Arqueas Metanógenas en la mitigación del cambio climático en la agricultura


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Arqueas Metanógenas en la mitigación del cambio climático en la agricultura

  1. 1. Tercer Seminario regional agricultura y cambio climático: nuevas tecnologías en la mitigación y adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático Arqueas metanógenas en al mitigación del cambio climático en la agricultura Flávia Talarico Saia Chemistry Institute, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil Email: 1
  2. 2. METHANE Methane has global warming potential (GWP) 21-25 times more than CO2 Fonte: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center 2 Methane accounts for about 20% of global warming Intergovernmentalpane lonclimatechange(IPCC),2007 19th century anthropogenic Methane concentration in the atmosphere Recovered and used as clean energy Methane to Market CH4 as a greenhouse gas CH4 as a source of energy Anaerobic treatment of waste CH4
  3. 3. • Mitigation strategies for methane emissions • Use of methane as a energy source • Sources of methane emission • Methanogenic microorganisms 3
  5. 5. Methanogenesis: The Process Anaerobic condition  multi-step process carried out by different groups of microorganisms 1. Hydrolytic Bacteria 2. Fermentative Bacteria 3. Acetogenic Bacteria 4. Methanogenic Archaea • It is important for carbon cycle since methanogenesis prevents a build-up of organic matter, allowing the other microorganisms to support the oxidation of substrates Hydrogenotrophic H2, formate Acetoclastic Acetate Methilotrophic Methanol Methanobrevibacter Methanosaeta Methanosarcina 5 1 2 3
  6. 6. WHERE ARE METHANOGENIC ARCHAEA ? Methanogens are ubiquitous in anoxic environments Hydroeletric Rice fields wetlands Landfill Anaerobic digesters Livestock - cattle Termites 6
  7. 7. Agriculture - source of methane Yusulf et al. (2012) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Major sources of methane emissions: • Agriculture : In 2010 accounted for 53% of global methane emission • Energy: oil and natural gas systems • Waste: solid waste and wastewater treatment 7
  8. 8. Yusulf et al. (2012) Renewable and Sustenaible Energy Reviews • Manure: stored or treated in liquid system - Top emmiting counties: U.S., Germany, India, China, France, Russia, Turkey and Brazil. Agriculture sectors 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. Agriculture - CH4 emissions in Brazil Enteric Fementation 22% Rice cultivation 16% Biomass 11% Oil gas 15% Coal mining 8% Other sectors 4% Manure Management 7% Wastewater Treatment 7% Landfills 10% Agriculture accounting for 45% of CH4 emission 10 Agriculture sectors 10 Largest beef exporter in the world
  11. 11. Vinasse – liquid waste from ethanol Sugarcane Ethanol Vinasse Vinasse has been used as fertilizer to sugarcane fields •Emission of methane during storage of vinasse • Emission of N2O from soil Rego e Hernández (2006); Oliveira (2011); Carmo et al., 2012 Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane ethanol in the world and immense volume of vinasse is generated – 10L vinasse/L ethanol In 2006/2007, 190 billions of liters of vinasse were produced 11
  12. 12. Brazilian authorities announced that the country will target a reduction in its GHG between 36.1 and 38.9% from projected 2020 levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC (2007) 12
  13. 13. Mitigation Strategies: Enteric Fermentation •Large number of MA are in the ruminal liquid: 107 to 109 cells/mL (Kamra, 2005). • CH4 is not only GHG but it is also a waste of fed energy for the animal  Hydrogenotrophic methanogens: Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales have been found Methanobrevibacter smithii Methanobacterium formicicum Methanosarcina barkeri microbewiki 13
  14. 14. Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to methane emission MS target the methanogens of the rumen directly or indirectly • Diet Composition: use of easy degradable carbohydrate – reduce pH in the rumen – decreases MA. However, accumulation of organic acids can occur, leading to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and disruption of the rumen microbiota (Plaizier et al., 2008). • Lipids: Fatty acids and oils (Johnson and Johnson, 1995; Hook et al., 2010). - inhibition of protozoa which supply methanogens with hydrogen - Increase the production of propionic acid - it is not used for methanogens - Binding to the cell membrane of methanogens and interrupting membrane transport • Defaunation: decrease the number of protozoa by the use of copper, sulphate, acids, (Hook et al., 2010) • Vaccines: target methanogens directly (Wedlock et al., 2010) Hook et al. (2010) 14
