Fiorello B. Abenes, Ph.D. Visiting Professor, Engineering R and D for Technology, 2009 Fulbright Fellow, 2009 DOST Balik-S...
Philippine Biofuels Act E-5 in 2009 E-10 in 2011
R.A. 9637 Bioethanol Feedstocks
“ The savior of the sugar industry is the biofuels industry.” Sen. Juan Miguel Zubiri, quoted by Sun Star Cebu, Feb.24, 2008
Socio-economic Issues of Biofuels
 
 
Food or Fuel?
Food prices have risen as more land is used to produce biofuels Biofuels 'crime against humanity'  By Grant Ferrett  BBC N...
Dr. Hartmut Michel – Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) Rethink biofuel - There’s not real energy gained in biofuel We don’t need ...
It took 10 years to produce the first billion liters of fuel ethanol; another 10 years for the second billion It took only...
World map: Kyoto Protocol, participation ██   Signed and ratified. ██   Signed, ratification pending. ██  Signed, ratifica...
The Alternative: Biomass
Biomass Structure
Current Biomass to Bioethanol  Technology <ul><li>Pretreatment –  </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme – Cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>E...
PCC/CLSU Biomass Deconstruction Paradigm An example serving as a   model
 
Rumen Microflora and Microfauna
 
Metabolism in Yeast under Aerobic and Anaerobic conditions
The Heterolactic Fermentation Pathway The Entner-Doudoroff Fermentation Pathway UNIQUE PATHWAYS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN P...
PCC/CLSU Biomass to Ethanol Production System
Current Biomass to Bioethanol  Technology <ul><li>Pretreatment –  </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme – Cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>E...
A Carabao fitted with rumen cannula Romy: Our rumen fluid donor
BIOMASS RUMEN FLUID 1 ST  STAGE FERMENTATION PROPAGATED YEAST  DISTILLATION  CELLULOSE ETHANOL  2 nd  stage  FERMENTATION ...
Efficiency of Cellulose to Sugar Conversion -  Rice Straw 84.5% Efficiency of conversion Cellulose to glucose 186 g Amount...
Efficiency of Conversion to Ethanol 32 g Ethanol Equivalent Yield (51.5% X 62 g) 62% Efficiency of sugar to ethanol conver...
Ethanol Yield of the PCC/CLSU System   117 kg (39 gal or 148 L) Ethanol yield Ethanol Specific gravity = 0.79 Ethanol yiel...
Characterization of Ethanol produced from the PCC/CLSU System   Contaminants  differentiated from rice straw cellulose eth...
Cellulose to Sugar Conversion of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse 1.2% 12 1.0% 15 1.4% 9 1.8% 6 1.4% 3 % Glucose in hydrolysate Days ...
Production Efficiencies of the Ethanol Technology Using Carabao Rumen Fluid Hydrolysis 246.98 kg (312.63 L or 82.5 gal.) E...
Theoretical Yields of Selected Biomass Feedstocks Feedstock   Theoretical Yield (gal/ton) Corn Grain   124.4 Corn Stover  ...
+  Microbial production Current B2B Protocol PCC/CLSU Protocol Methane and CO 2 Acid chopping cellulase cellulase & hemice...
Thank you! Rumenol  -  Powered to the last drop! R
Acknowledgements Perla C. Florendo, Ph.D. (Cand) Rene Agulto, Ph.D., Dean, CLSU College of Engineering  Marlon Ocampo, PhD...
PICTURES
Gas Production and Reuse 1 st  Biological System Inflation Deflation
 
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Philippine Carabao A Paradigm For Bep 20 Min

