Electronic device is a device that accomplishes its purpose
electronically. Mainly electronic devices are those small
elements on the the electronical systems which uses to
make easy current flow through the whole system. As a
whole electronic devices are diodes, transistors ,
integrated circuits , vacuum tubes etc.
Diodes Integrated Circuits(IC) Transistors
Nowadays all of the modern electronics devices like Laptops,Tablet
pcs,Smartphones are made up with semiconductors. That is electronic
devices.They use semiconductors because:
An insulator substances do not conduct electricity very well.
And conductors are substances that conduct electricity readily.
But a semiconductor is a man made material that can be made to
conduct electricity at some times and not conduct at other times.
Semiconductors are used to create discrete electronic circuit elements,
like, transistors, and diodes, and to simulate resistances, inductance
and capacitance, also integrated circuit chips.
The heart of all modern electronic devices are
semiconductors and those semiconductors are two types
1. Pure or Intrinsic semiconductors
Example: Silicon, Germanium etc.
2. Impure or extrinsic semiconductors
They are also two types: p-type semiconductors
Both n and p type semiconductors are made with doping on
the pure semiconductors. As pure semiconductors
conductivity is not up to the mark. We use doping method
on pure semiconductors to increase conductivity.
P-type materials formed by when the 4
valence electron base Silicon or Germanium
mixed with three valence electron base like
Boron, Gallium, Indium etc.
And by this acceptor whole is created. And it is
known as positive type semiconductors
n-type materials formed by when the 4
valence elctron base Silicon or Germanium
mixed with five valence electron base like
Antimony, Arsenic, Phosphorus etc.
And by this donor electron is created. And it is
known as negative type semiconductors
• The story starts with a man named William Shockley. He was a brilliant academic from equally
brilliant roots. His father was a mining engineer fluent in eight languages, and his mother was a
highly successful Stanford graduate.
• In the 1940s, Shockley was involved in various war-related research efforts surrounding radar and
• Through research Shockley created the world's first transistor in 1947 in Bell Lab.
• The transistor soon became one of the single most important inventions of the 20th century and is
now a key component in just about every modern electronic devices on the market.
• He began developing silicon-based semiconductors through the Shockley Semiconductor
Laboratory in 1956, the same year he received a Nobel Prize in Physics.
The importance of those electronic devices is huge in computer science
education and we will discuss some of these in here:
• These devices are made with silicon are the heart of every personal
• Semiconductors allow electricity to be used to perform just about all of the useful functions we see
in everyday life.
• Simple wrist watches to cell phones and others digital devices are made by semiconductors.
• Simple calculators to scientific calculators are made with semiconductor chip.
• A large number of these semiconductor switches (called transistors) can be built on tiny pieces of
silicon and used perform calculations. Even in supercomputers there has been usage of
• Not only these, In computer signaling we use LED systems which is also made by diodes.
• Digital Signaling system is totally dependent on semiconductor technology.
• Each and every digital circuit systems like CPU motherboard,Graphics Card,Wrist watch circuit
boards etc. are using semiconductor chipset and microchips
• Even in memory card to flash drive are using semiconductor technologies for saving data
• Big data center is using semiconductors systems
• Cloud computing is totally based on data center
• Techgiants like google,facebook,twitter are making
millions of data .To save those information they are using
harddrives, on the big computer systems which are totally
based on semiconductor technologies.
• There are lots of demand of semiconductors on the
• There has been created lots of semiconductors
companies in this world.Some of those prominent
Intel - the largest maker of Computer CPUs in the world
Texas Instruments - maker of the most popular electronic
calculators and thousands of other semiconductors
Samsung - prominent Korean manufacturer of memory circuits and other
Toshiba - large Japanese manufacture
• Those silicon based semiconductors are made from silicon(Atomic number 14 on
the periodic tables) . Those silicon’s came from sands which is known as
silica(Silicon Dioxide Si푂2).
The silicon is less temparature sensitive and most abundant materials on earth.
• As per semiconductor industry is growing huge and big so that in USA at
Northern California state a city named Palo Alto which is named after silicon that
is Silicon Valley for the purposes of the importance of the place.
• Lots of techgiant like Intel,hp,Yahoo,ebay,Google,Apple started their business
from this silicon valley.
Without semiconductors this 20th century is like impossible things.
Because now, From simple calculator to wrist watch,tablet pcs,
personal computers and each and every digital devices are built with
Whole data base systems are now rely on semiconductors directly or
Even the digital lighting systems to surrounding systems all are
following semiconductors technology
So that this modern age would be impossible without semiconductors
that means without electronic device knowledge in the computer
science education the modern era would be impossible.