  15. 15. Enteric Fermentation – mitigation strategies (MS) to methane emission  Researches have shown: • MS are limited by the diet feed, the management conditions, physiological condition, use of the animal, and government laws. • Long-term experiments in vivo need to be done to implement MS • Economic viability of the producer needs to be addressed • Other strategies: selection of high quality grasses, increase grain level and increasing feed conversion efficiency to produce meat and milk 15 Hook et al. (2010); Yusuf et al., 2012 Brazil: diversty of methahogens related with diet – hay proportions (Neves et al., 2010) improvement of meat production related with sugarcane feeding in dry season (Primavesi et al., 2003)
  16. 16. Rice fields Phillipot et al. (2009), Dubey (2005) CH4 is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter that occurs in soil and also in roots CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria MS = net methane emission 16 Anaerobic CH4 oxidation
  17. 17. Methanolinea Sakai et al., 2012 Methanobacterium kanagiense Kitamura et al., 2011 • Acetoclastic but mainly hydrogenotrofic methanogens Methanoculleus chikugoensis Dianou et al., 2011 • Methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus Adachi et al 2001 Methylomonas koyamae sp Ogiso et al., 2011 17
  18. 18. Mitigation Strategies: Rice field • Mitigation strategies include: - reduction of methane production; increasing methane oxidation, lowering methane transport through the plant • Selection of cultivars with low exudation rates • To keep the soil as dry as possible in the off- rice season : adverse environmental condition for methanogenesis • Use of fertilizer: ammonium nitrate and sulphate instead of urea Current information is insufficient for the development of technology and strategy for reduction in methane emission Phillipot et al. (2009), Dubey (2005) To improve the knowldgement of methanogens and methanotrophic bacteria in soil and in roots 18
  19. 19. Mitigation Strategy: anaerobic treatment of manure and vinasse Land applications (N, K, P) pathogenic microorganisms Aim: to apply anaerobic technology to PRODUCE METHANE for BIOENERGY PURPOSES Methane has a high energy value (ΔHo= 816 kJ/mol or 102 kJ/e- eq) that can be captured through combustion and used for space heating or eletricity 19
  20. 20. • Studies have been carried out to better understand the anaerobic process in order to control the process and achieve optimum biogas yield Lettinga (1980) Foresti et al. (1995) Configuration of reactors Support medium • Effect of inhibitory substances: ammounium, salt content, sulphate, temperature UASB HAIB Polyhurethane foam 20
  21. 21. Microorganisms – biodigestors treating manure slurries • Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales are predominant in anaerobic reactors treating different kinds of manure • Due to high levels of ammonium, pointig out the importance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (Netmman et al., 2010) Methanomicrobium Methanosarcina Methanobrevibacter 21
  22. 22. Microorganisms – biodigestors treating vinasse • Acetoclastic and hydrogenothrophic methanogens Methanomicrobium sp Methanosarcina Methanosaeta Araújo et al. (2003)microbewiki • Termophilic process – vinasse is produced at high temperatures (80-900C) Souza et al. (1992); Viana (2006); Ribas (2006) 22 - sludge stable among harvests - It is necessary to decrease temperature - process is faster than mesophilic
  23. 23. Hydrogen and methane production Use of two -stage bioreactors to produce hydrogen and methane Acidogenic reactor H2 and acids production Methanogenic reactor Consumption of acids and production of methane Vinasse Peixoto et al. (2012) 23
  24. 24. Conclusions  Studies have shown that there are mitigation strategies, however a better understanding of the microorganisms, the factors affecting symbiotic relation with other microbial population and their environment, also long term expriments are needed to implement MS  Emissions of methane from agriculture activities are a worlwide problem, mainly regarding enteric fermentation, rice field and manure managment  In Brazil: contribution of vinasse used as fertilizer 24
  25. 25. Brazil • Studies focused on microbial diversity: Amazon and Pantanal 25
  26. 26. Muchas gracias Flávia Talarico Saia 55 16 33019506 26