2,827 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,827
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
21
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Ladies and Gentlemen: I am enormously proud to have been appointed by ERDT as Visiting Professor. I consider this a very high honor, considering the fact that I am not even an Engineer. As an Animal Scientist I have ventured far and away from my traditional field and delved into areas I have had no formal training whatsoever. With my interest in Biomass Ethanol, I have to interact with scientists not only in engineering, but also in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, agronomy, veterinary medicine, economics and lately, even accountants. This is so, because the area of Bioenergy requires truly, an interdisciplinary approach. I want to talk to you today about a paradigm, a new way of thinking, about how we can produce ethanol from biomass materials, principally rice straw, which is abundant in our country using the Philippine Carabao as a model. I want to share with you the theoretical underpinnings of this model as well as some results we have obtained from our limited studies. I will not apologize for the paucity of our results to this point. This has been largely a labor of love for myself and my colleagues at CLSU. We funded this research largely from our own pockets and despite winning numerous prizes for our work from DOST-PCIERD, we are still waiting for our research funds to come in.
  • The Philippine Carabao A Paradigm For Bep 20 Min

    1. 1. Fiorello B. Abenes, Ph.D. Visiting Professor, Engineering R and D for Technology, 2009 Fulbright Fellow, 2009 DOST Balik-Scientist, 2008 Visiting Scientist, Philippine Carabao Center at CLSU Visiting Professor, Central Luzon State University Emeritus Professor, CalPoly University Pomona The Philippine Carabao: A Paradigm for Biomass Ethanol Production All rights reserved
    2. 2. Philippine Biofuels Act E-5 in 2009 E-10 in 2011
    3. 3. R.A. 9637 Bioethanol Feedstocks
    4. 4. “ The savior of the sugar industry is the biofuels industry.” Sen. Juan Miguel Zubiri, quoted by Sun Star Cebu, Feb.24, 2008
    5. 5. Socio-economic Issues of Biofuels
    6. 8. Food or Fuel?
    7. 9. Food prices have risen as more land is used to produce biofuels Biofuels 'crime against humanity' By Grant Ferrett BBC News A United Nations expert has condemned the growing use of crops to produce biofuels as a replacement for petrol as a crime against humanity
    8. 10. Dr. Hartmut Michel – Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) Rethink biofuel - There’s not real energy gained in biofuel We don’t need to tap other lands … use areas already planted to sugar. Sugar is not a basic food source. It is an additive, and so won’t compete directly with the population’s food requirement “ DECELERATE BIOFUEL” - provide funds for the newly created Biofuels Oversight Committee, to ensure that food acreage will not be prejudiced by biofuel acreage
    9. 11. It took 10 years to produce the first billion liters of fuel ethanol; another 10 years for the second billion It took only 18 months to produce the next 10 billion liters
    10. 12. World map: Kyoto Protocol, participation ██   Signed and ratified. ██   Signed, ratification pending. ██  Signed, ratification declined. ██   No position. As of April 2008, 178 states have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, aimed at combating global warming.
    11. 13. The Alternative: Biomass
    12. 14. Biomass Structure
    13. 15. Current Biomass to Bioethanol Technology <ul><li>Pretreatment – </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme – Cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol Fermentation – </li></ul><ul><li>Common yeast </li></ul>H 2 SO 4
    14. 16. PCC/CLSU Biomass Deconstruction Paradigm An example serving as a model
