Electronics is the technology associated with electronic circuitsand systems, and is one of the major branches of electricalengineering.Electronics engineers research, design, develop and test precisioncomponents and systems; developing the way electricity is usedto control equipment. The work is usually carried out in cross-functional project teams, with colleagues in electronics and otherbranches of engineering.Electronics touches on almost all areas of human activity, so itsapplications are diverse. They include acoustics, defence, medicalinstruments, mobile phones, nanotechnology, radio and satellitecommunication and robotics. Subfields of electronics engineeringinclude control engineering, instrumentation, signal processingand telecommunications engineering.
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, andsemiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfieldssuch as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.
Electronic engineering as a profession sprang fromtechnological improvements in the telegraph industry in thelate 19th century and the radio and the telephone industriesin the early 20th century. People were attracted to radio bythe technical fascination it inspired, first in receiving and thenin transmitting. Many who went into broadcasting in the1920s were only amateurs in the period before World War I.The modern discipline of electronic engineering was to a largeextent born out of telephone, radio, and television equipmentdevelopment and the large amount of electronic systemsdevelopment during World War II of radar, sonar,communication systems, and advanced munitions andweapon systems. In the interwar years, the subject wasknown as radio engineering and it was only in the late 1950sthat the term electronic engineering started to emerge.
Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and theInstitution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) (now renamed theInstitution of Engineering and Technology or IET). Member ofthe Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) isrecognised in Europe as Electrical and computer (technology)engineer. The IEEE claims to produce 30 percent of the worldsliterature in electrical/electronic engineering, has over370,000 members, and holds more than 450 IEEE sponsoredor cosponsored conferences worldwide each year.
For most engineers not involved at the cutting edge of systemdesign and development, technical work accounts for only afraction of the work they do. A lot of time is also spent on tasks such as discussing proposals with clients, preparing budgets and determining project schedules. Many senior engineers manage a team of technicians orother engineers and for this reason project management skills are important. Mostengineering projects involve some form of documentation and strong writtencommunication skills are therefore very important.The workplaces of electronics engineers are just as varied as the types of work they do.Electronics engineers may be found in the pristine laboratory environment of a fabricationplant, the offices of a consulting firm or in a research laboratory. During their working life,electronics engineers may find themselves supervising a wide range of individuals includingscientists, electricians, computer programmers and other engineers.Obsolescence of technical skills is a serious concern for electronics engineers. Membershipand participation in technical societies, regular reviews of periodicals in the field and ahabit of continued learning are therefore essential to maintaining proficiency. And theseare mostly used in the field of consumer electronics products.
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