. Agriculture - source of methaneMajor sources of methane emissions:• Agriculture : In 2010 accounted for 53% of global methane emission• Energy: oil and natural gas systems• Waste: solid waste and wastewater treatment Yusulf et al. (2012) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 7
  8. 8. Agriculture sectors • Manure: stored or treated in liquid system - Top emmiting counties: U.S., Germany, India, China, France, Russia, Turkey and Brazil.Yusulf et al. (2012) Renewable and Sustenaible Energy Reviews 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. Agriculture - CH4 emissions Agriculture sectors in Brazil glogster.com Largest beef exporter in the world novotempo.com Manure Management 7% Landfills 10% greencleanguide.com Wastewater Agriculture Treatmentaccounting for 45% of 7% CH4 emission 10 10
  11. 11. Vinasse – liquid waste from ethanol Sugarcane Sugarcane Ethanol Ethanol Vinasse Vinasse Vinasse has been used as fertilizer to sugarcane fields •Emission of methane during storage of vinasse • Emission of N2O from soil Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane ethanol in the world and immense volume Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane ethanol in the world and immense volume of vinasse is generated ––10L vinasse/L ethanol of vinasse is generated 10L vinasse/L ethanol In 2006/2007, 190 billions of liters of vinasse were produced In 2006/2007, 190 billions of liters of vinasse were produced 11Rego e Hernández (2006); Oliveira (2011); Carmo et al., 2012
  12. 12. Brazilian authorities announced that the country will target a reduction in its GHG between 36.1 and 38.9% from projected 2020 levels.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC (2007) 12
  13. 13. Mitigation Strategies: Enteric Fermentation • CH4 is not only GHG but it is also a waste of fed energy for the animal •Large number of MA are in the ruminal liquid: 107 to 109 cells/mL (Kamra, 2005).  Hydrogenotrophic methanogens: Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales have been foundMethanobrevibacter smithii Methanobacterium formicicum Methanosarcina barkeri 13 microbewiki
  14. 14. Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to methane emission MS target the methanogens of the rumen directly or indirectly • Diet Composition: use of easy degradable carbohydrate – reduce pH in the rumen – decreases MA. However, accumulation of organic acids can occur, leading to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and disruption of the rumen microbiota (Plaizier et al., 2008). • Lipids: Fatty acids and oils (Johnson and Johnson, 1995; Hook et al., 2010). - inhibition of protozoa which supply methanogens with hydrogen - Increase the production of propionic acid - it is not used for methanogens - Binding to the cell membrane of methanogens and interrupting membrane transport • Defaunation: decrease the number of protozoa by the use of copper, sulphate, acids, (Hook et al., 2010) • Vaccines: target methanogens directly (Wedlock et al., 2010) 14Hook et al. (2010)
  15. 15. Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to methane emission • Other strategies: selection of high quality grasses, increase grain level and increasing feed conversion efficiency to produce meat and milk  Researches have shown:  Researches have shown: ••MS are limited by the diet feed, the management conditions, physiological MS are limited by the diet feed, the management conditions, physiological condition, use of the animal, and government laws. condition, use of the animal, and government laws. ••Long-term experiments in vivo need to be done to implement MS Long-term experiments in vivo need to be done to implement MS •• Economic viability of the producer needs to be addressed Economic viability of the producer needs to be addressedBrazil: diversty of methahogens related with diet – hay proportions ( Neves et al., 2010) improvement of meat production related with sugarcane feeding in dry season (Primavesi et al., 2003) 15Hook et al. (2010); Yusuf et al., 2012
  16. 16. Rice fields CH4 is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter that occurs in soil and also in roots CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria Anaerobic CH4 oxidation www1.ethz.ch MS = net methane emission 16Phillipot et al. (2009), Dubey (2005)
  17. 17. ••Acetoclastic but mainly hydrogenotrofic methanogens Acetoclastic but mainly hydrogenotrofic methanogens Methanolinea Methanobacterium kanagiense Methanoculleus chikugoensis Sakai et al., 2012 Kitamura et al., 2011 Dianou et al., 2011••Methanotrophic bacteria Methanotrophic bacteria Methylomonas koyamae sp Adachi et al 2001 Methylosinus Ogiso et al., 2011 17
  18. 18. Mitigation Strategies: Rice field • Mitigation strategies include: - reduction of methane production; increasing methane oxidation, lowering methane transport through the plant ••Selection of cultivars with low exudation rates Selection of cultivars with low exudation rates •• To keep the soil as dry as possible in the off- rice season : : adverse environmental To keep the soil as dry as possible in the off- rice season adverse environmental condition for methanogenesis condition for methanogenesis ••Use of fertilizer: ammonium nitrate and sulphate instead of urea Use of fertilizer: ammonium nitrate and sulphate instead of ureaCurrent information is insufficient for the development of technologyand strategy for reduction in methane emission To improve the knowldgement of methanogens and Phillipot et al. (2009), methanotrophic bacteria in soil and in roots Dubey (2005) 18
  19. 19. Mitigation Strategy: anaerobic treatment of manure and vinasse Aim: to apply anaerobic technology to Aim: to apply anaerobic technology to PRODUCE METHANE for BIOENERGY PRODUCE METHANE for BIOENERGY PURPOSES PURPOSES Land applications (N, K, P) pathogenic microorganisms Methane has a high energy value (ΔHo= 816 kJ/mol or 102 kJ/e- eq) that can be captured through combustion and used for space heating or eletricity 19
  20. 20. • Studies have been carried out to better understand the anaerobicprocess in order to control the process and achieve optimum biogas yiel Configuration of reactors Support medium UASB Polyhurethane foam HAIB • Effect of inhibitory substances: ammounium, salt content, sulphate, temperature Lettinga (1980) 20 Foresti et al. (1995)
  21. 21. Microorganisms – biodigestors treating manure slurries• Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales are predominant in anaerobic reactors treating different kinds of manure• Due to high levels of ammonium, pointig out the importance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (Netmman et al., 2010) Methanomicrobium Methanobrevibacter Methanosarcina 21
  22. 22. Microorganisms – biodigestors treating vinasse• Acetoclastic and hydrogenothrophic methanogens Methanomicrobium sp Methanosaeta Methanosarcina microbewiki Araújo et al. (2003) bacmap.wishartlab.com••Termophilic process ––vinasse is produced at high temperatures (80-900C) Termophilic process vinasse is produced at high temperatures (80-900C)Souza et al. (1992); Viana (2006); Ribas (2006) Souza et al. (1992); Viana (2006); Ribas (2006) - sludge stable among harvests - It is necessary to decrease temperature - process is faster than mesophilic 22
  23. 23. Hydrogen and methane production Use of two -stage bioreactors to produce hydrogen and methane Vinasse Acidogenic Acidogenic Methanogenic Methanogenic reactor reactor reactor reactor H2 and acids production Consumption of acids and production of methanePeixoto et al. (2012) 23
  24. 24. Conclusions Emissions of methane from agriculture activities are a Emissions of methane from agriculture activities are aworlwide problem, mainly regarding enteric fermentation, rice worlwide problem, mainly regarding enteric fermentation, ricefield and manure managment field and manure managment In Brazil: contribution of vinasse used as fertilizer In Brazil: contribution of vinasse used as fertilizer Studies have shown that there are mitigation strategies, however a better understanding of the microorganisms, the factors affecting symbiotic relation with other microbial population and their environment, also long term expriments are needed to implement MS 24
  25. 25. Brazil• Studies focused on microbial diversity: Amazon and Pantanal 25
  26. 26. Muchas gracias Flávia Talarico Saia ftsaia@yahoo.com.br 55 16 33019506 26

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