    15. 18. Rumen Microflora and Microfauna
    16. 20. Metabolism in Yeast under Aerobic and Anaerobic conditions
    17. 21. The Heterolactic Fermentation Pathway The Entner-Doudoroff Fermentation Pathway UNIQUE PATHWAYS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PROKARYOTES
    18. 22. PCC/CLSU Biomass to Ethanol Production System
    19. 23. Current Biomass to Bioethanol Technology <ul><li>Pretreatment – </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme – Cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol Fermentation – </li></ul><ul><li>Common yeast </li></ul>H 2 SO 4
    20. 24. A Carabao fitted with rumen cannula Romy: Our rumen fluid donor
    21. 25. BIOMASS RUMEN FLUID 1 ST STAGE FERMENTATION PROPAGATED YEAST DISTILLATION CELLULOSE ETHANOL 2 nd stage FERMENTATION PASTEURIZATION Chopped to <10 mm
    22. 26. Efficiency of Cellulose to Sugar Conversion - Rice Straw 84.5% Efficiency of conversion Cellulose to glucose 186 g Amount of glucose 1.2% Glucose content 15.5 L Hydrolysate Volume 220 g Amt of cellulose in 500 g substrate
    23. 27. Efficiency of Conversion to Ethanol 32 g Ethanol Equivalent Yield (51.5% X 62 g) 62% Efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion (% of theoretical yield) 51.5 Stoichiometric Yield, sugar to ethanol g/100 62 g Amount of sugar fermented .4% X 186 .4% Sugars used by yeast 1.2% - 0.8% 186 g Initial sugar in the hydrolysate
    24. 28. Ethanol Yield of the PCC/CLSU System 117 kg (39 gal or 148 L) Ethanol yield Ethanol Specific gravity = 0.79 Ethanol yield from sugar cane, fresh basis, is 20 gal/ton; sweet sorghum is 10.5 gal/ton Source: www.icrisat.org/Media/2004/media13.htm X 0.62 2 nd Stage sugar to ethanol conversion efficiency X 0.51 % Ethanol stoichiometric yield X 0.84 1 st Stage cellulose to sugar conversion efficiency X 0.44 % Cellulose 1 ton (1000 kg) Rice straw
    25. 29. Characterization of Ethanol produced from the PCC/CLSU System Contaminants differentiated from rice straw cellulose ethanol (CH3CH2OH) by molecular weight using mass spectrophotometer: 1,4-dioxane-2-6-dione(CH4H4O4 ) 2-formylhistamine (C6H9N3O) chloro-ethyl ester (C4H7ClO2) 1-amino-2-butanol(C4H11NO) acetic acid (C3H4O3) ethanedial (C2H2O2) urea N-methyl-N-nitroso ( C2H5N3O2) Ethanol “Purity” Range: 46.77% to 76.44% Average: 58.62%
    26. 30. Cellulose to Sugar Conversion of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse 1.2% 12 1.0% 15 1.4% 9 1.8% 6 1.4% 3 % Glucose in hydrolysate Days of Incubation with 1% Rumen Fluid + urea
    27. 31. Production Efficiencies of the Ethanol Technology Using Carabao Rumen Fluid Hydrolysis 246.98 kg (312.63 L or 82.5 gal.) Ethanol yield Ethanol Specific gravity = 0.79 X 0.515 2 nd Stage Biological system - Bakers yeast fermentation conversion efficiency X 0.97 1 st Stage biological system - carabao rumen fluid fermentation conversion efficiency X 49.44 Structural carbohydrates 1 tonne (1000 kg) Sweet sorghum bagasse
    28. 32. Theoretical Yields of Selected Biomass Feedstocks Feedstock Theoretical Yield (gal/ton) Corn Grain 124.4 Corn Stover 113.0 Rice Straw 109.9 Forest Thinnings 81.5 Hardwood Sawdust 100.8 Bagasse 111.5 Mixed Paper 116.2 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/ethanol_yield_calculator.html
    29. 33. + Microbial production Current B2B Protocol PCC/CLSU Protocol Methane and CO 2 Acid chopping cellulase cellulase & hemicellulases hexose hexose & pentose
    30. 34. Thank you! Rumenol - Powered to the last drop! R
    31. 35. Acknowledgements Perla C. Florendo, Ph.D. (Cand) Rene Agulto, Ph.D., Dean, CLSU College of Engineering Marlon Ocampo, PhD, DVM Felomino V. Mamuad, PhD, Director PCC at CLSU Adel Valdez, PhD, Director, CLSU-RSTC Juvy Monserate, PhD (Cand) CLSU Bioethanol Team Undergraduate Students Aris Marilao and R.C. Caluya
    32. 36. PICTURES
    33. 37. Gas Production and Reuse 1 st Biological System Inflation Deflation

    ×